Ross Gore

Ross Gore
Old Dominion University | ODU · Virginia Modeling, Analysis & Simulation Center

About

82
Publications
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792
Citations

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Full-text available
To what extent do supernatural beliefs, group affiliation, and social interaction produce values and behaviors that benefit others, i.e., 'prosociality'? Addressing this question involves multiple variables interacting within complex social networks that shape and constrain the beliefs and behaviors of individuals. We examine the relationships amon...
Data
Visual Abstract for "Short-Range Forecasting of COVID-19 During Early Onset at County, Health District, and State Geographic Levels Using Seven Methods: Comparative Forecasting Study" accessible from https://www.jmir.org/2021/3/e24925/
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we provide an introduction to simulation for cybersecurity and focus on three themes: (1) an overview of the cybersecurity domain; (2) a summary of notable simulation research efforts for cybersecurity; and (3) a proposed way forward on how simulations could broaden cybersecurity efforts. The overview of cybersecurity provides read...
Article
Full-text available
Some U.S. cities are excellent for cycling, like Portland, and some cities are not so good. This observation raises the question: what are the characteristics of a city that make it good for cycling? This study investigates the characteristics of 119 cities to explore what factors help make a city good for cycling. What “good” means in terms of cyc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Modeling approaches have utilized variations on susceptible, infected, and recovered (SIR), susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered (SEIR), and machine learning models to estimate the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on the identified virus characteristics. Forecasting methods rely on real-time numbers of confi...
Article
Full-text available
The abandonment of supernatural religious beliefs and rituals seems to occur quite easily in some contexts, but post-supernaturalist cultures require a specific set of conditions that are difficult to produce and sustain on a large scale and thus are historically rare. Despite the worldwide resurgence of supernaturalist religion, some subcultures r...
Article
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We present a network agent-based model of ethnocentrism and intergroup cooperation in which agents from two groups (majority and minority) change their communality (feeling of group solidarity), cooperation strategy and social ties, depending on a barrier of “likeness” (affinity). Our purpose was to study the model’s capability for describing how t...
Chapter
We use coarse-grained mobile phone data from a large Turkish mobile phone provider and cross-reference this data with social media data and a qualitatively composed violent events list to explore the integration of refugees in Turkey. The data provides grounds for fruitful future research. It suggests that border communities with the refugee-sendin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Verification and validation (V&V) techniques commonly require modelers to collect and statistically analyze large amounts of data which require specific methods for ordering, filtering, or converting data points. Modelers need simple, intuitive, and efficient techniques for gaining insight into unexpected behaviors to help in determining if these b...
Article
Full-text available
We present a study of the dimensionality and factorial invariance of religiosity for 26 countries with a Christian heritage, based on the 1998 and 2008 rounds of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) Religion survey, using both exploratory and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We develop an agent based model to characterize the wellbeing of newcomers (i.e. asylum seeking refugees) in the context of asylum logistics using Schwartz's theory of values. The model produces recommendations for decision-makers with respect to avoiding catastrophic outcomes and maximizing best case outcomes. We conduct analysis to show that whil...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate the relationships among individuals' religiosity (or secularity), affiliation with like-minded religious others, volunteerism, and trust and tolerance. Using data analysis of the World Values Survey, we pose and answer research questions about the types of individuals who are the most trusting, the most tolerant, and who volunteer th...
Article
Religious practices centered on controlled trance states, such as Siberian shamanism or North African zar, are ubiquitous, yet their characteristics vary. In particular, crosscultural research finds that female-dominated spirit possession cults are common in stratified societies, whereas male-dominated shamanism predominates in structurally flatter...
Article
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We propose a generative agent-based model of the emergence and escalation of xenophobic anxiety in which individuals from two different religious groups encounter various hazards within an artificial society. The architecture of the model is informed by several empirically validated theories about the role of religion in intergroup conflict. Our re...
Article
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This article offers an affirmative construal of atheism: the attempt to make sense of the world with naturalist explanations and to act sensibly in society following secularist principles (i.e., without relying on supernatural agents or complying with supernatural authorities). After briefly describing the conceptual framework behind this positive...
Article
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In this paper, we propose a sentiment-based approach to investigate the temporal and spatiotemporal effects on tourists’ emotions when visiting a city’s tourist destinations. Our approach consists of four steps: data collection and preprocessing from social media; visitor origin identification; visit sentiment identification; and temporal and spati...
Data
Final tourist attraction list with number of visits. The final list of tourist attractions and corresponding visit numbers identified within our datasets. We eliminated visits made by undetermined origins that either have empty or unidentified location information. Eliminating these tweets provided a better differentiation between visitor types in...
Data
Visit dataset. This dataset contains anonymized visit information including visit time, visited attraction name and category, visitor anonymized ID, visitor category, and sentiment score. (CSV)
Data
Initial tourist attraction list for the city of Chicago. The list contains attraction’s name, category, rankings in online tourist platforms, boundary-based and distance-based keywords, opening and closing hours, scores from online platforms, and boundary points. We only consider one opening and one closing hour per attraction that covers the earli...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the different automated debugging approaches that can be applied for non‐emergent faults. Then, it defines emergent faults and discusses how they arise in the two classes of software. For each of these classes of software, the chapter presents specific techniques to account for the absent determinism. The chapte...
Article
Full-text available
We employ existing data sets and agent-based modeling to forecast changes in religiosity and existential security among a collective of individuals over time. Existential security reflects the extent of economic, socioeconomic and human development provided by society. Our model includes agents in social networks interacting with one another based...
Article
One of the difficulties in effectively analysing and combating cyber attacks is an inability to identify when, why and how they occur. Victim organisations do not reveal this data for fear of disclosing vulnerabilities and attackers do not reveal themselves for fear of being prosecuted. In this paper, we employ two machine-learning algorithms to id...
Article
This paper reports on a survey capturing modelers’ perspectives of Modeling and Simulation (M&S). The survey was completed by a total of 283 respondents from the M&S community with 167 fully completed surveys and 151 respondents identified as model builders. Participants include people from government, academia, and industry in varied roles ranging...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Empirical findings from psychology and social science suggest that both individual and contextual factors play a role in shaping the levels of religiosity and violence in any given population. But what is the causal relationship between religion and violence? A wide variety of disciplines are contributing to a rapidly growing body of literature tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Verification and validation (V&V) techniques commonly require modelers to collect and statistically analyze large amounts of data which require specific methods for ordering, filtering, or converting data points. Modelers need simple, intuitive, and efficient techniques for gaining insight into unexpected behaviors to help in determining if these b...
Article
Cyber security is a complex, multifaceted, poorly understood problem domain. As the use of digital technology grows, the threat environment continues to evolve dynamically. Traditional approaches for cyber security focus on understanding and addressing vulnerabilities. While this mindset is necessary, it is not sufficient. A better understanding of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A study by Hu et al. [2009, PNAS, 106(5)] projected that a targeted malicious attack on Wi-Fi routers could infect a region in two days. The study also argued that the use of WPA security protocol in 60-70% routers would practically prevent such epidemics. This paper revisits their model with current Wi-Fi router data from WiGLE.net and a refined d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Criminologists have long observed a strong correlation between age and crime. The age crime relationship has withstood stringent testing since the 1920’s and repeatedly demonstrated that criminal activity peaks at age seventeen and then gradually declines. These efforts have resulted in the formation of several theories; however, quantitative asses...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the International Social Survey Programme Religion Cumulation (1991-1998-2008) data set, to identify the factors of individual religiosity and their interrelations in quantitative terms. The exploratory factor analysis was performed using data from the first two waves (1991 and 1998), a...
Article
Full-text available
The verification and validation (V&V) of agent-based models (ABMs) is challenging. The underlying structure of the model and the agents can change over time. Furthermore, the theoretical context of the model is often very different from established models of the same phenomenon. In an effort to overcome these issues, trace validation is becoming a...
Article
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Metamodeling refers to modeling a model. There are two metamodeling approaches for ABMs: (1) top-down and (2) bottom-up. The top down approach enables users to decompose high-level mental models into behaviors and interactions of agents. In contrast, the bottom-up approach constructs a relatively small, simple model that approximates the structure...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Capturing and retaining the attention of students while learning complex topics like modeling and simulation is a critical task. In discrete-event simulation (DES), educators rely on examples like queueing systems in fast food restaurants or manufacturing organizations to provide the necessary context for learning. In many instances, these examples...
Conference Paper
We explore the impact of using different modeling paradigms on the outcome of simulation studies. Modeling paradigms, once implemented, follow different computational rules regarding how calculations are made and are sequenced during runtime. To test the effects of computational differences on a simulation’s outcomes, we implement a simple queuing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an initial baseline model of factors that give rise to an attacker. It explores the impact of successful rate of attack and social learning on the decision to become an attacker. The model utilizes rational choice theory, routine activity theory, social learning theory, and perceived behavioral control from the theory of planned...
Article
The body of knowledge related to modeling and simulation (M&S) comes from a variety of constituents: (1) practitioners and users, (2) tool developers and (3) theorists and methodologists. Previous work has shown that categorizing M&S as a concentration in an existing, broader disciple is inadequate because it does not provide a uniform basis for re...
Article
In this paper, we utilize a software engineering technique called statistical debugging to experimentally identify emergent behaviors in a System of Systems. We apply the technique to an agent-based model of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) in which each component of the BMDS has operational and managerial independence as well as geograp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The rate and sophistication of cyber-attacks are ever increasing forcing organizations to test their systems and assess their risks for specific situations (e.g., data breach). Simulation is an emerging field in testing and assessing cybersecurity risk as it allows modeling cyber systems, their interdependencies, and interactions between cyber syst...
Article
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This article outlines the development – and reports on the experimental findings – of two computational models designed to simulate the dynamic systems and behavioural patterns identified and clarified by research on terror management theory. The causal architectures of these models are informed by empirical research on the effects of mortality sal...
Article
In this paper, we propose an approach to formally verify and rigorously validate a simulation system against the specification of the real system. We implement the approach in a verification and validation calculator tool that takes as input a set of statements that capture the requirements, internal conditions of the system and expected outputs of...
Article
This article examines the extent to which existing network centrality measures can be used (1) as filters to identify a set of papers to start reading within a journal and (2) as article-level metrics to identify the relative importance of a paper within a journal. We represent a dataset of published papers in the Public Library of Science (PLOS) v...
Article
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The process of developing and running simulations needs to become simple and accessible to audiences ranging from middle school students in a learning environment to subject matter experts in order to make the benefits of modeling and simulation commonly available. However, current simulations are for the most part developed and run on platforms th...
Article
In this paper, we examine to what extent Live, Virtual, Constructive (LVC) simulations can be used to model and simulate a System of Systems (SoS) by (1) establishing LVC and SoS domain profiles based on concepts discussed in each community and (2) finding overlapping concepts. To do so, we apply content analysis to the Simulation Interoperability...
Article
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We conduct a detailed investigation of the relationship among the obesity rate of urban areas and expressions of happiness, diet and physical activity on social media. We do so by analyzing a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 200 million words generated over the course of 2012 and 2013 on the social network service Twitter. Among many re...
Conference Paper
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Despite their proven advantages in science and engineering and their broad application in daily activities such as travel planning and financial planning, simulations are not widely utilized in education, particularly at the K-12 levels. One of the main reasons is that simulation use and simulation building is reserved for expert's use and remains...
Article
Over the past six decades, Modeling and Simulation (M&S) has been used as a method or tool in many disciplines. While there is no doubt that the emergence of modern M&S is highly connected with that of Computing and Systems science, there is no clear evidence of the contribution of M&S to those disciplines. Further, while there is a growing body of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Person-Centered Studies (PCS) are a new approach for the design and analysis of medical and healthcare research with human participants. The PCS approach is based on the idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling medical and healthcare statistical models to be fit and research...
Article
Predictions from simulations have entered the mainstream of public policy and decision-making practices. Unfortunately, methods for gaining insight into faulty simulations outputs have not kept pace. Ideally, an insight gathering method would automatically identify the cause of a faulty output and explain to the simulation developer how to correct...
Article
Interoperability in modeling and simulation is understood as the ability of simulations to exchange information and use the information exchanged. Several alternative models have been applied to support interoperability. The traditional approach has been to apply standards, such as the High-level Architecture, to create a federation and use a runti...
Article
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As the number of variables and entities included in a simulation model increase, it becomes more difficult to initialize due to (a) the increasing number of input variables that are required and (b) the difficulty in finding, retrieving, and assigning the initial values of the input variables, especially in Human Social Cultural Behavior Modeling....
Article
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Modeling under uncertainty has been of paramount importance, as quantitative methods of risk analysis have been developed to evaluate, prevent and respond to bioterror threats. Our simulation platform, Terrisk, improves risk assessment capabilities by providing modelers with novel means to: (1) capture incomplete and conflicting information about b...
Article
In this article, we present ConceVE, an approach for designing and validating models before they are implemented in a computer simulation. The approach relies on (1) domain-specific languages for model specification, (2) the Alloy Specification Language and its constraint solving analysis capabilities for exploring the state space of the model dyna...
Article
Full-text available
This article proposes a Modeling and Simulation (M&S) formalism using Model Theory. The article departs from the premise that M&S is the science that studies the nature of truth using models and simulations. Truth in models and simulations is relative as they seek to answer specific modeling questions. Consequently, truth in M&S is relative because...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with gaining knowledge. It is closely related to ontology. The branch that deals with questions like "What is real?" and "What do we know?" as it provides these components. When using modeling and simulation, we usually imply that we are doing so to either apply knowledge, in particular when we ar...
Conference Paper
Predictions from simulations with inherent uncertainty have entered the mainstream of public policy decision-making practices. Unfortunately, methods for gaining insight into unexpected simulation outcomes have not kept pace. Subject matter experts (SMEs) need to understand if the unexpected outcomes reflect a fault in the simulation or new knowled...
Conference Paper
Statistical debuggers use data collected during test case execution to automatically identify the location of faults within software. Recent work has applied causal inference to eliminate or reduce control and data flow dependence confounding bias in statement-level statistical debuggers. The result is improved effectiveness. This is encouraging bu...
Conference Paper
In order to effectively deal with increased complexity and production pressures for the development of safety-critical systems, organizations need automated assistance in program analysis and testing. This need is intensified for systems that make heavy use of floating-point computations. Challenges related to the use of floating-point computations...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes and explores applications of several new methods for explaining unexpected behavior in Monte Carlo simulations: (1) the use of fuzzy logic to represent the extent to which a program behaves as expected, (2) the analysis of variable value density distributions, and (3) the geometric treatment of predicate lists as vectors when c...
Conference Paper
Traditional debugging and fault localization methods have addressed localization of sources of software failures. While these methods are effective in general, they are not tailored to an important class of software, including simulations and computational models, which employ floating-point computations and continuous stochastic distributions to r...