Rosanna Breaux

Rosanna Breaux
Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) | VT · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

80
Publications
19,573
Reads
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1,518
Citations
Citations since 2017
66 Research Items
1466 Citations
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Introduction
My research focuses on the emotional and social functioning of children and adolescents, particularly those with ADHD, with a focus on emotion regulation. Additionally, I am interested in understanding the role parents play in shaping children and adolescent's social-emotional development. I am currently working to evaluate and disseminate the RELAX intervention which targets emotional dysregulation and interpersonal conflict in adolescents.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - May 2019
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Statistics in Psychology (Psych 240)
August 2017 - July 2019
Virginia Commonwealth University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 2016 - June 2017
Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
Position
  • Psychology Pre-Doctoral Intern
Education
August 2011 - September 2017
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2007 - May 2011
Carnegie Mellon University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Theory and research suggest that parents' reactions to children's emotions play a critical role in teaching children effective emotion regulation (ER) skills, but no studies have directly examined the role that parent emotion socialization plays in the development of ER in children with ADHD. Gaining insight into the causes of impaired ER, particul...
Article
The purpose of this study was to refine and conduct a pilot evaluation of the RELAX (Regulating Emotions Like An eXpert) intervention for families of adolescents with ADHD. RELAX was refined based on 12 community clinicians’ feedback. RELAX was then implemented with 18 adolescents with ADHD and their caregivers (14 mothers, 3 fathers, 1 grandmother...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The impact of chronic stressors like the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be magnified in adolescents with pre-existing mental health risk, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined changes in and predictors of adolescent mental health from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Southeastern and...
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Objective. Researchers have speculated that the COVID-19 pandemic may expand the academic performance gap experienced by at-risk students. We examined learning experiences during the 2020-2021 school year and the impact the pandemic has had on high school student grade point average (GPA), including predictors of change in GPA from 2019-2020 to 202...
Article
Gender and sexual orientation diverse (GSD) individuals are at risk for negative social and psychological outcomes due to repeated marginalization. Identifying malleable individual factors to target in treatment may help buffer against societal risks. Latent profile analysis (LPA) explored associations between self-regulation, adverse, and resilien...
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Full-text available
The current prospective longitudinal study evaluated brooding rumination as an intervening mechanism of the association between COVID-19-related stress and internalizing symptoms during the first year of the pandemic. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status and adolescent sex were tested as moderators of the indirect effect. Adolesce...
Article
Working parents of children with special needs (i.e., emotional, behavioral, and/or learning difficulties) face recurrent stressors that can make balancing work and family demands difficult. This strain has been magnified during the COVID-19 pandemic, as these parents often need to take on greater responsibility in supporting their children’s remot...
Article
Objective: This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of and changes in psychological trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants included 236 adolescents (130 males; Mage = 16.74 years in spring 2020; 49.6% diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 16.1% diagnosed with an anxiety or depressive disorder) in...
Article
This study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety symptoms from before to during the first 6 months of the COVID‐19 pandemic in a sample of 1,339 adolescents (9–18 years old, 59% female) from three countries. We also examined if age, race/ethnicity, disease burden, or strictness of government restrictions moderated change in symptoms. D...
Article
Identifying factors that influence adolescent intentions for COVID-19 vaccination is essential for developing strategic interventions to increase uptake, particularly in subgroups of at-risk adolescents. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence is characterized by difficulties regulating attention and behavior, social impairme...
Article
Objective This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of available pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for irritability among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), and/or severe mood dysregulation...
Article
Objective This study examined emotion socialization and neural activity during frustration as predictors of emotion regulation (ER) difficulties, and the interplay of emotion socialization and neural activity, in children with and without hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I). Method At Time 1, neural activity (P1, N2, P3) during a frustration task, H/I...
Article
Objective Community belongingness has been shown to be related to mental health outcomes in college students; however, little work has evaluated whether community belongingness impacts treatment change, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, when social isolation and mental health concerns are exacerbated. Accordingly, the current study evaluated...
Preprint
Identifying factors that influence adolescent intentions for COVID-19 vaccination is essential for developing strategic interventions to increase uptake, particularly in subgroups of at-risk adolescents. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence is characterized by difficulties regulating attention and behavior, social impairme...
Preprint
Among the many impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most dramatic was the immediate closure of in-person schooling in spring 2020 when parents were faced with much greater responsibility in supporting their children’s learning. Despite this, few studies have examined parents’ own perspectives of this experience. The aims of this preliminary...
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Full-text available
The majority of the emotion socialization behaviors (ESB) literature has focused on community samples and socialization of negative emotions. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that ESB are also critical in setting the foundations for the healthy development of positive emotions, with implications for developmental psychopathology. We co...
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Approximately a third of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant irritability; despite this, no study has reviewed whether interventions for youth with ADHD can improve irritability. This mini review sought to address this gap in the literature by discussing existing pharmacological and p...
Article
Empirical knowledge on what specific aspects of mental health are associated with spirituality is limited, and explanations for the mechanisms underlying this association is scarce. Furthermore, there is limited research on this association among individuals from non-Christian religious backgrounds and non-Western countries. The current study exami...
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Full-text available
Emotion regulation (ER) is the ability to monitor, evaluate, and modify one’s emotional responses to be appropriate for environmental demands. Poor ER has been considered a transdiagnostic risk factor for a range of internalizing and externalizing disorders and overall decreased well-being in adolescents. A range of evidence-based interventions exi...
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Although parent reactions to children’s negative emotions are important to the development of adolescent social and emotional functioning, there is a lack of research examining this aspect of parenting in samples that include youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study addresses this gap in the research by examining the i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying factors that influence adolescent intentions for COVID-19 vaccination is essential for developing strategic interventions to increase uptake, particularly in subgroups of at-risk adolescents. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence is characterized by difficulties regulating attention and behavior, social impairme...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding factors that foster resilience and buffer against the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 is critical to inform efforts to promote adjustment, reduce risk, and improve care, particularly for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders. This prospective longitudinal study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of the CO...
Article
Developmental research suggests that parent emotion socialization plays a critical role in children’s development of emotionrelated skills and their risk for psychopathology. Adaptive emotion socialization practices can shape children’s capacities to understand and regulate their own emotions, and when maladaptive, these practices can confer risk f...
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Full-text available
Regulating Emotions Like An eXpert (RELAX) is a group-based intervention that targets emotion dysregulation (ED) and interpersonal conflict among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study is a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of RELAX across in-person and telehealth...
Article
To date, only three studies have examined the role of emotion socialization in the emotional functioning of youth with neurodevelopmental disorders. As such, this review article with pilot data sought to provide a call to action and first step in addressing this limited research body. Pilot data was collected with 18 adolescents (Mage = 13.5, SD =...
Article
Full-text available
Addressing the complex homework and organization problems faced by students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) must be balanced with ensuring that interventions are feasible to implement. The Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention was developed to be a brief intervention implemented in typical school setti...
Preprint
Understanding factors that foster resilience and buffer against the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 is critical to inform efforts to promote adjustment, reduce risk, and improve care, particularly for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders. This prospective longitudinal study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of the CO...
Article
Full-text available
Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns were raised that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be particularly impacted by the coronavirus disease and its associated public health initiatives involving school closures, lockdowns, and social distancing (Aishworiya & Kang, 2020; Constantino et al., 2020; Holmes et al.,...
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Full-text available
Study Objectives To prospectively examine changes in adolescent sleep before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without ADHD. Methods Participants were 122 adolescents (ages 15-17; 61% male; 48% with ADHD). Parents reported on adolescents’ sleep duration and difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS); adolescents re...
Preprint
Study Objectives: To prospectively examine changes in adolescent sleep before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without ADHD. Methods: Participants were 122 adolescents (ages 15-17; 61% male; 48% with ADHD). Parents reported on adolescents’ sleep duration and difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS); adolescents r...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety symptoms from before to during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic in a large, diverse, international sample of 1,339 adolescents (9-18 years, 59% female). We also examined if age, race/ethnicity, disease burden, or strictness of government restrictions moderated change in sympt...
Article
Theories suggest that a transaction between child biological vulnerability and parent emotion socialization underlies the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. Yet, few studies have examined the interaction between these factors prospectively in at-risk samples. Consequently, this study tested whether parental reactions to...
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Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, a major educational shift took place—the transition from face-to-face instruction to remote learning. Although this transition impacted all learners, it is speculated that groups of vulnerable youth (i.e., those with neurodevelopmental disorders, in rural areas, from low-income families) would demonstrate significant d...
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Purpose This study examined remote learning practices and difficulties during initial stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Participants were 238 adolescents (132 males; 118 with ADHD) aged 15.64–17.99 years and their parents. Adolescents and parent...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents tremendous challenges to child and adolescent health. It is expected that the COVID-19 crisis, including the disease and prolonged social distancing, will have a major impact on youth well-being. It is easy to envision how COVID-19 will be the impetus for a host of lingering negative outcome...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare caffeine consumption in the morning, afternoon, and evening in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examine associations with sleep functioning. Methods: Participants were 302 adolescents (ages 12-14) with (N = 140) and without (N = 162) ADHD. Adole...
Article
Introduction: This study examined whether adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differed in affect variability and whether variability in positive and negative affect was associated with functional outcomes. Method: Participants were 302 adolescents (12-14 years, Mage=13.17, 55% male; 54% diagnosed with ADH...
Article
Objective: Examine individual factors associated with peer victimization (PV) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the association between PV and educational outcomes. Method: Participants were 121 adolescents ( M age = 13.62, SD = 1.03; 89% boys) with diagnosed ADHD. Using path analysis, we tested whet...
Article
Girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk for peer difficulties that often persist into adolescence and adulthood and portend risk for additional difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, and borderline personality disorder. However, very little research has examined interventions that address the widespread peer...
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Full-text available
The present study examined the impact of parental knowledge and attitudes about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and parental perceptions of treatment response on the utilization of behavioral and pharmacological ADHD treatments, using data from a longitudinal treatment study designed to assess physical growth in children with ADHD....
Article
Objective: We examined behavioral and neural markers of emotion competence in young children as predictors of psychopathology, and as mediators of the relation between hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) and psychopathology. Method: At Time 1 (T1), children ( n = 49; ages 4–7 years) with and without H/I symptoms completed a frustration task. Frustratio...
Article
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used to assess affect expression. Shortened and adolescent versions of the measure have been created, such as the 10-item PANAS for Children (PANAS-C). However, affect expression often involves substantial intraindividual variability, and no research has examined within-person differ...
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Some authors hypothesize that autism in children from orphanages results from neglect, which has been referred to as “quasi-autistic pattern” and “post-institutional autistic syndrome.” However, studies of children who have been neglected show even higher rates of ADHD, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, anxiety, and depression than rates...
Article
Applying the affective dimension of psychopathy to youth has advanced understanding of conduct problems in youth, leading to suggestions that other aspects of psychopathy may do the same. This was addressed in the present study by examining the structure and validity of psychopathic traits in elementary-age children as rated by mothers and teachers...
Article
Background: Prior studies examining the sleep of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have relied on mean values such as average sleep duration, which masks intraindividual variability (IIV). The objective was to investigate whether adolescents with ADHD have greater IIV of sleep/wake patterns than adolescen...
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Full-text available
Aggressive and defiant behaviors in students are costly to schools, teachers, and students. In this paper, we summarize findings from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and meta-reviews that examined school-based interventions for aggressive and defiant behaviors in students. Results of the review suggest that school-based interventions produce sig...
Article
Objective: The present study evaluated the prevalence of past suicidal ideation (SI), plan, and attempt in college students with ADHD (N = 102) compared to a matched control (N = 102). Predictors of SI, plan, and attempts, were examined. Participants: Study participants were first year college students at a large Southeastern university who comp...
Article
Objectives: This study used a multi-informant approach to examine differences in types and rates of technology used by adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associations between technology use and sleep/daytime sleepiness, and whether technology use was differentially related to sleep/daytime sleepiness in a...
Article
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative importance of adolescent and parent skills acquired during participation in the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention in predicting intervention response. A sample of 111 middle school students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (66% male; Mage = 11.99,...
Article
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) consists of symptoms of slowness, sluggishness, daydreaming, and low motivation. SCT has been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing symptoms, and daytime sleepiness. Although there is clear evidence that SCT and ADHD symptoms are distinct constructs, the distinction between SCT, anxi...
Article
In the present study, we sought to examine response trajectories to brief (11-week) school-based homework interventions and factors that may help schools predict responses. Participants included 222 middle-school students (72% boys; M <sub>age</sub> = 12.00 years, SD = 1.02) who had been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...
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Full-text available
Reciprocal relations between children’s conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and parenting behaviors were examined across the preschool years. Participants were 199 children (M = 44.26 months, SD = 3.37; 92 girls) and their 199 mothers and 158 fathers. CD symptoms were assessed via structured interviews; parenting was assessed via observational and self-...
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Full-text available
The importance of diagnostic, demographic, and neurocognitive correlates of dysgraphia in 1006 students 6–16 years was determined. Children with ADHD or autism (n = 831) and neurotypical children (n = 175) were administered the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), Wechsler subscales, and reading and math tests. IQ was the strongest...
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Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the importance of therapeutic processes in two brief school-based psychosocial treatments targeting homework problems in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as delivered by school mental health professionals. Method: A sample of 222 middle school students (72% male; Mage = 12.00 years, SD = 1.0...
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Full-text available
The present study examined the bidirectional relation between family functioning and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 197 (110 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.14 months, SD = 3.43; 60% White) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year lon...
Article
Objective: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. Method: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 ye...
Article
This study examined whether measures of children’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children’s social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9–13years) completed a peerrejection taskwhile their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity(RSA-R) and skin conductance...
Article
The DSM-5 divides DSM-IV reactive attachment disorder (RAD) into RAD (formerly RAD-inhibited type) and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED, formerly RAD-disinhibited type). RAD and DSED are rare, understudied, and controversial disorders. Research demonstrates considerable comorbidity and conduct problems in RAD, which strikingly is not m...
Article
Objective: Prevalence of dysgraphia by age across all grade levels was determined in students with ADHD or autism. Method: Referred children with normal intelligence and ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, or autism ( N = 1,034) were administered the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (...
Article
Background: DSM-5 Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are rare, understudied, and controversial disorders. Methods: Comorbidity in children diagnosed with RAD or DSED was compared with comorbidity in ADHD and autism to determine if RAD/DSED comorbidity differed from that for the two most common d...
Article
The present study examined whether children with elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms display a unique pattern of emotion dysregulation as indexed by both parent report and physiological reactivity during experiences of failure. A sample of 61 children (9 to 13 years; M = 11.62, SD = 1.29; 48 % male) with and without cl...
Article
The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with...
Article
Although evidence suggests that executive functioning (EF) impairments are implicated in physically aggressive behavior (e.g., hitting) these cognitive impairments have rarely been examined with regard to relational aggression (e.g., gossip, systematic exclusion). Studies also have not examined if EF impairments underlie the expression of aggressio...
Article
The present study examined if a social positive illusory bias (PIB) is: a) simply a reflection of low adult-rated social acceptance, b) evident when children’s perceived social acceptance is measured implicitly, and c) directly relates to impaired executive functioning (EF). Participants were 8 to 12 year-old children (N = 120; 55 boys and 65 girls...
Article
This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalist...
Article
The present study examined preschool neuropsychological measures as predictors of school-age attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 168 children (91 males) who completed neuropsychological measures at ages 3 and 4, and who were evaluated for ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder at age 6. The Conners’ Kiddie Continu...
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Full-text available
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent m...
Article
This study expands on prior research suggesting that children who either over- or under-estimate their social competence relative to others' reports are more likely to be aggressive. Linear and curvilinear associations between biased social self-perceptions and forms (physical vs. relational) and functions (proactive vs. reactive) of aggression wer...
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The present study examined the relation between retrospectively reported parental emotion socialization practices and emerging adults’ mental health across four ethnic groups. Participants were 112 European American, 89 Latino/a American, 82 African American/Black, and 83 Asian American emerging adults. Participants completed questionnaires assessi...