Roy Billinton

Roy Billinton
University of Saskatchewan | U of S

About

710
Publications
71,100
Reads
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36,544
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 1964 - present
University of Saskatchewan
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (710)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is the first part of a two-part paper based on the ongoing activity carried out by the Task Force (TF) of the Working Group (WG) on Probability Applications for Common Mode Events (PACME) in electric power systems under the Reliability, Risk and Probability Applications (RRPA) Subcommittee. The primary objectives of this work are to (1)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the companion paper (Part I), the basic concepts of dependent and common mode outages, and the causes for their origins in the bulk electric system (BES) and the subsequent effects from a reliability perspective, were presented. This paper gives an account of the practical outage data collection efforts in vogue in North America and parts of Eur...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of some fundamental concepts and practical applications in the area of common-mode and dependent (CMD) outage events in power systems. The paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by the Probability Applications for Common and dependent Mode Events (PACME) Working Group (WG) of the Reliabili...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow analysis technique based on the stochastic response surface method. The probability distributions and statistics of power flow responses can be accurately and efficiently estimated by the proposed method without using series expansions such as the Gram-Charlier, Cornish-Fisher, or Edgeworth series. The...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a circuit breaker (CB) aging failure model based on condition monitoring. This model is inserted into a basic CB Markov model and applied in substation reliability assessment. The proposed model can accurately incorporate the wearing status and aging process of CBs. The results from applying the proposed method to a utility subs...
Article
Considerable interest in tidal power is being driven by the global push for renewable energy. The first step in modeling tidal energy sources in power systems analysis is to determine an appropriate probability distribution for tidal current. This paper proposes a Wakeby distribution to model the probabilistic characteristics of tidal current speed...
Article
This paper presents a reliability evaluation method for a tidal power generation system (TPGS) with a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The key to the method is the modeling of the tidal current speed-dependent failure rates of the rotor side converter (RSC) and grid side converter (GSC). The models for calculating the rotor currents through t...
Article
This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow analysis technique based on the stochastic response surface method. The probability distributions and statistics of power flow responses can be accurately and efficiently estimated by the proposed method without using series expansions such as the Gram-Charlier, Cornish-Fisher, or Edgeworth series. The...
Article
This article focuses ON the early application of probability methods in the evaluation of generating capacity adequacy and reserve capacity requirements in an electric power system. The primary objective is to illustrate the evolution of the loss of load probability (LOLP) from a concept to a numerical system index that has been widely accepted as...
Conference Paper
A probability distribution model of tidal generation power is needed to perform reliability assessment and other probabilistic analyses of a power system with tidal sources. This paper proposes a Wakeby distribution to model the probabilistic characteristic of tidal current speed. Wakeby and other four popular distributions are investigated using f...
Article
This paper presents a methodology to determine the locational transmission capacity reserve required to provide additional transmission transfer capability to access remote generation. The methodology is based on translating the accepted deterministic criteria into probabilistic measures using the system well-being analysis framework. The objective...
Article
Wind is perceived to be the most suitable renewable resource for bulk power generation, and wind power installations are rapidly growing all over the world. The variable nature of wind power is however causing increased challenges in reliable system operation. System operators face considerable difficulties in determining appropriate unit commitmen...
Article
Trying to find the most efficient and cost-effective decisions on the maintenance of different component types in power distribution systems is an increasingly challenging concern largely driven by the current financial constraints in distribution utilities worldwide. In regard to deal with this challenge, the paper presents a practical application...
Article
This paper utilizes the system well-being analysis concept to examine transmission system flexibility to accommodate large-scale wind power integration in a bulk electric system. The system flexibility is measured in the form of degrees of system adequacy and security. The basic N-1 deterministic security criterion is incorporated in a probabilisti...
Article
This paper is the first part of a two-part paper based on the ongoing activity carried out by the Task Force (TF) of the Working Group (WG) on Probability Applications for Common Mode Events (PACME) in electric power systems under the Reliability, Risk and Probability Applications (RRPA) Subcommittee. The primary objectives of this work are to (1)...
Article
Full-text available
A companion paper (Part I) presents the basic concepts of dependent and common mode outages, the causes for their origins in the bulk electric system (BES) and the subsequent effects from a reliability perspective. This paper describes the practical outage data collection efforts in vogue in North America and parts of Europe, with particular emphas...
Conference Paper
Traditionally, reliability evaluations for substation configurations and distribution networks are performed separately and substation reliability evaluation only focuses on a single substation. This paper presents a technique to assess the reliability of multiple substations with associated distribution networks. Based on Markov modeling, a cluste...
Article
Customers participating in demand response programs known as active customers provide significant flexibility in demand, thereby causing a meaningful reduction in customer interruption cost (CIC) during critical periods. This letter illustrates the impact on the amount of CIC of active customers' flexible demand realized by smart grid technologies....
Chapter
Wind power is regarded as an environment-friendly energy source and the main alternative to the conventional energy resources. Wind power is being rapidly installed in many parts of the world and is considered to be the fastest growing energy source. The uncertain and intermittent nature of wind power, however, creates significant challenges in mai...
Article
Wind power generation is significantly different from conventional thermal and hydro power generation in the sense that the wind power is governed by the atmosphere and cannot be dispatched like the conventional units in order to respond to the system requirements. The operational reliability of a conventional system depends on the failures of the...
Conference Paper
Large scale wind power installations are growing rapidly all over the world. The inherent variability associated with wind power generation is causing increased concerns to electric power system operators where wind power penetration is significant. The reliability concerns of a conventional generating unit and a wind turbine generator are differen...
Conference Paper
Public concerns about adverse environmental impacts from conventional energy sources are causing a considerable increase in wind penetration in electric power systems as wind power is environmentally friendly and suitable for bulk power generation. The importance of accurate but simple wind resource models is becoming increasingly important as wind...
Chapter
Substantial integration of intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind generation in electric power systems dictates the need to investigate the system reliability implications when adding large amounts of highly variable capacity that differ considerably from conventional generation sources. In order to accomplish this, utilizing a system...
Chapter
Wind power is regarded as the most suitable environment friendly alternative to conventional bulk power generation. Many countries around the world are rapidly installing wind farms, and several nations have already arrived at a position where a significant portion of their electric energy supply is contributed by wind power. Wind power generation...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar....
Conference Paper
It has been well recognized that highly variable wind generating capacity behaves considerably different from conventional generation sources. There is still, however, a need to profoundly understand the impact of wind power intermittency on the overall system reliability. A system well-being analysis is utilized in this paper to effectively captur...
Article
Full-text available
Although reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) has proven its noticeable merits in many industries, has not been yet furnished with efficient analytical methods in the power engineering context. The first of this two-paper set presents a practical framework by which the RCM procedure can be implemented in power distribution systems. The proposed a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this two-part paper is to present a comprehensive reliability-centerd maintenance framework tailored to power distribution systems. The first paper discusses the fundamental concepts, presents the developed algorithm, and introduces the required mathematical formulations. This second paper is focused on the application of the proposed me...
Article
There is a wide range of possible data representations, models and solution techniques available when conducting adequacy assessments of wind integrated generation or composite generation and transmission systems. This paper presents some of the basic factors and procedures that need to be considered when conducting wind integrated system adequacy...
Article
Significant integration of intermittent energy resources such as wind power generation in electric system dictates the need to investigate the system reliability impacts and implications when adding a large amount of intermittent sources. This paper extends the concepts of the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) and the generation replacement...
Article
The installation of wind power systems is growing rapidly all over the world mainly due to increased environmental concerns regarding electricity generation and the perceived need to use renewable energy resources. The uncertain and intermittent nature of wind power has led to growing problems in integrating wind power in power systems as the wind...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a brief summary of the basic common mode failure models and the relevant equations for their inclusion in power system reliability studies. The basic differences in the models are illustrated by numerical examples. Models for incorporating transmission outages associated with enhanced failure rates due to adverse weather are als...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Probability Applications for Common Mode Events (PACME) Task Force under the Reliability Risk and Probability Applications (RRPA) Subcommittee. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about dealing with common-mode outages in power systems reliability...
Article
Electric power utilities are facing increasing infrastructure investment and awareness of environmental issues. Demand side management (DSM) can play an important role in meeting some of the challenges faced by electric power utilities in that it can be used to improve energy efficiency, system reliability, and security, reduce costs for both custo...
Article
Growing environmental concerns associated with electric power generation, and the awareness toward the use of renewable energy has caused widespread and rapid increase in the installation of wind-power systems. The uncertain and intermittent nature of wind power has led to growing problems in integrating wind power in power systems as the wind-powe...
Article
The paper presents well-being analysis of wind integrated electric power generating systems. An approach is pre- sented for calculating well-being indices which gives much faster results than previously published methods. The link between the unit commitment risk criterion (UCRC) and system healthy state probability (HSPC) is illustrated using two...
Article
Appropriate wind speed modeling is an important requirement in the reliability evaluation of wind integrated electric power systems. This paper examines and illustrates the effects on the generating capacity adequacy indices of a small test system of using different wind speed modeling procedures in Monte Carlo simulation and analytical reliability...
Article
Reliability evaluation of a large composite generation and transmission system involves extensive and time-consuming calculations. Application of reliability equivalent networks therefore seems necessary in the reliability evaluation of large power systems. An approach is presented to develop an adequacy equivalent of a composite system using netwo...
Article
This study proposes an approach for improving service reliability in the distribution network based on establishing competition among electric distribution utilities. The idea behind this approach is to categorise the utilities and compare the performance of utilities located in one cluster with the other members of the same cluster. The reward/pen...
Conference Paper
The environmental concerns associated with electricity generation and the increased public awareness of renewable energy resources have resulted in world wide and rapid growth of wind power installations. Wind power generation is uncertain, fluctuating and intermittent. It is a major challenge to maintain reliability while operating a power system...
Conference Paper
Electric power utilities are facing with increasing awareness of environment conditions and very expensive infrastructure investments due to the continually increasing demand for electricity. Demand side management can play a very important role in meeting the challenges faced by power utilities. This paper is mainly focused on the effects of one a...
Article
The electrical energy production and reliability benefits of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) at a specific site depend on many factors, including the statistical characteristics of the site wind speed and the design characteristics of the wind turbine generator (WTG) itself, particularly the cut-in, rated and cut-out wind speed parameters. I...
Article
Solar power is being increasingly utilized in electric power systems. Solar power has a different effect on generating system reliability than conventional power sources due to the intermittent nature of the atmospheric conditions at the system location. It is therefore, important to assess the impact of adding photovoltaic (PV) sources to a power...
Article
The economic and reliability benefits of adding a wind energy conversion system (WECS) to a power system are highly dependent on the wind turbine generator (WTG) installation design, i.e., the type and number of WTG. This paper presents an approach to determine the optimum installation design at each wind site considering the WTG parameters, the to...
Chapter
The determination of how much generating capacity is required in an electric power system is a basic element in power system planning. A second and equally important aspect of the planning process is the development of a suitable transmission system to move the generated energy to the major load points. Adequacy evaluation of composite generation a...
Conference Paper
The traditional methods used by system planners to maintain acceptable bulk system reliability are challenged by incorporating higher wind power penetration levels. This difficulty can be alleviated by combining deterministic considerations with probabilistic assessment in order to evaluate the quantitative system risk and conduct system developmen...
Article
Reliability evaluation of a large composite power system involves the consideration of numerous outage events and consequently extensive calculations. Therefore, applying justifiable simplifications such as the determination of an equivalent networks can be very useful in reliability evaluation of large systems. This paper presents a review of proc...
Article
The basic objective of bulk power system planning is to develop the system as economically as possible while maintaining an acceptable level of service reliability. The traditional methods used by system planners to maintain acceptable bulk power system reliability are challenged in the present move to incorporate higher wind power penetration leve...
Article
Reliability evaluation of multiterminal HVDC systems has received very little attention in the past. This paper presents reliability modeling and analysis of an HVDC transmission system incorporating a voltage-sourced converter (VSC) tapping station. The use of VSC tapping stations enables the supply of power along the route to areas with comparati...
Article
This study presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability indices of a power system incorporating wind farms (WFs). In this context, investigations have been conducted on a hypothetical test system representing a typical power system taking into consideration the uncertainties of the factors associated with t...
Conference Paper
Wind energy has received widespread public support, and as a result, wind power penetration in electric power systems is increasing rapidly. The risks associated with maintaining the short-term power balance as well as long-term supply continuity can increase significantly with increase in wind power penetration due to the uncertainty in power fluc...
Conference Paper
Wind is an important energy source and is regarded as a valuable alternative to more traditional electric power generating sources. Generating capacity from wind power behaves quite differently than that from more conventional sources as the wind is variable, intermittent and both terrain and site specific. The capacity credit that can be assigned...
Conference Paper
Demand side management (DSM) is an important concept that can play a valuable role in assisting electric power utilities to meet future electricity demands. One aspect of DSM is load shaping or management (LM) and a wide variety of LM techniques have been proposed. This paper examines the effect of selected load management techniques on the individ...
Article
This paper proposes a new methodology for evaluating the probabilistic reliability of grid constrained composite power system including the WTG. The proposed model can consider capacity limitation and forced outage rate of transmission line. The importance of renewable energy sources has been growing at a high rate as a result of being environment...
Article
Wind is regarded as an important energy source, and its integration into existing electric power systems dominated by conventional generating sources introduces many technical and business challenges. One important technical challenge is to incorporate wind power reliability considerations in the reliability assessment techniques presently used by...
Article
The significant integration of intermittent generation resources such as wind power in a system dictates the need to utilize a systematic approach such as the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) method to assess the capacity value of the intermittent resources and to ensure that the generation resource adequacy and sufficient long-term genera...
Article
This paper investigates reliability benefits through the coordination of wind and hydro resources. The coordination benefit is assessed in the form of an increase in effective load carrying capability (ELCC). The wind-hydro coordination is achieved by taking advantage of utilizing an extra portion of generating capability of the hydro plants that i...
Conference Paper
This paper describes an alternative method for grid expansion planning considering construction cost, probabilistic production cost, congestion cost and outage cost of a grid at a composite power system derived from a simulation model. This model includes capacity limitation and uncertainties of the generators and transmission lines. It emphasizes...
Article
Wind energy application in electric power systems continues to increase globally. The contribution of wind farms to the overall system reliability is limited by the uncertainty in power output from these highly variable energy sources. The ability of a power system to absorb available wind energy and maintain the system reliability and stability is...
Article
This paper proposes a new methodology based on Monte Carlo chronological simulation to evaluate the operating reserve requirements of generating systems with large amounts of renewable energy sources. The main idea is to build a new probabilistic approach to assess several performance indices bearing in mind the long-term planning. Besides the conv...
Article
Generating capacity adequacy assessment is an important activity in power system planning and development. This procedure usually involves the development of suitable generating capacity models and the convolution of these models with appropriate system load or demand models. Generating capacity models are usually assumed to be independent of the l...
Article
Full-text available
Wind is an important energy source and is regarded as a valuable alternative to traditional electric power-generating sources. There is an increasing interest in the development and use of wind energy as a substitute for more conventional energy because of its high potential and minimum impact on the environment. Generating capacity from wind power...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a new effective installed reserve rate in order to evaluate reliability of power system considering renewable energy generators(REGs), which include uncertainty of resource supply. It is called EIRR(effective installed reserve rate) in this paper. It is developed with considering capacity credit based on ELCC(Effective Load Carr...
Conference Paper
Renewable energy resources such as wind, wave, solar, micro hydro, tidal and biomass among others are becoming more important because of increasingly restricted environmental constraints. Production of electrical energy using solar energy falls next to wind energy among all renewable energy sources. While a two-state model is well suited for modeli...
Article
This paper illustrates the utilization of quantitative reliability assessment in the evaluation of transmission planning alternatives in a wind integrated electric power system. The concept of load forecast uncertainty is introduced and incorporated in the studies. Static security assessment is performed using the well-being analysis framework whic...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses and illustrates two available published test systems for reliability and adequacy evaluation of electric power systems. The RBTS developed at the University of Saskatchewan and the IEEE-RTS developed by the IEEE-PES Application of Probability Methods Subcommittee are described. The paper illustrates the basic system configurati...
Article
The importance and conducting necessity studies on grid reliability evaluation have been increasingly important in recent years due to the number of black-out events occurring through in the world. Quantity evaluation of transmission system reliability is very important in a competitive electricity environment. The reason is that the successful ope...
Article
Wind power is gaining serious consideration as an important source of electric power generation. The output power of a wind turbine generator is, however, dependent on the wind speed, which is uncertain, intermittent, and variable. It is therefore necessary to develop suitable wind power integration models to assess the load-carrying capability ben...
Conference Paper
The output power from a wind turbine generator mainly depends on the instantaneous wind speed at the turbine blades and therefore the selection of the site is an important consideration. The actual wind speed profile is unique to the wind site due to the site topography and other physical factors. The operating capacity benefits associated with a w...
Article
This paper presents a probabilistic-based approach to evaluate transient stability of a wind farm. In this context, investigations have been conducted on a hypothetical system representing a typical wind farm taking into consideration the uncertainty of several factors associated with the practical operation of a power system. A risk index that ref...
Article
Wind energy application in electric power systems continues to increase globally due to public environmental concerns and growth of energy demand. Due to the uncertainty in power fluctuations from wind sources, the ability of a power system to absorb available wind energy and maintain the system reliability and stability is reduced as the wind pene...
Article
This article illustrates the utilization of multi-state generating unit models in unit commitment risk analysis of a wind-integrated electric power system. The IEEE reliability test system is used as the study system and has been augmented using actual generating unit data from the Canadian Electricity Association database to include multi-state mo...
Article
The well-being analysis framework provides a bridge between the deterministic and probabilistic approaches to bulk power system adequacy and security assessment using the operating states designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. This paper illustrates the effects on the probability, frequency and average duration of the three operating states o...
Article
This paper investigates the reliability effects on a composite generation and transmission system associated with the addition of large-scale wind energy conversion systems (WECS) using the state sampling Monte Carlo simulation technique. Three types of composite system were developed to represent the general conditions that exist in practical syst...
Article
Global environmental concerns associated with conventional energy generation have led to the rapid growth of wind energy in power systems. Many jurisdictions around the world have set high wind penetration targets in their energy generation mix. Wind speed is variable in nature, and power output from a wind farm is not readily controllable. High wi...
Conference Paper
Renewable energy resources such as wind, wave, solar, micro hydro, tidal and biomass among others are becoming more important because of increasingly restricted environmental constraints. Production of electrical energy using solar energy falls next to wind energy among all renewable energy sources. While a two-state model is well suited for modeli...
Conference Paper
The importance of renewable energy sources has been growing at a high rate as a result of being environment friendly. In particular, wind energy is one of the most successfully utilized of such sources to produce electrical energy. Because of the randomness of wind speed, the two-state model used for modeling conventional generator is not suited fo...
Conference Paper
This paper examines the impact of seasonal changes in wind speed on the adequacy of composite generation and transmission systems with large-scale wind energy facilities. The relevant seasonal models are used to compare the system reliability indices obtained using annual models and seasonal models. The studies were conducted on the two test system...
Conference Paper
The (n-1) reliability criterion is the mostly widely used adequacy criterion in conventional transmission system planning. The rapid growth of wind power, and the need to deliver this intermittent source of power from a location with rich wind resources to the power grid has created new challenges to determine adequate and economic transmission fac...
Article
Wind power is an important renewable energy resource. Electrical power generation from wind energy behaves quite differently from that of conventional sources, and maintaining a reliable power supply is an important issue in power systems containing wind energy. In these systems, the wind speeds at different wind sites are correlated to some degree...
Article
The utilization of wind power generation is increasing throughout the world and it is therefore important that these facilities be integrated in the existing generating capacity planning and operating protocols and procedures. This paper presents an approach to evaluate the contribution that wind power can make to the load carrying capability of a...
Article
A novel and simple stochastic-based approach to determine the optimal sizing of multiple flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices in a power system for steady-state voltage profile enhancement is presented. In this context, investigations have been conducted on a published test system taking into consideration the uncertainty of the system...
Article
Weak part analysis of a system is a key element in a system reliability quantification process. It enables the weakest areas of a system to be recognized and assists in directing remedial measures for improving the system reliability. This paper presents a novel approach to identifying the weak parts using the unreliability tracing (UT) technique a...
Article
Wind power is a very useful renewable energy source that is attracting consideration around the world due to its non-exhaustive nature and its environmental and social benefits. The correlation between multiple wind sites has a significant impact on the reliability of power systems containing wind energy conversion systems (WECS). Conventional meth...