Roy Jerome Levin

Roy Jerome Levin
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Department of Biomedical Science

M.Sc, Ph.D.

About

256
Publications
230,194
Reads
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5,803
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
October 2000 - December 2015
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Position
  • Honorary Research Associate
Description
  • Assessing sexual arousal mechanisms in control and clinical female patients
October 1959 - October 2000
The University of Sheffield
Position
  • Reader in Physiology

Publications

Publications (256)
Article
The developmen/history of the Human Sexual Response Cycle by Masters 7 Johnson
Article
A brief survey of how the news media reported and misreported on the publication of the review that revealed the overlooked empirical evidence for the reproductive function of the human clitoris. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Female ejaculation is a contentious topic. From a review of the literature, history indicates that it is not a modern concept; some females were aware of it in times past without understanding the role of the fluid or composition of the ejaculate. Over time, scholars experimented, mainly with anatomical studies, in an attempt to identify the source...
Article
Stimulating the clitoris activates the brain to instigate changes in the female genital tract, namely, the enhancement of vaginal blood flow that increases vaginal luminal pO 2 , vaginal transudate (lubrication) facilitating painless penile penetration and partial neutralization of the basal luminal acidic pH, vaginal tenting, and ballooning delayi...
Article
Stimulating the clitoris activates the brain to instigate changes in the female genital tract, namely, the enhancement of vaginal blood flow that increases vaginal luminal pO2, vaginal transudate (lubrication) facilitating painless penile penetration and partial neutralization of the basal luminal acidic pH, vaginal tenting, and ballooning delaying...
Poster
Full-text available
It explkains why clitoral stimulation is involved in facilitating reproduction through its actions in creating changes in the female reproductive tract that has a proximate function.
Article
This article reviews clitoral structures, their functions and how they are activated during the stages of female life. The paradox that occurs is that different procedures of activation are claimed by some to favour ‘noxious outcomes' to the physical and psychic health of women who use it to achieve sexual arousal/orgasm with or without penile vagi...
Article
Current medical literature does not describe precisely the activation and mechanisms of prostate orgasms. This brief review describes what we know about the anatomy and physiology of the prostate and its involvement in reproduction and especially its stimulation for sexual recreation. It is illustrated with a highly relevant case history. Clin. Ana...
Article
Abstract The present review examines the continued claims in a number of published articles that the oxytocin released by the human female orgasm is a component to enhance reproductive fitness by facilitating the rate or the amount, or both, of sperm transported to the ovum. The errors in these accounts, both of omission and commission, which und...
Article
Speculation that the release of oxytocin by orgasm in the human female during coitus facilitates fertility by enhancing uterine sperm transport has been criticised as having no unequivocal empirical human evidence. However, a counter claim that this supports human 'exceptionalism' as some form of uterine sperm transport occurs in other species. Thi...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the development of the human sexual response cycle. Initial attempts to characterise the cycle focussed on the phases of the arousal process now referred to as “modelling”. The usefulness of such models is assessed by asking “what kind of models can be used to describe sexual responses” and “what properties should a good model...
Article
Introduction: Current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) definitions of sexual dysfunction do not identify all sexual problems experienced clinically by women and are not necessarily applicable for biologic or biopsychosocial management of female sexual dysfunction. A unified nomenclature system enables cl...
Article
A brief account of the problems of the female orgasm
Article
Introduction The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction...
Article
Full-text available
The article consist of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction especially since 2...
Chapter
The human female orgasm bestows the greatest pleasure without recourse to drugs. Despite numerous studies there are many aspects of the activity that are poorly understood. These include its neurophysiology and pharmacology, while even its typology, induction, and function(s) are contentious issues. It can be induced by a variety of agencies that i...
Article
Full-text available
The article consists of 6 sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim. To review female sexual function - physiology and pathophysiology- especially since 2010 and to make specific recommenda...
Chapter
Syringomyelia is a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid, and an understanding of the production, elimination and dynamics of CSF and water within the nervous system is paramount to understanding the pathophysiology of this complex condition. This chapter details the circulation, drainage and interrelationships of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial...
Article
This review deals critically with many aspects of the functional genital anatomy of the human female in relation to inducing sexual arousal and its relevance to procreation and recreation. Various controversial problems are discussed including: the roles of clitorally versus coitally induced arousal and orgasm in relation to the health of women, th...
Article
An extensive series of papers by Brody and co-workers using questionnaires have correlated penile vaginal intercourse (PVI) and clitoral stimulation with various female functions and malfunctions. A major claim is that only PVI 'competently performed and sensitively experienced' leading to orgasm is 'associated with. and in some cases, causes proce...
Article
While the ageing process occurs both in males and females, the latter have the added effects of the changes brought about by the menopause. The review characterises the many menopausal changes that the decrease in oestrogens produces in neural, skeletal, circulatory and genital systems.Many of these changes can adversely affect the sexual functioni...
Article
The female orgasm has been examined over the years by numerous scientific disciplines yet it still has many secrets to be disclosed. Because its physiology, especially its neurophysiology, is sparingly understood its pharmacology is necessarily limited based mainly on the side effects of drugs. Few published studies have used a placebo group as con...
Article
The subject experienced a severe idiopathic reduction in the intensity of pleasure from her coital and masturbatory orgasms lasting for a five year period, with no effective treatment. She then found that relaxing her tensed pelvic musculature during sexual arousal restored her orgasmic sexual pleasure to near pre-inhibition levels. The initial dys...
Article
Brody, Costa and Hess (2012) have produced a critique containing errors both of commission and omission of my editorial (Levin 2012a) and review (Levin 2012b). This reply identifies a number of these and makes the appropriate rebuttals and vindications to correct both.
Chapter
Normal human sexual function can be characterized simply by its biological mechanisms which are of obvious importance, not least to reproduction. The mechanisms have changed little over the centuries, but their expression as behaviour, when moulded by historical time, social class, ethnic grouping, religion, and society, creates the changing comple...
Article
The review critically examines two functional claims involving the human female orgasm. The first is that it is involved in the transport of spermatozoa by its release of oxytocin to create uterine contractions that suck up more semen at a faster rate. There is no physiological evidence for this scenario and the published experimental studies with...
Article
Spermatozoal uptake, facilitated by uterine contractions induced by oxytocin at orgasm during coitus, has been a long term concept. Studies attempting its support, however, have been poorly examined especially in the context of the changes in the female genital tract activated by sexual arousal. To examine experimental support for the concept. Usin...
Chapter
Full-text available
The human orgasm, although tantalizingly short, is perhaps the greatest bodily pleasure that most men and women can experience without recourse to drugs. It is a complex of subjective mental with physical body changes. Its pleasure can never be recalled exactly which is perhaps one of the reasons for desiring its repetition. It dissolves body bound...
Article
Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing sexual arousal and orgasm. A broad-based literature review of current kno...
Article
In the present study, we introduce clitoral photoplethysmography as an instrument to assess clitoral blood volume (CBV). In research on female sexual functioning, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), as measured using vaginal photoplethysmography, has been used extensively as a measure of vaginal vasocongestion. Measurement of clitoral blood flow has thu...
Article
The post-ejaculation refractory time (PERT), the period after a single ejaculation when further erections and ejaculations are inhibited, has been studied and well-documented in male rats. Since its first attribution in men by Masters and Johnson and its inaccurate delineation in their graphic sexual response model in 1966 it has been infrequently...
Article
Searching the vast and ever growing array of articles in the international scientific, biomedical and medical literature cannot now be undertaken without the aid of tools – “search engines” – that look for and retrieve the required items quickly and, hopefully, without cost. While no single search engine is perfect there are now a number on the Int...
Article
Despite the publication of various conceptual criticisms and suggested modifications in response to the human sexual response cycle described in the Masters and Johnson 196618. Masters , W. H. and Johnson , V. E. 1966 . Human sexual response , 1st ed. , Boston : Little, Brown & Company . View all references book, Human Sexual Response, incorrect or...
Article
In a number of tissue microcirculations, the phenomenon of vasomotion occurs where only a proportion of the total number of capillaries present are open at the same time; they normally open and close in a random or chaotic order, partly determined by the metabolic state of their surrounding cells. A pilot to examine by photoplethysmography whether...
Article
The single case study has been an important feature in the history of medicine. The advent of evidence-based medicine, however, now places them as the lowest and weakest of evidences and downgrades their importance. This article reviews selected aspects of human sexuality to examine whether single case studies have contributed significantly to the...
Article
The terminology for the complexities of human sexual activity is discussed and the male and female sexual arousal to orgasm is described with its underlying physiological mechanisms. The original four-phased human sexual response cycle of Masters & Johnson (Excitation, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution) is now modified by amalgamation of the plateau phas...
Article
Full-text available
The beneficial and well-being effects of human sexual arousal induced by coitus or masturbation are reviewed. Greater sexual satisfaction and some health rewards are given by coitally obtained orgasms even though those from masturbation may be more physiologically intense. The functionality of the circulatory, neural and muscular systems of the mal...
Book
Full-text available
Although sexual psychophysiology has made great strides over the past few decades, the progress made has not been accompanied by much effort to integrate research findings or to stimulate methodological and theoretical discussions among researchers. Yet this new research area has the potential to make substantial contributions to understanding a wi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. Aim. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/br...
Article
The male or female breast/nipple/areola complex arises from a common mammary stem cell and develops similarly in the foetus and during infancy. At puberty the male's breasts remain rudimentary but the female's develop further, mainly through oestrogen and progesterone stimulation, and become more sensitive. Female breasts serve both nutritive and s...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To investigate possible causes and treatment of persistent sexual arousal syndrome, which was exacerbated by sleep onset, in a postmenopausal subject. Methods: A clinical examination and interviews with the patient to obtain her case history and follow-up of the effects of drug treatments. Pretreatment laboratory investigations monitored va...
Article
The review examines the possible involvements that vocalisations, linguistic and non-linguistic, have in human sex.
Article
In a number of countries, but especially in sub-Saharan Africa, many women practice so-called “dry sex” usually by instilling vaginally various astringent substances to dry up the normal lubrication fluid created by sexual arousal and give the impression the vagina is still virginal tight and “hot”. This behaviour is normally undertaken to conform...
Article
The cervix is involved in a number of well-characterised and important reproductive mechanisms viz secretion of mucus, storage, protection and selection of spermatozoa. More controversial are its putative roles in various sexual arousal and arousing mechanisms. These include a secretory response to sexual arousal, specific movements and motility du...
Article
The current mechanism for human ejaculation is a two-part model consisting of a postulated "pressure chamber" created in the prostatic urethra by initial closure of both distal and proximal sphincters with secretions loaded in by adrenergic-mediated smooth muscle contractions of the vas deferens and capsules of the internal genital organs. The pres...
Article
The review examines the physiological roles of human sexual arousal in the mechanisms of reproduction in males and especially in females.
Article
Over the past few years a number of studies have been published on chemical signalling between humans possibly influencing aspects of sexual activity. Some authors propose, from their experimental studies, that human pheromones exist and that they act through the vomeronasal organ, while others are more cautious and regard their data as showing che...
Article
Full-text available
Orgasm is a sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered consciousness state accompanied by pelvic striated circumvaginal musculature and uterine/anal contractions and myotonia that resolves sexually-induced vasocongestion and induces well-being/contentment. In 1,749 randomly-sampled U.S. women, 24% reported an orgasmic dysfunction. To provide...
Article
Methods of assessing and measuring female genital functions are reviewed and their roles in research and current clinical evaluation of dysfunction discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The review examines whether unsolicited or non-consensual sexual stimulation of either females or males can lead to unwanted sexual arousal or even to orgasm. The conclusion is that such scenarios can occur and that the induction of arousal and orgasm does not indicate that the subjects consented to the stimulation. A perpetrator's defence simply b...
Article
This article examines how the different investigators (physiologists, endocrinologists, brain imagers, psychologists) who examine, study and characterise the criteria for accepting that an orgasms has occurred in women and men during a specific sexual scenario.
Article
Full-text available
An orgasm in the human female is a variable, transient peak sensation of intense pleasure, creating an altered state of consciousness, usually with an initiation accompanied by involuntary, rhythmic contractions of the pelvic striated circumvaginal musculature, often with concomitant uterine and anal contractions, and myotonia that resolves the sex...
Article
This account describes studies from the Institute of Medical Physiology in the University of Copenhagen, starting in the mid 1970's, which included some of the earliest European laboratory investigations on human female genital function. The measurements involved vaginal pH, pO2, blood flow, motility, fluid and its ionic concentrations, amino-acid...
Article
This article reviews critically studies that describe changes occurring in the female genital tract and pelvic musculature from sexual reflexes activated by stimuli that mimic coitus or induced by sexual arousal. I conclude that apart from the normal erotic pleasure, women gain and maintain vaginal and pelvic functionality from these and, subsequen...
Article
This article reviews critically studies that describe changes occurring in the female genital tract and pelvic musculature from sexual reflexes activated by stimuli that mimic coitus or induced by sexual arousal. I conclude that apart from the normal erotic pleasure, women gain and maintain vaginal and pelvic functionality from these and, subsequen...
Article
Changes induced by human sexual arousal serve reproductive and recreational functions. The current sexual phase model (desire, excitation, orgasm, and resolution) conveys little about this duarchy. Lack of spontaneous sexual desire in a third of nonclinic females indicates that the D phase needs splitting into D1 (the spontaneous [endogenous] activ...
Chapter
(from the chapter) Reviews the literature on human sexual arousal mechanisms, focusing on the human female sexual response model of W. H. Masters and V. E. Johnson (1966). The author begins by discussing the social construct concept of sexuality, including orgasm, coitus, and ovulation. The Masters and Johnson EPOR (Excitement, Plateaus, Orgasm, Re...
Article
Full-text available
Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) is a major cause of secretory diarrhoea in humans. To assess the effects of instilling STa into the ileum on remote fluid secretion in the jejunum and colon in rats in vivo by a gravimetric technique. Ileal STa (55 ng/ml) stimulated fluid secretion in both ileal and jejunal loops but not in the colon....
Article
Full-text available
Doppler ultrasound was used to study the effect of the first intravenous dose of caffeine on splanchnic haemodynamics in preterm neonates. Peak systolic velocity in the superior measenteric artery and coeliac axis was significantly reduced for 6 hours after caffeine infusion. The effect of this reduction in blood flow to the neonatal gut is not kno...
Article
Doppler ultrasound was used to study the effect of the first intravenous dose of caffeine on splanchnic haemodynamics in preterm neonates. Peak systolic velocity in the superior mesenteric artery and coeliac axis was significantly reduced for 6 hours after caffeine infusion. The effect of this reduction in blood flow to the neonatal gut is not know...
Article
Full-text available
To study the effect of enteral feeding on splanchnic blood flow velocity in preterm infants. Coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow velocity were measured longitudinally in a cohort of 61 babies using Doppler ultrasound. Babies fed 1 hourly had significantly higher preprandial SMA peak systolic velocity (PSV) than those fed 3...
Article
Aim-To study the effect of enteral feeding on splanchnic blood flow velocity in preterm infants. Method-Coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery (SIMA) blood flow velocity were measured longitudinally in a cohort of 61 babies using Doppler ultrasound. Results-Babies fed 1 hourly had significantly higher preprandial SMA peak systolic velocity (PS...
Article
The scientific study of the interaction of human genitals during coitus and after ejaculation with and without female orgasm has always been difficult and controversial with ethical, technical and social problems. The present brief review examines critically the results from these studies. Early observations utilised changes induced in sexually sel...
Article
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates electrogenic Cl- secretion in rat ileum stripped of its outer smooth musculature and myenteric plexus. The myenteric plexus, however, is a site of 5-HT synthesis in the gut, and the plexus mediates electrogenic ion secretion activated by luminal enterotoxin STa and taurocholate. Thus, we investigated the role o...
Article
Human ectocervical tissue was removed at operation over the menstrual cycle mounted as a sheet in vitro in an Ussing-style chamber and incubated in bicarbonate saline. The net electrogenic ion transport was measured as the short-circuit current (Isc in muamps/cm2) and was characterised as mainly (60-86%) an amiloride-sensitive electrogenic Na+ tran...
Article
Acetylcholine acting via muscarinic receptors located in the intestinal mucosa controls ion and fluid transport. This study examined the pathway(s) by which cholinergic receptors mediate secretion in rat isolated duodenum, jejunum and ileum using the short-circuit current (Isc) as an index of electrogenic Cl− secretion. Carbachol and bethanechol in...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
The hypersensitivity is usually so intense that friction on the glans can become painful.
Is there any other area of the body where such hypersensitivity occurs from physiological ( not pathological) stimuli?
It is claimed that the hypersenstivity stops further coital movements and thus helps maintain the sperm in the vagina.
Question
In photoplethysmographic recordings of the peripheral microcirculation a light beam is shone into the tissue and backscattering from the red blood cells in the blood vessels is recorded as a pulse at every heart beat with an ascending and a descending limb. One interpretation of this signal is that the ascending portion is the increased entry of blood into the microcirculation (systolic) increasing the backscattering from the increased red cell numbers while the descending limb is the leaking away (diastolic) of the red blood cells (less so less signal back scattering) via the venous system. Is this interpretation correct?
Or is the light more absorbed by the red cells so that ascending and descending limbs are the reverse of the previous explanation?
Is there any publication that actually spells this out?

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