Roy M Harrison

Roy M Harrison
University of Birmingham · School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences

BSc, PhD, DSc

About

1,050
Publications
147,315
Reads
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53,999
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - present
King Abdulaziz University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
February 1991 - present
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor of Environmental Health
September 1974 - September 1984
Lancaster University
Position
  • Lecturer in Atmospheric Chemistry

Publications

Publications (1,050)
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic environment has changed profoundly in recent decades. Aerosol particles are involved in numerous feedback mechanisms in the Arctic, e.g., aerosol-cloud/radiation interactions, which have important climatic implications. To understand changes in different Arctic aerosol types and number concentrations, we have performed a trend analysis o...
Article
Little is known about the main sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the 22 Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. We designed this study to systematically review all published and unpublished source apportionment (SA), identification and characterization studies as well as emission inventories in the EMR. Of 440 articles identified,...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosols are important drivers of Arctic climate change through aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. However, large uncertainties remain on the sources and processes controlling particle numbers in both fine and coarse modes. Here, we applied a receptor model and an explainable machine learning technique to understand the sources and dri...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of air pollution sources is important in policymaking and air pollution mitigation. Until recently, source apportion analyses were limited and only possible with the use of expensive regulatory-grade instruments. In the present study we applied a two-step positive matrix factorisation (PMF) receptor analysis at a background site in Birmin...
Article
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Sea spray aerosol (SSA) formation plays a major role in the climate system. The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is affected by the greatest warming occurring in the Southern Ocean; changes in cryospheric and biological processes are being observed. Whilst there is some evidence that organic material produced by ice algae and/or phytoplankton in the high A...
Article
Temuco, a medium-sized city in the south of Chile, is heavily impacted by residential wood-burning particularly in winter, which causes strong episodes of air pollution. We spatially characterized the distribution of particulate matter (PM) during winter nights in Temuco using mobile measurements. In winter 2016 (June 8-July 15th), continuous monit...
Article
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Implementation of regulatory standards has reduced exhaust emissions of particulate matter from road traffic substantially in the developed world. However, nonexhaust particle emissions arising from the wear of brakes, tires, and the road surface, together with the resuspension of road dust, are unregulated and exceed exhaust emissions in many juri...
Preprint
The Arctic is a rapidly changing ecosystem, with complex ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. An important process is new particle formation (NPF) from gas phase precursors, which provide a climate forcing effect. NPF has been studied comprehensively at different sites in the Arctic ranging from those in the high Arctic, those at Svalbard, and those in...
Article
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Objective. To estimate the point prevalence and likely ranges of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight and preterm delivery in Latin America and the Caribbean, and evaluate the heterogeneity of the estimates. Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reportin...
Article
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Delhi is one of the world's most polluted cities, with very high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. However, little is known about the factors controlling the characteristics of wide-range particle number size distributions. Here, new measurements are reported from three field campaigns conducted in winter and pre-monsoon and post-monso...
Article
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In this study we carry out receptor modelling via Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) to identify and quantify the main natural and anthropogenic sources of indoor PM2.5 at an urban background site in the island of Malta. Quartz and PTFE filters were collected, analysed gravimetrically and chemically, using ICP-MS, IC and an OC-EC aerosol analyser...
Article
Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in urban air pollution. However, sources of urban pollution are difficult to distinguish. This study utilises a mobile particle concentrator platform and statistical tools to investigate factors affecting roadway ambient coarse particle (PM10–2.5) and fine particle (PM2.5–0.2) concentr...
Article
Road traffic constitutes a major source of air pollutants in urban Beijing, which are responsible for substantial premature mortality. A series of policies and regulations has led to appreciable traffic emission reductions in recent decades. To shed light on long-term (2014–2020) roadside air pollution and assess the efficacy of traffic control mea...
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Aerosols produced from the oxidation of volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs), known as secondary organic aerosol (SOA), account for a significant fraction of atmospheric airborne particles. This paper reviews the current understanding of SOA formation from gas-phase oxidation with a focus on anthropogenic precursors and their react...
Preprint
While the measurements of atmospheric pollutants are useful in understanding the level of the air quality at a given area, receptor models are equally important in assessing the sources of these pollutants and the extent of their effect, helping in policy making to deal with air pollution problems. Such analyses were limited and were attempted unti...
Article
Within the Southern Ocean, the greatest warming is occurring on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) where clear cryospheric and biological consequences are being observed. Antarctic coastal systems harbour a high diversity of marine and terrestrial ecosystems heavily influenced by Antarctic seaweeds (benthonic macroalgae) and bird colonies (mainly penguin...
Preprint
Chemical mass balance (CMB) is one of the most popular methods to apportion the sources of PM2.5. However, the source apportionment results are dependent on the choices of measured chemical species and the source profiles. Here, we explore the sensitivity of CMB results to source profiles by comparing CMB modeling based on organic markers only (OM-...
Article
Aircraft engine soot emissions have been a growing concern because of their adverse impacts on global climate and human health. In this study, soot emissions from a Jet-Stirred Reactor (JSR) which could be considered as a basic aero-engine combustor were investigated under different combustion conditions including varying combustion pressures, fuel...
Article
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Automatic geocoding methods have become popular in recent years, facilitating the study of the association between health outcomes and the place of living. However, rather few studies have evaluated geocoding quality, with most of them being performed in the US and Europe. This article aims to compare the quality of three automatic online geocoding...
Article
Full-text available
Automatic geocoding methods have become popular in recent years, facilitating the study of the association between health outcomes and the place of living. However, rather few studies have evaluated geocoding quality, with most of them being performed in the US and Europe. This article aims to compare the quality of three automatic online geocoding...
Article
Full-text available
The most important tobacco-specific nitrosamine found in cigarette smoke and formed in ageing smoke after cigarettes are extinguished is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). It is formed from nitrosation of nicotine, under particular conditions both in indoor and outdoor environments. NNK has been classified as a potent lung carcin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Delhi is one of the world’s most polluted cities, with very high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. However, little is known on the factors controlling the characteristics of particle number size distributions. Here, new measurements are reported from three field campaigns conducted in winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons on the...
Article
Road transport is the main anthropogenic source of NOx in Europe, affecting human health and ecosystems. Thus, mitigation policies have been implemented to reduce on-road vehicle emissions, particularly through the Euro standard limits. To evaluate the effectiveness of these policies, we calculated NO2 and NOx concentration trends using air quality...
Article
Full-text available
Urban greenspace has many health benefits, including cleaner air than the surrounding streets. In this study, a detailed exercise has been conducted to measure concentrations of NO/NO 2 /NO x and O 3 within an urban greenspace, the University of Birmingham campus, using continuous analysers, as well as transects of NO 2 measured with diffusion tube...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the source apportionment of PM2.5 performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) on data presented here which were collected at urban (Institute of Atmospheric Physics – IAP) and rural (Pinggu – PG) sites in Beijing as part of the Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health in a Chinese megacity (APHH-Beijing) field campaigns. The...
Article
Background The evidence on the association between ultrafine (UFP) particles and mortality is still inconsistent. Moreover, health effects of specific UFP sources have not been explored. We assessed the impact of UFP sources on daily mortality in Barcelona, Helsinki, London, and Zurich. Methods UFP sources were previously identified and quantified...
Article
Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) have been widely used in personal care products and industrial applications, and are an important component of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) indoors. They have sufficiently long lifetimes to undergo long-range transport and to form secondary aerosols in the atmosphere through atmospheric oxidation. To investigate...
Article
Full-text available
New particle formation (NPF) events occur almost everywhere in the world and can play an important role as a particle source. The frequency and characteristics of NPF events vary spatially, and this variability is yet to be fully understood. In the present study, long-term particle size distribution datasets (minimum of 3 years) from 13 sites of va...
Article
This research apportioned size-resolved particulate matter (PM) contributions in a megacity in northern China based on a full year of measurements of both inorganic and organic markers. Ions, elements, carbon fractions, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes and steranes in 9 p.m. size fractions were analyzed. High molecular we...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic is key to predicting the climate in this rapidly changing region. Whilst many studies have focused on sub-micrometer aerosol (diameter less than 1 µm), relatively little is known about the supermicrometer aerosol (diameter above 1 µm). Here, we present a cluster analysis of multiyear (2...
Article
Although leaded gasoline was banned at the end of the last century, lead (Pb) remains significantly enriched in airborne particles in large cities. The remobilization of historical Pb deposited in soils from atmospheric removal has been suggested as an important source providing evidence for the hypothetical long-term persistency of lead, and possi...
Article
As exhaust emissions of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from road vehicles have 40 progressively come under greater control, non-exhaust emissions have become an increasing 41 proportion of the total emissions, and in many countries now exceed exhaust emissions. Non-42 exhaust particle emissions arise from abrasion of the brakes and...
Article
Full-text available
Measurement and source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants are crucial for the assessment of air quality and the implementation of policies for their improvement. In most cases, such measurements use expensive regulatory-grade instruments, which makes it difficult to achieve wide spatial coverage. Low-cost sensors may provide a more affordable...
Article
Full-text available
New particle formation is globally one of the major sources of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei. As primary emissions are a minor contributor to particle concentrations, secondary new particle formation processes are probably key in determining Antarctic aerosol number concentrations. However, our knowledge of new particle formation...
Article
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Carbonaceous aerosol is a dominant component of fine particles in Beijing. However, it is challenging to apportion its sources. Here, we applied a newly developed method which combined radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to apportion the sources of fine carbonaceous particles at an urban (IAP) and a rural (PG) site of Beijing. PM2.5 filter sampl...
Article
Full-text available
Fine particles were sampled from 9 November to 11 December 2016 and 22 May to 24 June 2017 as part of the Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health in a Chinese Megacity (APHH-China) field campaigns in urban Beijing, China. Inorganic ions, trace elements, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and organic compounds, including biomarkers, hopanes,...
Article
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The London Marylebone Road monitoring site is a roadside supersite adjacent to a highway carrying 80-90,000 vehicles per day on six lanes in a street canyon. Data from the Automated Urban and Rural Network (AURN), Black Carbon Network, Automated Hydrocarbon Network, Heavy Metal Network, Particle Size and Number and Particle Composition Network cove...
Article
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Epidemiological studies have consistently linked exposure to PM2.5 with adverse health effects. The oxidative potential (OP) of aerosol particles has been widely suggested as a measure of their potential toxicity. Several acellular chemical assays are now readily employed to measure OP; however, uncertainty remains regarding the atmospheric conditi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study presents the source apportionment of PM2.5 performed by PMF on data collected at an urban (Institute of Atmospheric Physics – IAP) and a rural site (Pinggu-PG) in Beijing as part of the Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health in a Chinese megacity (APHH-Beijing) field campaigns. The campaigns were carried out from 9th November to 11th Dec...
Article
Full-text available
Road traffic emissions are considered a major contributor to urban air pollution, but clean air actions have led to a huge reduction in emissions per vehicle. This raises a pressing question on the potential to further reduce road traffic emissions to improve air quality. Here, we analysed ~11 million real-world data to estimate the contribution of...
Article
Full-text available
Although new particle formation (NPF) events have been studied extensively for some decades, the mechanisms that drive their occurrence and development are yet to be fully elucidated. Laboratory studies have done much to elucidate the molecular processes involved in nucleation, but this knowledge has yet to be conclusively linked to NPF events in t...
Article
Sporting walkways (SW) are a new innovation which may prove popular in many cities. As there is currently no information on possible health risks associated with their use, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with deposited dust sampled on SW in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been measured and interpreted in relation to...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of hygroscopic properties is essential to prediction of the role of aerosol in cloud formation and lung deposition. Our objective was to introduce a new approach to classify and predict the hygroscopic growth factors (Gfs) of specific atmospheric sub-micrometre particle types in a mixed aerosol based on measurements of the ensemble hygros...
Article
Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 24 n-alkanes, 7 hopanes, 2 cholestanes, inorganic ions, elements and carbon fractions were analyzed in real-world source samples of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) from traffic emissions (gasoline vehicles-TGV, diesel vehicles-TDV, diesel ship-TDS, and heavy oil ships-THOS), coal combustion (coal-fi...
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Nitrogen-containing species are major components in atmospheric aerosols. However, little is known about the sources of N-containing aerosols over high mountainous regions, especially for organic nitrogen (ON). This study aims to reveal the emission sources of both inorganic and organic nitrogen in tropospheric aerosols atop Mt. Tai, China, and to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic is key to predict the climate in this rapidly changing region. Whilst many studies have focused on submicron aerosol (diameter less than 1 μm), relatively little is known about the climate relevance of supermicron aerosol (diameter above 1 μm). Here, we present a cluster analysis of mul...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measurement and source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants is crucial for the assessment of air quality and the implementation of policies for its improvement. In most cases, such measurements use expensive regulatory grade instruments, which makes it difficult to achieve wide spatial coverage. Low-cost sensors may provide a more affordable alt...
Article
Full-text available
Second Hand Smoke (SHS) has always been primarily linked with indoor pollution. To date nicotine was the favoured marker for SHS alongside measurements of particulate matter (PM) levels. As nicotine is mainly found in the gas-phase and reactive in the outdoor environment it is not ideal as a marker for the SHS-driven particulate component in PM. Ni...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing emissions from sources such as construction and burning of biomass from crop residues, roadside and municipal solid waste have led to a rapid increase in the atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤2.5µm; PM2.5) over many Indian cities. Analyses of their chemical profiles are important for receptor models to accurately es...
Article
Full-text available
Molybdenum (Mo) is a key cofactor in enzymes used for nitrogen (N) fixation and nitrate reduction, and the low availability of Mo can constrain N inputs, affecting ecosystem productivity. Natural atmospheric Mo aerosolization and deposition from sources such as desert dust, sea-salt spray, and volcanoes can affect ecosystem function across long tim...
Article
A study to monitor Ultrafine Particles (UFP) at Heathrow Airport was undertaken in the autumn of 2017. The campaign followed on from a similar study in 2016, which put UFP at the airport into context with nearby measurements. The objective of the 2017 study was to undertake UFP monitoring at higher time resolution (60 second scans) and in a narrowe...
Article
Full-text available
Organic aerosol (OA) is a key component of atmospheric fine particles and can be composed of thousands of organic species, creating an analytical challenge to separate and identify such highly complex mixtures. Traditional offline one-dimensional gas chromatography, mostly separating molecules based on volatility, provides valuable information on t...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 lockdowns led to major reductions in air pollutant emissions. Here, we quantitatively evaluate changes in ambient NO2, O3, and PM2.5 concentrations arising from these emission changes in 11 cities globally by applying a deweathering machine learning technique. Sudden decreases in deweathered NO2 concentrations and increases in O3 were...
Article
Within the Southern Ocean, the greatest warming is occurring on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) where clear cryospheric and biological consequences are being observed. Antarctic coastal systems harbour a high diversity of marine and terrestrial ecosystems heavily influenced by Antarctic seaweeds (benthic macroalgae) and bird colonies (mainly penguins)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fine particles were sampled from 9th November to 11th December 2016 and 22nd May to 24th June 2017 as part of the Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health in a Chinese megacity (APHH-China) field campaigns in urban Beijing, China. Inorganic ions, trace elements, OC, EC, and organic compounds including biomarkers, hopanes, PAHs, n-alkanes and fatty ac...
Article
Full-text available
Water-soluble inorganic ions such as ammonium, nitrate and sulfate are major components of fine aerosols in the atmosphere and are widely used in the estimation of aerosol acidity. However, different experimental practices and instrumentation may lead to uncertainties in ion concentrations. Here, an intercomparison experiment was conducted in 10 di...