Ross M Welch

Ross M Welch
Cornell University | CU · Section of Soil and Crop Science, School of Integrative Plant Science

Professor

About

232
Publications
78,683
Reads
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17,691
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - December 2013
Cornell University
Position
  • Guest Professor
January 1973 - July 2009
United States Department of Agriculture
March 1972 - July 2009
United States Department of Agriculture
Position
  • Lead Scientist and Plant Physiologist

Publications

Publications (232)
Article
Full-text available
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) - Issue Paper 69 https://www.cast-science.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/CAST_IP69_Biofortification-1.pdf
Article
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Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency, affecting more than 30% of the total world's population. It is a major public health problem in many countries around the world. Over the years various methods have been used with an effort to try and control iron-deficiency anemia. However, there has only been a marginal reduction in th...
Book
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This chapter recounts the impact of the green revolution (1960-1980) on subsequent world food supplies and its consequences in terms of human nutrition and health via its impact on the micronutrient status of staple foods and of diets generally. Micronutrient deficiency disorders now occur in over half of the total human population. This chapter th...
Article
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Caco-2 cell metallothionein (MT) formation was studied to determine if MT could be used as a proxy for zinc (Zn) absorption in a cell culture model. The MT intracellular concentration was determined using a cadmium/hemoglobin affinity assay. The cellular Zn uptake was determined by acid digests (5% HNO(3)) using inductively-coupled argon-plasma emi...
Article
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Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain un...
Article
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Polished rice is a staple food for over 50% of the world's population, but contains little bioavailable iron (Fe) to meet human needs. Thus, biofortifying the rice grain with novel promoters or enhancers of Fe utilization would be one of the most effective strategies to prevent the high prevalence of Fe deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in the...
Article
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Minerals and vitamins in food staples eaten widely by the poor may be increased either through conventional plant breeding or through use of transgenic techniques, a process known as biofortification. HarvestPlus seeks to develop and distribute cultivars of food staples (rice [Oryza sativa L.], wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], maize [Zea mays L.], cas...
Conference Paper
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Rice is the primary food for half of the world population and in Brazil it is the most consumed cereal. Plant breeders have selected rice cultivars for high micronutrient density traits, but there is a need to include other elements that can affect micronutrient bioavailability, such as cadmium (Cd). The study was conducted with the purpose of eval...
Article
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We have previously shown improved hemoglobin (Hb) repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti) into a corn-soybean meal-basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In this study, weanling pigs (5 or 6 wk old) were fed the BD or the BD + 4% of P95, HP, or Synergy 1 (50:50 mixtures of H...
Article
Prebiotics may enhance iron bioavailability by increasing iron absorption in the colon. Anemic pigs fitted with cecal cannulas were fed a low-iron diet with or without 4% inulin. Over 7 days, pigs were administered 1 mg of (54)Fe in the morning feed followed by cannula infusion of 0.5 mg of (58)Fe to measure total and colonic iron absorption, respe...
Article
Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans, which differ in polyphenol content. Bean/maize di...
Article
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We investigated the adverse effect of phytate on mineral absorption and the effect of dietary phytate and age on the relationship between faecal phytate and faecal mineral excretion. Fourteen young women (aged 19-24 years) and fourteen elderly women (64-75 years) were studied for two metabolic periods (MP). In MP1, the subjects consumed a controlle...
Article
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Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Two lines of black beans, one standard and the other biofortified (high) in Fe (71 and 106 microg Fe/g, respectively), were used. Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to m...
Article
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Fructans are prebiotics, with potentially beneficial effects on human health. This study aimed to examine genetic variation in wheat grain fructan content using a simplified analytical method. The method involves extracting fructans from wheat grain followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to break down fructans into monosaccharides that can then be quanti...
Article
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The effects of ascorbic acid (AA), phytate and tannic acid (TA) on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as reconstituted ferritin were compared with FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion-Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen apoferritin was chemically reconstituted into an animal-type ferritin (HSF) and a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF) according to the typical r...
Article
Isotopic labeling of food has been widely used for the measurement of Fe absorption in determining requirements and evaluating the factors involved in Fe bioavailability. An extrinsic labeling technique will not accurately predict the total Fe absorption from foods unless complete isotopic exchange takes place between an extrinsically added isotope...
Article
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Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cross bred piglets (Hampshire x Landrace x Yorkshire) were used. N...
Article
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No studies have examined the independent effects of current and longer-term dietary zinc intakes on zinc absorption. We determined the effects of current compared with longer-term zinc intake on fractional zinc absorption (FZA). We studied 9 men whose usual zinc intakes were >11 mg/d. FZA was measured at baseline, depletion (0.6 mg Zn/d for 1 wk an...
Article
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Inulin, a linear beta fructan, is present in a variety of plants including chicory root and wheat. It exhibits prebiotic properties and has been shown to enhance mineral absorption and increase beneficial bacteria in the colon. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary inulin on the gene expression of selected intestinal Fe t...
Chapter
Malnutrition accounts for more than 30 million deaths a year in mostly resource-poor families in the developing world. Much of this malnutrition is the result of insufficient intakes of available trace elements in the diets of the poor. Dysfunctional food systems are responsible for this global crisis in human health. Importantly, agricultural syst...
Article
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Two groups have reported >90% of inulin digestion occurs before the cecum in pigs and argued against pigs as a proper animal model for humans in this regard. Two experiments were conducted with weanling pigs to characterize the hydrolysis profile of inulin in their digestive tracts. In Expt. 1, 12 pigs (weighing 7.7 +/- 0.2 kg) were fed a low-iron...
Article
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The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important staple plant food in the diets of people of Latin America, East Africa,and other regions of the developing world. It is also a major source of dietary iron. The primary goal of this research was to use an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model to study iron bioavailability in eight genotypes (three Mes...
Article
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An in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model may predict iron bioavailability to humans; however, direct comparisons are lacking. The objective was to test the differences in iron bioavailability between 2 maize varieties and 2 bean varieties (white beans and colored beans) by comparing human, Caco-2, and algorithm results. Two randomized, 2 x 2 fac...
Article
Information on the excretion of dietary phytate in humans under different conditions is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate fecal excretion of dietary phytate and phosphorus in a group of young and elderly women consuming high and low phytate diets. Fifteen young and fourteen elderly women were fed two experimental diets, high phy...
Article
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The major subsistence food systems of the world that feed resource‐poor populations are identified and their capacity to supply essential nutrients in reasonable balance to the people dependent on them has been considered for some of these with a view to overcoming their nutrient limitations in sound agronomic and sustainable ways. The approach dis...
Article
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Phytate (inositol-hexa-phosphate) has an important role in plants but it also may have anti-nutritional properties in animals and humans. While there is debate within the plant breeding and nutrition communities regarding an optimum level in grain, there appears to be little information at the molecular level for the genetics of this trait, and its...
Article
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Iron deficiency represents one of the most common global nutritional disorders in humans. Our objective was to determine whether and how supplemental inulin improved utilization of iron intrinsically present in a corn and soybean meal diet by young pigs for hemoglobin repletion. In Expt. 1, 3 groups (n = 8/group) of pigs were fed a corn and soybean...
Article
Four different colored beans (white, red, pinto, and black beans) were investigated for factors affecting iron bioavailability using an in vitro digestion/human Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability from whole beans, dehulled beans, and their hulls was determined. The results show that white beans contained higher levels of bioavailable iron comp...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine if a combination of commercially available mucin and an 8 microm microporous membrane insert can be used to replace the 15 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) dialysis membrane used in an established in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture system. Although the current model with the 15 kDa membrane correla...
Article
The yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) has greatly improved through breeding, but it is not known how this has affected seed micronutrient content. In the present study, the iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) content of seed of 14 US hard red winter wheat varieties from production eras spanning more than a century was...
Article
Knowledge of the distribution of crop-available trace elements in soils is limited by the sparseness of georeferenced data and the inherent variability of the more-labile forms of these elements. Cokriging with auxiliary variables can sometimes improve estimates for a less densely sampled primary variable, while skewed data can often be made more s...
Article
Iron (Fe) bioavailability in unpolished, polished grain and bran fraction of five rice genotypes with a range of Fe contents was measured by in vitro digestion and cultured Caco-2 cells of cooked grain. There was a significant difference in Fe bioavailability among the five rice genotypes tested, in both the unpolished and polished grain. The range...
Article
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Environmental pollution by phosphorus from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals, such as swine, poultry, and fish, cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely used as a feed additive to hydrolyze phytate-phosphorus...
Article
Here we examined several physiological properties of two near-isogenic lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) that differ in grain cadmium accumulation, to identify the function of a gene locus that confers differential grain Cd concentrations. Time- and concentration-dependent uptake and translocation studies using 109Cd were conducte...
Article
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Deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A afflict over three billion people (more than 50% of the world's population), most of them women, infants, and children in resource-poor families in the developing world. This global crisis in nutritional health is the result of dysfunctional food systems that do not consistently suppl...
Article
This study utilized an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to determine the levels of ascorbic acid (AA) and "meat factor" needed to promote Fe absorption from Fe complexed with phytic acid (PA) or tannic acid (TA). AA reversed the inhibition of Fe absorption by PA beginning at a molar ratio of 1:20:1 (Fe:PA:AA) but essentially had no effect on th...
Article
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Soil deficiencies of zinc (Zn) and boron (B) limit crop production in Nepal. Improving the micronutrient status of plants would increase yield and increase micronutrient content of the seeds, leading to better nutrition of the progeny crop and to improved human micronutrient nutrition. The primary micronutrient problem in grain legumes is B deficie...
Article
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Here, we examined the effectiveness of two approaches for reducing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain: the application of supplemental zinc (Zn), and the use of cultivars exhibiting reduced grain Cd concentrations. Two durum wheat near-isogenic lines (NIL) that differ in grain Cd accumulation were grown...
Article
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During the 1970s, the Green Revolution basically used dwarfi ng genes in wheat and rice that allowed greater water and fertilizer effi ciency which dramatically increased the cereal productivity and thus, increased human caloric intake of the developing world. However, having met caloric intake, there is a need to address the issues of malnutrition...