Rosemary Ricciardelli

Rosemary Ricciardelli
Memorial University of Newfoundland · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

188
Publications
85,454
Reads
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2,410
Citations
Introduction
Rosemary Ricciardelli, Ph.D., is a Professor of Sociology, the Coordinator for Criminology, and Co-Coordinator for Police Studies at Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Position
  • Professor
July 2017 - July 2018
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2013 - present
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (188)
Article
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Driven by overwhelming numerical dominance of women in the role of nurses, nursing profession over the last two centuries has been largely scripted with gendered characterizations. However, nuances that shape the language and wording choices that are evoked when describing the stereotypes targeting male nurses remain relatively unexplored. Our curr...
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Public safety personnel (PSP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs) which can impact mental health. To help mitigate the negative effects of PPTEs, PSP commonly rely on peer support. Peer support generally refers to a wide variety of mental health resources that offer social or emotional assistance to a peer...
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Correctional work includes dealing with numerous stressors that compromise mental health. Yet, correctional scholars have dedicated limited attention to assessing the mental health support available to correctional officers at work. Therefore, we explore how officers view mental health programs, especially the Employee Assistant Program (EAP) and t...
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Correctional work includes dealing with a variety of occupational stressors and potentially psychologically traumatic events that can compromise the well-being of prison employees. In the current study, we unpack interpretations of stigma related to mental health and treatment seeking among correctional officers working in Canada’s federal prison s...
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Exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events for correctional workers is high. However, the mechanisms driving the high prevalence are relatively unexplained. Using data from a cross-sectional, online survey of correctional service workers ( n = 845) in Ontario, Canada, collected in 2017–2018, we assess the prevalence of mental disorder...
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In the current study, we quantified the mean stress levels of 43 occupational stressors for 868 Correctional Workers (CWs) and analyzed the relationships between occupational stressors, exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs), and mental health disorders. Our findings emphasize the importance of the occupational environment...
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In the course of their duties, correctional employees face exposure to a variety of potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). Recent research points to an array of consequences of work experiences on the psychological well-being of correctional staff, including the development of mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress diso...
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Mental disorders are prevalent among public safety personnel (PSP) yet many people working across public safety professions appear reluctant to seek care for mental health-related concerns. Given the prevalence and impact of compromised mental health on these populations, finding ways to increase use of psychological support for police staff and of...
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Drawing on interview data with over 50 male former prisoners in Ontario, Canada, we examine male ex-prisoners’ narratives of change within prison settings. Specifically, we focus on how ex-prisoners talk about change to self and their persona, as they reflect back on both their pre-prison selves and the ways they believe prison changed them. We fin...
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Public safety personnel (PSP), including police officers, often work in high-stress environments that expose them to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTE). As a result, PSP are at a higher risk than most other occupational roles for the development of new or worsening mental health concerns, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...
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Aim To explore psychiatric nurses’ and other psychiatric workers’ understanding of trauma in the context of their relationships with the people they care for, and the effects on their mental health. Background Workplace violence in psychiatric hospitals can lead to mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Professional relat...
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Prisons and other correctional settings are spaces often marked by numerous sources of physical, psychological, and emotional insecurity. Researchers have consistently found correctional work to be associated with outcomes such as burnout, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Drawing on open-ended survey questions with correctional worker...
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Background Documentation of mental health care is a critical component of nursing practice. Despite being identified as playing a critical role, researchers continue to question the quality of nursing documentation and missing and/or inaccurate information. Purpose Our aim is to explore the content of nursing documentation among mental health nurs...
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Correctional services are plagued by poor staff retention, shortages, and high rates of turnover, which represent costly challenges for recruitment, training, and administration. Central to addressing challenges of correctional officer retention and staffing shortages is insight into what motivates individuals to pursue a career in correctional ser...
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Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders among Canadian police officers, treatment-seeking is lower than expected. Toward understanding how mental health services can be tailored for higher utilization by police, we aim to uncover factors that contribute to stigma and barriers to use, specifically within the context of group dynamics between...
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The Public Health Agency of Canada declared suicide a public health problem in Canada (2016). Employees working in correctional services, researchers find, experience high rates of life-time suicidal ideation in comparison to other public safety professionals and the general population. Suicide behaviours (i.e., ideation, planning, attempts, death)...
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among psychiatric workers is related to workplace violence and work-specific stress. We used quantitative and qualitative approaches to survey PTSD symptoms, critical events, chronic exposures, and occupational stress in 84 psychiatric workers. All but three had directly experienced critical events, over half ex...
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Reflecting on new trans prisoner placement policies within Canadian federal prisons, in light of recent changes instigated under the Canadian Liberal Trudeau government, we provide knowledge from cisgender correctional officer (CO) recruits regarding these policy changes and underscore their views of working with officers who identify as transgende...
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Correctional services, both institutional and within the community, are impacted by COVID-19. In the current paper, we focus on the current situation and examine the tensions around how COVID-19 has introduced new challenges while also exacerbating strains on the correctional system. Here, we make recommendations that are directly aimed at how corr...
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Correctional workers are at increased risk for a variety of mental disorders relative to the general population. The increased risk appears associated with frequent exposures to a variety of potentially psychologically traumatic events; however, the Job Demand-Control model and the Job Demand-Control-Support model posit operational (job content) an...
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"Addiction" to internet-connected technology continues to dominate media discourses of young people. Researchers have identified negative outcomes, including decreased mental health, resulting from anxieties related to technology, e.g., a fear of missing out and social connectivity related to online technologies. Not enough is known, however, regar...
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In the current article, we investigate the occupational stressors parole and probation officers working in provincial correctional services in Ontario, Canada experience. We examine four specific stressors that emerged thematically from participants’ open-ended survey responses, and conceptualize these as operational factors (i.e., the duties of th...
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Background: International estimates suggest that up to one in three public safety personnel experience one or more mental disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Canadian data have been sparse until very recently, and correctional officers and forensic psychiatric staff have rarely been included. Working as a correctional office...
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Recent Canadian research indicates 44.5% of public safety personnel (PSP) self-report symptoms consistent with at least one type of mental disorder; however, researchers have typically not focused on the mental wellness of civilians working within PSP sectors. Given that the number of civilians working in Canadian law enforcement organizations has...
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Prisons are increasingly recognized as emotional places, especially for frontline staff. Though sociological accounts of emotional labour in prisons acknowledges the potential for negative outcomes (e.g. burnout), little scholarly attention has investigated the potential for positive outcomes, particularly opportunities for staff to earn moral wage...
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In studying parole outcomes, researchers have pointed to the prominence of technical violations (e.g., breaches of release conditions) in contributing to high rates of custodial returns. In the current study, we contribute to a qualitative understanding of women’s returns to custody in the Canadian federal context. Drawing on casework documents, we...
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Despite attempts to rectify the injustices experienced by victims of sexual violence within the criminal justice system, unfounded rates for sexual violence remain high and many victims continue to feel disempowered and voiceless. In this context, police officers wrestle with how to support victims, while protecting those who may be falsely accused...
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Few researchers have empirically examined completed or attempted death by suicide in prison and, of the available research, most has been conducted in the United Kingdom. Our purpose in this article is to increase awareness and knowledge about “lives saved” in custody drawing on the voices of Canadian provincial and territorial correctional officer...
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Background Contributing to the literature on reintegration and community supervision, we consider the mental health experiences of women parolees and the implications for case management. Aims We consider the different ways mental health considerations are responded to by parole officers and case management staff, identifying areas of tension (e.g...
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Drawing on the accounts of female correctional officers working in Canadian prisons, we explore how gender identity influences the work orientations and social relationships of female officers and their interpretations of working with male and female prisoners. We suggest that female officers tend to pursue correctional work in a way that incorpora...
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Background Nurses are regularly exposed to diverse potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs) as a function of their work. Cumulative exposure to PPTEs can lead to clinically significant symptoms of mental disorders. Purpose We designed the current study to investigate the prevalence of different PPTEs among Canadian nurses and estimate...
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Despite a voluminous literature recognizing the challenges and stresses facing correctional officers, few programs exist to preventatively help correctional officers with their mental health, and of the existing programs few are designed specifically for correctional officers or have any evidence-based data available that speaks to their effectiven...
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One topic rarely discussed in the policing literature is driving-related accidents, injuries, and deaths, despite the fact that, for example, such deaths vastly outnumber gun-related fatalities for officers on active duty. There is even less literature on automobile-related incidents and deaths in relation to rural policing. Based on 14 focus group...
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The experiences of persons convicted or charged with sex‐related offences are informed by trends in how the sex offender population in society is defined and understood. I draw on data from in‐depth semi‐structured interviews with 100 Canadian provincial correctional officers to explore the harms tied to the framing of sex offenders in prison, incl...
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Contributing to the international literature on reintegration and parole governance, we examine the release experiences of women ( n=43) who served time in federal Canadian prison through a qualitative content analysis of casework documents. We show that the multiple stressors of release, combined with layers of social marginality, may render the “...
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Across societies labels rarely are met with the degree of contempt and hatred that has become inherent in the label of “sex offender,” applied to those who offend the morals, ethics, and values of citizens because of the actions (or sexual affinities) in which they are believed to have engaged. In the current article, we examine the diverse ways th...
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Canadian public safety personnel (e.g., correctional workers, firefighters) experience potential stressors as a function of their occupation. Occupational stressors can include organizational (e.g., job context) and operational (e.g., job content) elements. Operational stressors (e.g., exposures to potentially psychologically traumatic events) may...
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Mental health challenges appear to be extremely prolific and challenging for correctional service employees, affecting persons working in community, institutional, and administrative correctional services. Focusing specifically on correctional workers employed by the Ontario Ministry of the Solicitor General, we shed light on their interpretations...
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In the current article, we document the changing roles and responsibilities related to the implementation of the Canadian Youth Criminal Justice Act ( YCJA). Police officers’ experiences and responses to the implementation of the YCJA reveal a disparity between the officers’ idealised role and their actual tasks involving youth. Drawing on Bourdieu...
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Correctional officers are tasked with and committed to preserving life, yet deaths do occur in custody. Moreover, it is said deaths that receive public attention and media coverage. In the current article, we examine the complexities around the preservation of life as experienced during correctional work. We focus on the discrepancies between publi...
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Poor sleep quality is associated with numerous mental health concerns and poorer overall physical health. Sleep disturbances are commonly reported by public safety personnel (PSP) and may contribute to the risk of developing mental disorders or exacerbate mental disorder symptoms. The current investigation was designed to provide estimates of sleep...
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Aims and Objectives Our aim was to examine the notes produced by nurses, paying specific attention to the style in which these notes are written and observing whether there are concerns of distortions and biases. Background Clinicians are responsible to document and record accurately. However, nurses’ attitudes towards their patients can influence...
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Correctional service employees in Ontario, Canada (n = 1487) began an online survey available from 2017 to 2018 designed to assess the prevalence and correlates of mental health challenges. Participants who provided data for the current study (n = 1032) included provincial staff working in institutional wellness (e.g., nurses) (n = 71), training (e...
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AIMS AND OBJECIVES: Our aim was to examine the notes produced by nurses, paying specific attention to the style in which these notes are written and observing whether there are concerns of distortions and biases. BACKGROUND: Clinicians are responsible to document and record accurately. However, nurses’ attitudes towards their patients can influen...
Article
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Background: Recent investigations have demonstrated a significant prevalence of mental health disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian public safety personnel, including police officers. What remains unknown is the relationship between mental disorders and suicide among sw...
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Trust is crucial to the proper functioning of organizations. Trust has been examined at many levels, and researchers have recently expanded the study of trust to include areas ranging from the neuroscience of trust to the influence of institutional trust on product sales and marketing. While academic interest in trust has grown, research on trust a...
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Today, across all aspects of societal living, risk assessment is an ever-present exercise. Pervasiveness of technology in the everyday life has caused the world of ‘risk’ to change tremendously, and this is particularly true for childbearing females. The social construction of pregnancy and childbirth as, arguably, medical events that necessitate m...
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In an effort to extend understanding of the employment concerns faced by former prisoners released into the community, we draw from the voices of 24 individuals released from federal prison in Canada. We explore how the stigma imposed on individuals with prior experiences of incarceration interacts with the employment programming government and com...
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Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers and officers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers, and public safety communications officials (e.g., call center operators/dispatchers)) are regularly exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). PSP also experience other occupational stressors, including organizatio...
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Drawing upon semi‐structured interviews with correctional officer recruits in training (n = 55), we reflect on recruit interpretations of transgender (trans) prisoner placement within federal prisons in light of recent changes instigated by Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau. Recognising that prison is a carceral and gender binary space, we assert tha...
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While the issue of trust is theoretically essential for the effective operation of correctional organizations, few researchers have examined how the different types of trust are related to salient outcomes for staff. In this study, we examined the effects of coworker, supervisor, and management trust on the job involvement, job satisfaction, and or...
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Background: Many public safety personnel (PSP) experience trauma directly or indirectly in their occupational role, yet there remain barriers to accessing care or seeking help. Aims: To understand how PSP interpret different potentially traumatic events and how perceived eligibility for being traumatized is determined among PSP. Methods: We an...
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Internationally, researchers studying correctional officer (CO) work have examined CO self-presentation, staff-prisoner relationships, and emotional labor. We build on this research by drawing on occupational literature to examine officer mental health outcomes that result from correctional work. We examine the impact of working in prison on COs' w...
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In comparison with Canada, the more pronounced ability to acquire special weapons and tactics (SWAT) equipment in the United States suggests the resulting proliferation of SWAT teams with adequate material resources is likely to continue. This proliferation has stimulated media and public discourses against the “militarization” of police. In Canada...
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Objective: There is an increased incidence of some mental health disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some members of the military and in some public safety personnel (PSP) such as firefighters, police officers, paramedics, and dispatchers. Upon retirement from the armed forces, many individuals go on to second careers as PSP...
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Correctional Services Canada (CSC) employees include those working in institutional corrections (e.g., correctional officers in prisons), community corrections (e.g., community parole officers), and administrative corrections (e.g., employees in regional or national headquarters). Correctional workers appear at elevated risk for mental disorders, d...
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Purpose Digital evidence is now infused in many (or arguably most) cases of sexual assault, which has refigured investigative tools, policing strategies and sources of cynicism for those working in sex crime units. Although cynicism, both its sources and affects, is widely studied among scholars of work and policing, little is known about how polic...
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As a key indicator of correctional performance, returns to custody are a topic of much empirical inquiry, yet there remains considerable debate regarding questions around who returns and why, as well as the factors that support or impede successful post-release outcomes. Research examining the post-release trajectories of federal releasees in the C...
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Aim/Purpose To inclusively consider the diversity within student gender-identification at post-secondary institutions, we investigate expanding gender self-identification options on admissions forms; often the first point of student contact with campuses. Background Even if inspired and motivated by inclusion, many of the gender categories in use...
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Recent recognition that public safety personnel (PSP) have a high prevalence of mental disorders has initiated a discussion around PSP mental readiness for their work. The discussions have raised new interest in potential protective factors or characteristics of PSP that may be identifiable at recruitment and used to mitigate mental disorders among...
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This article presents findings from a case study examining youth perceptions of the police in rural areas of Eastern Canada. A total of 20 semistructured focus group discussions were conducted with 60 youth from Canadian rural Atlantic areas, who were purposively recruited, with groups stratified by age and gender. Discussions centered on role tens...
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Background: In response to child victims of sex crimes, Canadian police agencies are required to work collaboratively with child victim oriented community organizations. Such collaborations involve the navigation of potentially competing objectives of partner agencies. Objective: In our research, we examine police interpretations of collaborativ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the social stigmatization of the formerly incarcerated identity and how this affects employment post-release. The authors consider the characteristics of this identity and the identity management strategies that individuals draw from as they navigate employment. Design/methodology/approach The auth...
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Canada’s Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) heralded many changes in the treatment of youth within the justice system, particularly in regard to holding youth “accountable” and the use of “meaningful consequences.” Under the former Young Offenders Act (YOA) far more youth were given custodial sentences, while under the YCJA youth custody rates have...
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Digital evidence, once regarded as existing only in a portion of criminal cases, in our digitized world commonly appears within all crime categories and is a factor in many (or arguably most) cases of sexual assault. In this article, we draw from 70 interviews with sex crime investigators from across Canada to demonstrate that the infusion of digit...
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Job stress has many negative effects on correctional staff. We proposed and tested a path model of transactional, procedural, and distributive justice’s direct and indirect effects on the job stress of 322 surveyed correctional staff, including 219 correctional officers, at a maximum security Southern prison. Findings indicated that procedural, dis...
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In public safety, individuals working behind what are often traditionally thought of as the frontlines, such as dispatchers, 911 operators, administrators, health professionals, and civilian police officers, as well as non-deployed police and correctional officers, firefighters, and paramedics, provide invaluable and needed support for frontline em...
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While previous research identifies skepticism and some animosity among students towards school-based cyber-safety programs, drawing from focus group discussions with Canadian teens, this paper contributes to unpacking reasons for both support for ‘what works’ and antagonism for what is perceived to be lacking. Our findings reveal support for repeat...
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Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g. correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police) are frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Several mental health training program categories (e.g. critical incident stress management (CISM), debriefing, peer support, psychoeducation, mental health first aid, Road to Mental...
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The recent rise of so-called ‘surveillance schools’ is often justified given the need to engender a safe and secure educational environment for students—a fusion of pedagogical and security motives. This article contributes knowledge regarding the attitudes and lived experiences of teenagers in response to school-based surveillance. Focus groups ce...