Rouchon Veronique

Rouchon Veronique
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle · Centre de recherche sur la conservation des collections (CRCC)

About

73
Publications
13,563
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517
Citations
Citations since 2017
20 Research Items
296 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Publications

Publications (73)
Conference Paper
The Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle houses collections of foraminifers and ostracods that are endangered by indoor pollutants. Alteration by-products consist in calcium organic salts, most of them including acetates in their composition. Unexpectedly, analyses of damaged specimens pointed out calcium formates as major degradation products, des...
Chapter
The natural sciences are based on the observation of nature in all its forms and are, primarily, descriptive. The naturalists of the 19th century, as well as current researchers, collected samples during their field trips. The museum has its origins in the Enlightenment philosophy of the 18th century, which advocated universal knowledge and a share...
Article
Full-text available
Iron gall Inks corrosion causes paper degradation (browning, embrittlement) and treatments were developed to tackle this issue. They often include resizing with gelatin to reinforce the paper and its cellulosic fibers (of diameter approx. 10 µm). This work aimed at measuring the distribution of ink components at the scale of individual paper fibers...
Article
Wet collections sealants are historical materials that are essential for a sustainable preservation of specimens in fluid. Yet little is known about their composition, apart what can be found in technical records. Few scientific studies are dedicated to the identification of these materials that often correspond to complex mixtures. This work aims...
Chapter
Les collections naturalistes ont désormais acquis une place inédite dans la recherche scientifique. Constituées à l’origine par la systématique et la taxonomie, elles se révèlent aujourd’hui fondamentales pour répondre à diverses questions scientifiques et sociétales, aussi importantes qu’actuelles.Les collections naturalistes dans la science du XX...
Preprint
Full-text available
Iron gall Inks are known to promote paper degradation, thus jeopardizing the conservation of written Heritage. This phenomenon, also called iron gall ink corrosion, is not only governed by chemical reactions occurring between ink constituents and cellulose (the main constituent of paper) but also by the penetration of ink components inside the pape...
Article
Full-text available
Gelatine sizing was used extensively for western papermaking before the nineteenth century and this technique is still applied nowadays for restoration purposes. Despite its wide use, the relationships between gelatine types, the strength of the size and its distribution inside the paper sheet are still unclear. Different concentrations of three ge...
Article
Full-text available
X‐ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a powerful approach to discriminate iron‐gall inks from different inscriptions. The representativeness of spot measurements is though often impaired by the material history and conservation state of historical artefacts bearing such inscriptions. The method proposed here, using a XRF scanner, not only improved t...
Poster
Full-text available
In the last decade, applications of X-rays to the study of manuscripts significantly spread in both diversity and extent. They range from writing material analysis, mostly with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), permitting non-invasive characterization of inks and pigments used [1], to the investigation of the origin of writing supports [2]. In addition, XR...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of Collection Forum provides exclusive coverage of contributionsfrom the conference “Preservation of Natural History Wet Collections: Feedbacks andProspects” held at the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN) in Paris, 5–7 De-cember 2018 (pfc2018). This was the first international conference dedicated entirely tothe care and...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation of the preserving medium is an essential element for the proper preservation of specimens in fluid collections. However, the preservatives can become chemically altered over time or be lost by processes such as evaporation. To combat such changes and properly care for and maintain immersed specimens, it is therefore necessary to know w...
Article
Lignite constitutes a unique testimony of past diversity and evolution of land plants. This material, usually waterlogged, is particularly difficult to dry because of its mechanical sensitivity to moisture changes. In addition, lignite may contain organic and inorganic sulfides, which are susceptible to oxidation once excavated. As a result, the co...
Article
Full-text available
The local electroless deposition of gold on pyrite is studied by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The SECM and additional SEM experiments provide kinetic and mechanistic insights on the local galvanic replacement of pyrite by gold. We evidence that individual gold nanoparticles or full coverage of gold on the pyrite surface can be obtain...
Article
In the 1950s, the poor state of Ingres’ drawings collection at the Museum of Montauban, France, motivated an important restoration project that was locally monitored yet supervised by the newly created French Museum Inspection, based in Paris. This project may be considered to be the starting point in France of a new way of defining conservation po...
Article
The destruction and damage of fossils in palaeontological collections through pyrite (FeS2) oxidation is a major and well-known issue. In this paper, we investigate the impact of this reaction on the conservation of Xiaheyan fossil entomofauna (Tupo Formation; Late Carboniferous; Ningxia, China) through three steps. First, we examined and character...
Article
Full-text available
Cellobiose, a dimer of glucose wearing a glycosidic bond as in cellulose, was used as model molecule to understand the chemical degradation pathways taking place in iron gall inks impregnated papers. Experiments were carried out in liquid phase at 80 °C to study the effects of pH and of the presence of iron and oxygen on the cleavage of the glycosi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the applicability of neutron imaging techniques for probing the internal microstructure of several fossil woods upon wetting and drying, two phenomena occurring in museum cabinets and endangering the fossil woods. Investigations were carried out using lignites (fossil woods) from two French localities (Rivecourt, Parisian Basin...
Article
Full-text available
Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3–4). The present study aim...
Article
Fossil-bearing shale specimens that include sulfides are chemically reactive and sometimes also mechanically fragile. This decay is provoked by iron sulfate efflorescence resulting from the oxidation of sulfide compounds. The processes underlying these degradations are poorly known, thus impeding the elaboration of curative or preventive treatments...
Article
Paper degradation by iron gall ink is a challenging issue for the conservation of ancient manuscripts. It is usually attributed to both FeII catalyzed oxidation and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, yet the dominant degradation pathway remains an open question. In this work, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to identify radi...
Article
Full-text available
Fossil-bearing shale specimens that include sulfides in their compositions are chemically reactive and sometimes also mechanically fragile. This decay is often related to iron sulfate efflorescence resulting from the oxidation of sulfide compounds. The processes underlying these degradations are poorly known, thus impeding the elaboration of curati...
Article
Fossil-bearing shale specimens that include sulfides in their compositions are chemically reactive and sometimes also mechanically fragile. This decay is often related to iron sulfate efflorescence resulting from the oxidation of sulfide compounds. The processes underlying these degradations are poorly known, thus impeding the elaboration of curati...
Article
Iron gall inks have largely been used for writing in European western countries from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century. Yet, their use may significantly damage the paper through acid hydrolysis and iron catalysed oxidation. These phenomena are not only governed by the chemistry of the ink + cellulose system, but also by the penetration of th...
Article
The palaeontological collections of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris, France) andthe Muséum d’Histoire naturelle d’Autun (MHNA, Autun, France) include many fossil specimens originat-ing from the argillaceous shales of the Autun basin (Saône-et-Loire, France). These fossils are preservedwithin sedimentary rocks containing unstab...
Article
Full-text available
The conservation of manuscripts and paper-based objects containing iron gall ink raises specific problems, even when the paper is in good condition. Iron gall inks are sensitive to water and some restoration treatments involving water cause small migrations of ink around the line. These brown halos, generally very subtle, are often acceptable. Howe...
Article
Paleontology Collections include many fossils containing sulphides, such as pyrite which is a widespread iron sulphide. When exposed to the open air, these sulphides are prone to oxidation and give rise to remarkable efflorescence that hide the fossil print and weaken the matrices. This work aims reproduce these damages in laboratory conditions in...
Article
In certain conditions, iron gall inks induce substantial damages on cellulosic supports. Existing curative treatments necessitate the immersion of the documents in aqueous solutions. This implies several undesirable side effects: mechanical stress of the most damaged papers, substantial colour changes, and a drastic modification of the paper/ink co...
Article
Fossil materials that contain iron sulfide are well known for their instability when exposed to oxygen and humidity. This term however combines a great variety of materials showing different types of damages. Most of them consist of crystal efflorescence appearing on the surface and inside the matrix. In this work, a methodology was determined for...
Article
Full-text available
Many historical documents written with iron gall inks are endangered by the corrosive effects of these inks. In this work, a combination of complementary analytical methods was used for the first time in order to study the “phytate” process which is used in conservation studios to stabilize damaged manuscripts. This process consists of an antioxida...
Article
Full-text available
Many western manuscripts were written using iron gall inks. These inks can damage the paper via two major mechanisms: (a) acid hydrolysis, enhanced by humidity, and (b) oxidative depolymerization provoked by the presence of oxygen and free iron(II) ions. The degradation of unsized Whatman paper impregnated with different combinations of iron sulfat...
Article
Full-text available
Ancient iron gall ink manuscripts can be treated by immersion in water to dissolve excess iron compounds known to be involved in the degradation of such manuscripts. In this study, redox potential measurements were performed so as to follow the dissolution of iron gall inks from original degraded manuscripts over a period of time. Due to the comple...
Article
Full-text available
In order to render paper hydrophobic for ink and thus adequate for writing, gelatine has been largely used. To this day, it is still employed in conservation workshops as an adhesive or a sizing agent, for instance, during the treatment of iron gall ink manuscripts. Various types and concentrations of gelatine are recommended, depending on the desi...
Article
Although the existence of paper is attested in China by recent archaeological excavations linked to the Han dynasties (206 BC-220 AD), such discoveries remain very rare in Eastern Asia. Until recent times, the presence of paper was only confirmed in China. The oldest example known to date outside of the Chinese boundaries, and precisely dated betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Most Western manuscripts prior to the nineteenth century are written with iron gall inks. These are rich in iron, which enhances paper degradation. Many aqueous treatments, ranging from slight humidification to total immersion in aqueous solutions, are used by paper conservators. The sensitivity to water of iron gall inks means that these treatment...
Article
Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based precipitates. In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precip...
Article
Colors Changes versus Artificial and Real Ageing
Article
Full-text available
In the occidental world, Gum Arabic has been extensively used as a binder in the preparation of iron-gall ink. Its impact on iron-gall ink corrosion was investigated based on elemental analysis of seventeen original documents. Most of these originals had the same origin, which meant that they had been stored under the same climatic conditions. SEM...
Article
Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, inclu...
Article
Full-text available
In the Western world, Gum Arabic has been extensively used as a binder in iron gall ink preparation. Its impact on iron gall ink corrosion of paper was investigated on laboratory samples. These samples comprised cotton linters cellulose paper (no charge, no fillers, no size) impregnated with different solutions combining the three main ingredients...
Article
Full-text available
When used on paper, iron gall inks may provoke oxidation and acid hydrolysis of the cellulose. Moreo-ver, the tannins and the binder present in these inks are supposed to undergo degradation mechanisms. This work presents preliminary measurements performed by capillary gas chromatography cou-pled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on iron gall ink impr...
Article
Full-text available
The corrosion of paper due to iron gall ink is generally attributed to a combination of two mechanisms : acid hydrolysis and oxidation enhanced by the presence of free Fe 2+ . The presence of free Fe 2+ and free Fe 3+ in original samples of historic documents can easily be detected with a spot colour test. Yet this detection remains qualitative, an...

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