Ross Sanders

Ross Sanders
The University of Sydney · Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

PhD University of Queensland 1991

About

285
Publications
128,362
Reads
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4,640
Citations
Citations since 2016
107 Research Items
3132 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
Current Research Interests: Skill and talent development; Youth health; Research in aquatic sports; Injury prevention; Current collaborators include: Steve Cobley, Peter Sinclair, Tomohiro Gonjo, Hideki Takagi, Wesam Al Attar; Carla McCabe, Joao Paulo Vilas Boas, Ricardo Fernandes, Angus Chard, Che Fornusek, Jennifer Fleeton, Rhonda Orr, Alycia Fong Yan, Chuang-Yuan Chiu, Mitchell Smith, Caritas Institute, Allan Fu, Jordan Anderson, Chris Papic, Roozbeh Naemi, Ryan Hodierne, Ben Williams.
Additional affiliations
May 2013 - present
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Head of Exercise and Sport Science
Description
  • Research interests include: breaking the vicious cycle of obesity by improving coordination to increase participation in peer group physical activities; rhythms in movement; improving performance in aquatic sports; Injury prevention in sports
May 2013 - present
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Head of Exercise and Sport Science
Description
  • Interests: Improving coordination to break the vicious cycle of obesity. Rhythms in movement. Performance in aquatic sports. Reducing injuries in sports
January 2000 - April 2013
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • Chair of Sport Science

Publications

Publications (285)
Article
Analysis of the countermovement jump (CMJ) force–time curve phases provides insight into athlete neuromuscular function and methods by which jump height improves in response to training. A CMJ phase analysis and the dynamic strength index (DSI) have yet to be explored in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to address this knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Question: Do injury prevention programs that include plyometric exercises reduce the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in sport? Design: Systematic review of (cluster) randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: Sporting participants of any age, sex or competition level. Interventions: The experimental interventi...
Article
Hackett, DA, He, W, Fleeton, JRM, Orr, R, and Sanders, RH. Effects of age and sex on aerobic fitness, sprint performance, and change of direction speed in high school athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sex and age on aerobic fitness, sprinting performance, and change of directi...
Article
Full-text available
Overarm throwing is an essential fundamental movement skill (FMS). Competency in throwing is critical to encourage physical activity throughout lifespan. However, the segmental sequencing characteristics of skilled throwing to achieve maximum ball release speed are unclear. Further, the standard instructions for segmental sequencing in coaching man...
Article
Background: The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ Kids is an exercise-based injury prevention program developed by an international group of experts to prevent injuries among child soccer players. Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the FIFA 11+ Kids program would be more effective than performing a typical warm-up re...
Article
Full-text available
Question: What is the effect of injury prevention programs that include balance training exercises on the incidence of ankle injuries among soccer players? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: Soccer players of any age, sex or competition level. Interventions: The experimental intervention was an i...
Article
BACKGROUND: The knee is one of the most common sites of injuries among soccer players. The incidence of knee injuries can be reduced by improving the neuromuscular control and core stability. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention programs that include core stability exercises in reducing the incidence of kne...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coaching the Australian recommended fundamental overarm throwing skill criteria for less-skilled adolescents on movement competency using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. Methods: Less-skilled non-sports-active and skilled sports-active pupils were assigned to FMS Group (n = 97...
Article
The prominence of undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) has been clearly observed during recent international events. Improvement of this phase is important for overall performance. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the key factors that modulate UUS performance and provide coaches and sports science practitioners with valuable and pr...
Article
Purpose. Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Soccer goalkeepers are more likely than outfield players to injure their upper extremities, particularly their shoulders. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ Shoulder Injury Prevention Program (FIFA 11+S) was developed to prevent upper extremity injuries. The...
Article
Purpose. Physiotherapists are trained to prevent, assess, and rehabilitate all kinds of injuries including sports injury. The goal of the physical therapist should be making sure that the athlete is in optimal shape to perform, with a minimal risk for developing an injury. This study aims to assess the physiotherapists’ awareness, implementation, a...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper ways in which performance in 100 m front crawl might be improved are explored. Researchers were identified as ‘primary sources’ to provide a rationale for how swimmers might improve their performance and to estimate the potential magnitude of improvement. The researchers selected as the primary sources were identified from an initial...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Soccer referees and assistant referees have a significant risk of injury, particularly to the lower extremity. A growing body of research supports the use of injury prevention programs to prevent such injuries, yet participation rates in these programs by soccer referees and assistant referees remains largely unexplored. Objective To as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Groin injuries are frequent injury commonly seen in any sport contain sudden changes in direction, rapid acceleration and deceleration, and kicking which are all available in soccer. The Copenhagen adduction exercise increases the eccentric hip adduction strength leads to reduce the incident of groin injury. Objective To assess the prof...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Soccer goalkeepers are more likely than outfield players to injure their upper extremity. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)11+ Shoulder injury prevention program (FIFA 11+S) was developed to prevent upper extremity injuries. Objective To assess soccer goalkeepers and goalkeepers’ coaches’ awareness, implementa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The Nordic hamstring exercise is an effective program in reducing the hamstring injuries, which is one of the most common non-contact lower limb injuries, especially in sports requiring acceleration, maximal sprints, and sudden change in direction of running, as sprinting, soccer, and rugby. Objective To assess the awareness, implementa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ Referees injury prevention program is a structured warm-up program specially designed to prevent injuries among soccer referees and assistant referees and its efficacy is yet to be fully documented in the literature. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has promoted the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program worldwide. The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program for kids was developed and shown to be effective in reducing soccer-related injuries in numerous studies. Objective To assess the awareness, implementation, and opinion of wor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Injury prevention programs have been shown to prevent and reduce injuries in different sports. Awareness for such programs is crucial , however, implementation and adoption of injury prevention programs in team sports is a multifaceted and complex process. Objective To assess physical therapists’ awareness, implementation, and opinion...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Soccer has high injury risk, especially for hamstring muscle injuries, and the Nordic hamstring exercise is a well-known intervention to prevent them. Objective To assess the professional and semi-professional soccer players and coaches’ awareness, implementation, and opinion of the Nordic hamstring exercise. Design A cross-sectional s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ Kids injury prevention program is an exercise-based program developed by an international group of experts to prevent injuries among children’s soccer players. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the FIFA 11+ Kids injury prevention program on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Sport-related concussions (SRC) have gained more attention in the recent years due to its detrimental short-term and long-term effects on the players. Objective To assess the awareness and knowledge of SRC among sports physical therapists. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting An online survey. Patients (or Participants) A total of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has promoted and deployed the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the program relied on international randomized controlled trial which significantly reduced injuries and healthcare cost...
Article
Full-text available
Swimming coaches have prescribed dry-land training programs over the years to improve the overall swimming performance (starts, clean swimming, turns and finish). The main aim of the present systematic review was to examine the effects of dry-land strength and conditioning programs on swimming turns. Four online databases were scrutinised, data wer...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to review the literature on front crawl swimming biomechanics, focusing on propulsive and resistive forces at different swimming velocities. Recent studies show that the resistive force increases in proportion to the cube of the velocity, which implies that a proficient technique to miminise the resistive (and maximise the...
Article
Background: Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Goalkeepers are more likely to injure their upper limbs, particularly their shoulders, than outfield players. To reduce upper extremity injuries, the FIFA 11+ Shoulder Injury Prevention Program (FIFA 11+S) was developed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectivenes...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between front crawl and backstroke swimming in hydrodynamic (produced by swimmers) and buoyant torque around the transverse axis. Ten swimmers performed 50 m front crawl and backstroke at four selected velocities (same velocities for both techniques). All trials were recorded by four u...
Article
The torso muscles play important roles in longitudinal rotation between the upper and lower torso on land but demands on these muscles at different swimming speeds and their role in torso twist in front crawl remains unclear. We aimed to compare torso muscle activity at different front crawl speeds and to assess the relationships between torso musc...
Article
Objective: The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ Referees Injury Prevention Program (FIFA 11+ Referees Program) is a structured warm-up program specially designed to prevent injuries in soccer referees. However, its effectiveness has yet to be fully documented in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to...
Article
Curvatures of the body can disrupt fluid flow and affect hydrodynamic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a feedback intervention on glide performance and torso morphology. Eleven male and female national swimmers performed glides before and after augmented feedback. Feedback consisted of self-modelling visual feedba...
Article
Full-text available
Ascertaining how racket orientation angle differences at ball-impact influence the accuracy of different squash strokes could assist player skill development and possibly reduce the number of unforced errors hit within a match. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in racket orientation angles of accurate and inaccurate forehand and...
Article
Video analysis is used in sport to derive kinematic variables of interest but often relies on time-consuming tracking operations. The purpose of this study was to determine speed, accuracy and reliability of 2D body landmark digitisation by a neural network (NN), compared with manual digitisation, for the glide phase in swimming. Glide variables in...
Article
Background: Copenhagen adduction exercise (CAE) and Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) reduce the incidence of groin and hamstring injuries. Efficient dynamic balance can improve motor performance and reduce the risk of injuries in athletes. However, the effects of these exercises on dynamic balance have not been investigated. Hypothesis: CAE and N...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated body roll amplitude and timing of its peak in backstroke and compared them with front crawl swimming. Nineteen anatomical landmarks were digitised using 80 swimming trial videos (ten swimmers × two techniques × four intensities) recorded by two above-and four below-water cameras. One upper-limb cycle was analysed for...
Article
For a short time this eprint link to the full article is now ready to use and is: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/MQZ3ZNVGD8RPECFZDE9V/full?target=10.1080/02640414.2020.1851926 Abstract Field-based tests including the medicine ball chest throw (MBCT) and vertical jump are used to assess muscle performance. To date no study has compared perform...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in Froude efficiency (η F ) and active drag (D A ) between front crawl and backstroke at the same speed. η F was investigated by the three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis using 10 male swimmers. The swimmers performed 50 m swims at four swimming speeds in each technique, and their whole bo...
Article
The paddling stroke rate (SR) is one of the key determinants of flat water kayak performance. The aim of this study was to analyse the way in which the kayak paddler changes the duration of the water and aerial phases due to the increase in stroke rate. Ten elite kayak paddlers (five males and five females) were analysed performing 200 m on-water t...
Article
Fleeton, JRM, Sanders, RH, and Fornusek, C. Strength training to improve performance in athletes with cerebral palsy: A systematic review of current evidence. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) can partake in many different forms of organized sport including elite competition at state and international levels....
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of torso morphology on maximum instantaneous hydrodynamic resistance in front crawl swimming. Outlines of the torso in the frontal and anteroposterior planes were calculated from photographic images to determine continuous form gradients (m/m) for the anterior, posterior and lateral aspects of th...
Article
Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1) compare active drag (Da) calculation between a single land-based measurement of frontal surface area (FSA) and in-water FSA measures obtained at key events of the arm pull (1, right upper-limb catch; 2, right upper-limb insweep; 3, right upper-limb exit and left upper-limb catch; 4, left upper-limb inswee...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of the kinematic differences that separate highly skilled and less-skilled squash players could assist the progression of talent development. This study compared trunk, upper-limb and racket kinematics between two groups of nine highly skilled and less-skilled male athletes for forehand drive, volley and drop strokes. A 15-camera motion a...
Article
Full-text available
How does the human neurophysiological system self-organize to achieve optimal phase relationships among joints and limbs, such as in the composite rhythms of butterfly and front crawl swimming, drumming, or dancing? We conducted a systematic review of literature relating to central nervous system (CNS) control of phase among joint/limbs in continuo...
Article
Full-text available
To maintain the accuracy of squash shots under varying conditions, such as the oncoming ball’s velocity and trajectory, players must adjust their technique. Although differences in technique between skilled and less-skilled players have been studied, it is not yet understood how players vary their technique in a functional manner to maintain accura...
Preprint
Full-text available
How does the human neurophysiological system self-organize to achieve optimal phase relationships among joints and limbs, such as in the composite rhythms of butterfly and front crawl swimming, drumming, or dancing? We conducted a systematic review of literature relating to CNS control of phase among joint/limbs in continuous rhythmic activities. S...
Article
Dry-land strength training is a common component of swimming programs; however, its efficacy is contentious. A common criticism of dry-land strength training for swimming is a lack of specificity. An understanding of movement patterns in swimming can enable dry-land strength training programs to be developed to elicit adaptations that transfer to i...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate why front crawl is faster than backstroke from a kinematic perspective. Three-dimensional kinematics were obtained from one upper-limb cycle of ten male competitive swimmers performing 50 m front crawl and backstroke trials at maximum speed. Swimmers achieved faster centre of mass velocity in front crawl...
Article
The purpose of this study was to establish the asymmetry and body wave characteristics related to shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle roll in unilateral arm amputee swimmers. Three unilateral arm amputee swimmers, including one Paralympic medallist (swimmer A), volunteered in this study. They conducted two 10-15 s front crawl tests with sub-maximum and...
Article
Full-text available
Before examining the effect of changing constraints on skill adaptation, it is useful to know the tolerable variability of a movement pattern for optimal performance. Tolerable variability may vary throughout the period of task performance as some parts of the movement pattern may be more important than others. The purpose of this study was to quan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Torso shape characteristics such as cross-sectional area, curvatures and indentations influence the pressure distribution of fluid flow around the torso. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of quantifying torso shape using photographic imaging. The contours of the torso in the frontal and sagittal planes were obtained by tracing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between torso muscle activity and torso twist. EMG data from five torso muscles and 3D motion capture data were recorded during 4x25m front crawl swimming trials at 400m and 50m pace (N=15). EMG data were integrated over 10ms intervals and normalized to the maximum value during each swimm...
Conference Paper
Active drag force is the resistance encountered by a swimmer while swimming with the usual stroking and kicking actions. Active drag has been found to have a relationship with body shape characteristics such as the projected frontal area of a swimmer (1). However, commonly used methods of estimating active drag force impose changes to the regular s...
Article
Human undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) is an underwater propelling technique in competitive swimming and its propulsive mechanism is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) flow field in the wake region during human UUS in a water flume. A national level male swimmer performed 41 UUS trials in a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to provide a fundamental understanding of how the hands create swim propulsion by applying Newton’s Laws to observations of the behaviour of water in simple demonstrations. Using a video recorder, we captured a series of straight and curved pulls made near and under the pool surface. The pulls were performed using a plasti...
Article
This study examined whether a structured cycle-based SIT intervention could improve psychological (symptom severity) and physiological (aerobic/anaerobic performance) health outcomes in adolescents with serious mental illness. Participants were 30 age-matched adolescents (M = 16.00 ± 1.17 years) from Australia who completed an 8-week bicycle-based...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether swimmers follow the instructed speed (vtarget) accurately with the aid of a commercial visual light pacer during front crawl and backstroke swimming in a 25 m pool. Ten male swimmers performed 50 m front crawl and backstroke at different speeds (controlled by a visual light pacer) in a 25 m pool....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Injury surveillance and workload monitoring are important aspects of professional sports, including cricket. However, at the community level, there is a dearth of accessible and intelligent surveillance tools. Mobile apps are an accessible tool for monitoring cricket-related injuries at all levels. Objective: The objective of this pa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: At the turn of the century, a new format of cricket [Twenty20 (T20)] was introduced that has led to more matches being played. Since then, it has been debated whether T20 cricket has increased the risk of overuse injuries. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to meta-analyse the cricket injury rates in the twenty-first centu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To improve understanding of the demands on torso muscles in front crawl swimming, coaches would benefit from a quantification of the torque about the longitudinal axis between the upper and lower body produced by swimming motions and fluid forces; however, due to the inability of measuring external torque in a fluid environment, internal torque can...
Article
Structured exercise has been utilised as complementary therapy for patients with psychotic disorders. This review aims to determine the efficacy of structured exercise on both psychological and physiological variables. Applying PRISMA guidelines and keyword search terms, studies were systematically searched in CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, PsychInfo, Sp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The contribution of the flutter kick to front crawl performance from its influence on longitudinal body rotation has not been thoroughly investigated. Fourier analysis was used to examine the impact of the kick on segmental and whole body angular momentum about the body’s longitudinal axis in fourteen elite front crawl specialists swimming at sprin...