Ross Arena

Ross Arena
University of Illinois at Chicago | UIC · Department of Physical Therapy

PhD, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University

About

888
Publications
176,247
Reads
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33,524
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Arena is Professor and Head of the Physical Therapy Department at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He has conceived of and oversaw the successful implementation of several innovative healthy living initiatives in the academic, clinical and community settings. His scholarly interests include: 1) Exercise testing and training in patients diagnosed with cardiopulmonary disease/dysfunction; and 2) Healthy living initiatives and policy that promote the healthspan.
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2011 - July 2013
University of New Mexico
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2002 - August 2010
Virginia Commonwealth University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 1998 - May 2001
Independent Researcher
Independent Researcher
Field of study
  • Physiology
August 1994 - May 1997
Virginia Commonwealth University
Field of study
  • Physical Therapy
September 1988 - May 1993
Southern Connecticut State University
Field of study
  • Human Performance

Publications

Publications (888)
Article
Purpose: Nonexercise predictions of peak oxygen uptake (V˙o2peak) are used clinically, yet current equations were developed from cohorts of apparently healthy individuals and may not be applicable to individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our purpose was to develop a CVD-specific nonexercise prediction equation for V˙o2peak. Methods: Par...
Article
With the acute burden of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) winding down in many parts of the world, there is an increased appreciation for those living with COVID-19 sequelae. Clavario and colleagues 1 found almost a third of COVID-19 survivors with functional limitations identified from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). This illustrates the...
Article
Introduction: Peak rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is measured during clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) and is commonly used as a subjective indicator of maximal effort. However, no study to date has reported reference standards or the distribution of peak RPE across a large cohort of apparently healthy individuals. Purpose: To...
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Full-text available
Background Limited data are available examining the effects of both moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on longevity among patients with heart failure (HF). This study examined the associations of MVPA and SB with all-cause mortality in HF patients using a nationally representative survey data. Met...
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The goal of the present study was to compare pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance in COVID-19 survivors with a control group (CG). This was a cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19, without severe signs and symptoms, were evaluated one month after the infection. Healthy volunteers match...
Article
Tragically, the Unites States (US) surpassed one million documented deaths due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A convincing association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and poorer outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection has already been demonstrated and communicated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in...
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We have been amid unhealthy living and related chronic disease pandemics for several decades. These longstanding crises have troublingly synergized with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The need to establish research priorities in response to COVID-19 can be used to address broad health and wellbeing, social and economic impacts fo...
Article
Purpose: Normative standards for key cardiopulmonary exercise test variables, including peak circulatory power (CircP), are needed to guide the interpretation of clinical exercise responses in individuals with and without disease. Objective: To establish age- and sex-specific reference standards for peak CircP derived from a healthy cohort from...
Article
Aim I) to evaluate the impact of exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV) in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) compared with patients without EOV (N-EOV); II) to identify the influence of EOV persistence (P-EOV) and EOV disappearance (D-EOV) during...
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Background Heart failure (HF) is a global leading cause of mortality despite implementation of guideline directed therapy which warrants a need for novel treatment strategies. Proof-of-concept clinical trials of anakinra, a recombinant human Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, have shown promising results in patients with HF. Method We desig...
Article
Background Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at risk for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether attending a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program can attenuate this risk is unclear. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients who were free of pre-existing AF and referred to CR after coronary revascularization betwee...
Article
A sedentary lifestyle is prevalent among patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with poor prognosis and survival, possibly owing to the displacement of health-enhancing behaviors, such as physical activity (PA). However, there is limited evidence examining the displacement effects of reducing duration of sedentary time (ST) on clinical...
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Aims To examine long-term changes in lifestyle and exercise capacity of older patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) involved in an innovative centre- and home-based exercise-based secondary prevention program. Methods A sample of 118 patients with ACS (age 76 [72–80] years) was analysed. Long-term changes in self-reported weekly...
Article
Overweight and obesity adversely impact cardiac structure and function, affecting systolic and diastolic ventricular function. Epidemiologic studies have documented an obesity paradox in large heart failure cohorts, where overweight and obese individuals with established heart failure have a better short- and medium-term prognosis compared with lea...
Article
Alongside the tensions brought forth by the pandemic, such as health and safety concerns from transmission and economic insecurity, there was also a rise in racial and social tension, bringing issues of equity and justice to the forefront. Consequently, there has been a call for reform and an urgency for change in legal, political, economic, and he...
Article
Background Growing evidence supports the use of prehabilitation before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to improve surgical outcomes, but its feasibility and impact on risk factor management in real-world clinical settings remain unknown. This observational study examined prehabilitation utilization and its association with postoperative card...
Article
The United States (US) is similar to most industrialized countries in that it falls short on many of the basic metrics related to cardiovascular and overall health. These metrics include nutritional patterns, levels of physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and prevalence of overweight and obesity. These issues are even more appar...
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COVID-19 has to this point led to more than 5 million deaths and has imposed numerous measures restricting populations worldwide, including Latin America (LA). However, analyzing COVID-19 from the perspective of a syndemic, it demonstrates the relationship between the interaction of multiple comorbidities and the increase of contagion in people who...
Article
The prevalence of unhealthy living behaviors is largely driven by environments that support them and has become a key concern at global, national, and individual (patient) levels. Healthy Living Medicine offers a compelling path forward to move people towards healthy living behaviors and better health outcomes when complemented by socially just and...
Article
Background: Long-COVID diagnosis is prominent, and our attention must support those experiencing debilitating and long-standing symptoms. To establish patient pathways, we must consider the societal and economic impacts of sustained COVID-19. Accordingly, we sought to determine the pertinent areas impacting quality of life (QoL) following a COVID-...
Article
Objective To develop a prediction model for survival of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) using health conditions beyond cardiovascular risk factors, including maximal exercise capacity, through the application of machine learning (ML) techniques. Methods Analysis of data from a retrospective cohort linking clinical, administrative, and...
Article
Aim To identify better predictors of early death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using potential predictors derived from key measures obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Methods This is a prospective, cohort study with 42-month follow-up in 126 COPD patients. Every patient completed the clinical eva...
Article
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade is an anti-inflammatory treatment that may affect exercise capacity in heart failure (HF). We evaluated patient-reported perceptions of exertion and dyspnea at submaximal exercise during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of IL-1 blockade in patients...
Article
Introduction: The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) for stratifying mortality risk and guiding clinical care in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well-established. An American Heart Association Scientific Statement suggests routine clinical assessment of CRF using non-exercise prediction equations when direct assessment from...
Article
Background: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are ideal treatment settings for atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factor management, yet few CR curricula include a behavioral weight loss treatment (BWLT) component for patients with comorbid obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ² ). Aim: To identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and preferences regarding CR wit...
Article
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are recommended standard-of-care by all major cardiovascular medicine professional organizations. Exercise training is the cornerstone for CR, with aerobic training being the primary form of training. The benefits of exercise training are multiple; however, improved cardiorespiratory fitness is of utmost importa...
Article
Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have long been the focus of preventive strategies. The impact of family stress, depression, anxiety, hostility, pessimism, job strain, social isolation, lack of purpose in life and social support, are well recognized risks for CVD development, however they are under-appreciated in clinical p...
Article
Background Past studies have documented the ability of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to detect cardiac dysfunction in symptomatic patients with coronary artery disease. Firefighters are at high risk for work-related cardiac events. This observational study investigated the association of subclinical cardiac dysfunction detected by cardiopulmonar...
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Aim To evaluate the effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on (1) metabolic, ventilatory, and hemodynamic responses; and (2) cerebral (Cox), respiratory, and peripheral oxygenation when compared with SHAM ventilation during the high-intensity exercise in patients with coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and...
Article
Full-text available
Our aim was to evaluate: (1) the prevalence of coexistence of heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the studied patients; (2) the impact of HF + COPD on exercise performance and contrasting exercise responses in patients with only a diagnosis of HF or COPD; and (3) the relationship between clinical characteristics a...
Article
Obesity affects 600 million people globally and increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Bariatric surgery is an increasingly popular therapeutic intervention for morbid obesity to induce rapid weight loss and reduce obesity-related comorbidities. However, some bariatric surgery patients, following what...
Article
Anticipation of stress induces physiological, behavioral and cognitive adjustments that are required for an appropriate response to the upcoming situation. Additional research examining the response of cardiopulmonary parameters and stress hormones during anticipation of stress in different chronic stress adaptive models is needed. As an addition t...
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Introduction Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be a useful resource to treat acute respiratory failure (ARF), which occurs in patients with COVID-19. However, it is important to consider that there are still no clinical studies that have verified the safety of its use in increase of contamination. Areas covered Given the potential benefits and si...
Article
Hypothesis: There is limited understanding on the potential differences in the pathophysiology between de-novo heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and acute on chronic HFrEF. Objective: the aim of this study was to assess differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) parameters between de-novo heart failure and acute on chronic HF...
Article
Background The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for stratifying risk and guiding clinical decisions in patients with cardiovascular disease is well‐established. To optimize the clinical value of cardiorespiratory fitness, normative reference standards are essential. The purpose of this report is to extend previous cardiorespiratory fitness n...
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Full-text available
Purpose of Review In the United States (US), 46% of adults have hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg). Approximately, 16% of patients with hypertension have apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) and the incidence of true resistant hypertension (RHT) is thought to be much lower (~ 2%). These...
Article
There is a reciprocal relationship between common health conditions encountered in physical therapist practice, disability, and healthy living factors, such as physical inactivity, blood pressure, sleep quality, diet, and obesity. This relationship is apparent across all practice settings. Physical therapists are well positioned in the health care...
Article
Objective To provide updated reference standards for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) for the United States derived from cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing when using a treadmill or cycle ergometer. Patients and Methods Thirty-four laboratories in the United States contributed data to the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National...
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Full-text available
Open Access link https://rdcu.be/czPSa Purpose: Blood pressure, cardiac output, and ventricular volumes correlate to various subject features such as age, body size, and exercise intensity. The purpose of this study is to quantify this correlation through regression modeling.Methods We conducted a systematic review to compile reference data of he...
Article
BACKGROUND Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) reduces mortality among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), yet participation rates are suboptimal particularly among women. Symptoms of anxiety and depression are more common in females with CAD and may interfere with CR participation. This retrospective analysis of data investigated sex differences...
Article
Increased sedentary behavior has been an unintended consequence of social and physical distancing restrictions needed to limit transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting, reclining, or lying posture....
Article
Background Cancer survivors are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs improve CVD risk factors, including cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The purpose of this study was to investigate: (1) the association between CR completion and survival, and (2) whe...
Article
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling refers to a process by which increased LV relative wall thickness alters myocardial geometry, resulting in reduced LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and stroke volume (SV). While the degree of concentric remodeling is a negative prognostic factor in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
Article
Heart disease and stroke are the first and fifth leading causes of death in the United States, respectively. Employers have a unique opportunity to promote cardiovascular health, because >60% of US adults are employed, and most spend half of their waking hours at work. Despite the scope of the opportunity, <1 in 5 businesses implement evidence‐base...
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Intermittent fasting (IF) has recently gained popularity, and has been used for centuries in many religious practices. The Ramadan fasting is a mandatory form of IF practiced by millions of healthy adult Muslims globally for a whole lunar month every year. In Islam, the “Sunna” also encourages Muslims to practice IF all along the year (e.g.; two da...
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Full-text available
It has been established that blacks have higher overall incidence and prevalence of hypertension compared to their white counterparts. However, the maximum blood pressure (BP) response of blacks to exercise has not been characterized. A total of 5996 apparently healthy men from the Fitness Registry and Importance of Exercise: A National Database (F...
Article
Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This causality dilemma was first proposed by the Greek biographer Plutarch in the 1st century CE. While the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and chronic disease is not always a certainty, and genetic predisposition can independently lead to premature chronic disease, the likelihood of d...
Article
There is limited understanding on the potential differences in the pathophysiology between de novo heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and acute on chronic HFrEF. The aim of this study was to assess differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) parameters between de novo heart failure and acute on chronic HFrEF using cardiopulmona...
Preprint
Aim: Our aim was to evaluate: 1) the prevalence of coexistence of heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the studied population; 2) the impact of HF+COPD on exercise performance and contrasting exercise responses in patients with only a diagnosis of HF or COPD; and 3) the relationship between clinical characteristics...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 disease has been a problem in today’s society, which has worldwide effects on different areas, especially on the economy; also, from a health perspective, the disease affects the daily life quality. Physical activity is one major positive factor with regard to enhancing life quality, as it can improve the whole psychological, social, and p...
Article
Full-text available
Bariatric surgery (BS) is a successful, long-lasting treatment option for obese. The early postoperative (PO) period is followed by dietary restriction and physical inactivity, leading to declines in muscle mass and functional capacity. Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) may be a feasible and potential early rehabilitation strategy post BS....
Article
Peak oxygen pulse (O2 pulsepeak) may have predictive utility for health outcomes yet, presently, has only been examined in men and only using a single baseline measure. Purpose The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between O2 pulsepeak and all-cause mortality in apparently healthy women and men. A secondary aim was...
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Full-text available
Background Understanding the basis of the phenotypic variation in Gaucher's disease (GD) has proven to be challenging for efficient treatment. The current study examined cardiopulmonary characteristics of patients with GD type 1. Methods Twenty Caucasian subjects (8/20 female) with diagnosed GD type I (GD-S) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy con...
Article
People with spinal cord injury (SCI) face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including greater risk of poor COVID-19-related outcomes, increased social isolation, and restricted access to important services. Furthermore, COVID-19 related restrictions have decreased already low levels of physical activity (PA) in this population. Theref...
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Full-text available
Background Respiratory muscle unloading through proportional assist ventilation (PAV) may enhance leg oxygen delivery, thereby speeding off-exercise oxygen uptake ( V . ⁢ O 2 ) kinetics in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods Ten male patients (HFrEF = 26 ± 9%, age 50 ± 13 years, and body mas...