Ronan Connolly

Ronan Connolly
Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences (CERES)

PhD

About

28
Publications
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443
Citations

Publications

Publications (28)
Article
Full-text available
The widely used Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly temperature dataset is available in two formats - non-homogenized and homogenized. Since 2011, this homogenized dataset has been updated almost daily by applying the "Pairwise Homogenization Algorithm" (PHA) to the non-homogenized datasets. Previous studies found that the PHA can...
Article
Full-text available
The widely used Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly temperature dataset is available in two formats—non-homogenized and homogenized. Since 2011, this homogenized dataset has been updated almost daily by applying the “Pairwise Homogenization Algorithm” (PHA) to the non-homogenized datasets. Previous studies found that the PHA can pe...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, efforts to investigate atmospheric circulation patterns have predominantly relied on either semi-empirical datasets (i.e., reanalyses) or modeled output (i.e., global climate models, GCMs). While both approaches can provide important insights, there is a need for more empirical data to supplement these approaches. In this paper,...
Preprint
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments have adopted responses revolving around the open-ended use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including “lockdowns”, “stay-at-home” orders, travel restrictions, mask-wearing, and regulated social distancing. Initially these were introduced with the stated goals of “flattening the curve” of hos...
Article
Full-text available
In order to evaluate how much Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has influenced Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature trends, it is important to have reliable estimates of both quantities. Sixteen different estimates of the changes in Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) since at least the 19th century were compiled from the literature. Half of these estim...
Preprint
Full-text available
To evaluate the role of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) on Northern Hemisphere (NH) surface air temperature trends it is important to have reliable estimates of both quantities. 16 different TSI estimates were compiled from the literature. 1/2 of these estimates are low variability and 1/2 are high variability. 5 largely-independent methods for estima...
Article
Full-text available
Concern for climate change is one of the drivers of new, transitional energy policies oriented towards economic growth and energy security, along with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and preservation of biodiversity. Since 2010, the Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) has been publishing annual Global Landscape of Climate Finance reports. Accord...
Article
Full-text available
In order to assess the merits of national climate change mitigation policies, it is important to have a reasonable benchmark for how much human-caused global warming would occur over the coming century with "Business-As-Usual" (BAU) conditions. However, currently, policymakers are limited to making assessments by comparing the Global Climate Model...
Article
Full-text available
Our response to Li & Yang (2019)’s comments on our 2018 paper, “Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China”. We encourage readers of our original 2018 paper to read both Li & Yang's comments and our response for extra insights into some of the issues discussed there. We thank Li & Yang for initiating this additional discuss...
Article
Full-text available
Observed changes in Northern Hemisphere snow cover from satellite records were compared to those predicted by all available Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ("CMIP5") climate models over the duration of the satellite's records, i.e., 1967-2018. A total of 196 climate model runs were analyzed (taken from 24 climate models). Separate ana...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Using Greenpeace's published reports, statements and web-pages amongst other things, we carried out a detailed assessment of their approach to campaigning. We then compared their campaign claims to the relevant empirical evidence and scientific literature. We found that Greenpeace is a very successful business. Their business model can be summari...
Article
Full-text available
Most estimates of Chinese regional Surface Air Temperatures since the late-19th century have identified two relatively warm periods – 1920s–40s and 1990s–present. However, there is considerable debate over how the two periods compare to each other. Some argue the current warm period is much warmer than the earlier warm period. Others argue the earl...
Article
Full-text available
A new seasonal and annual dataset describing Arctic sea ice extents for 1901–2015 was constructed by individually re-calibrating sea ice data sources from the three Arctic regions (North American, Nordic and Siberian) using the corresponding surface air temperature trends for the pre-satellite era (1901–1978), so that the strong relationship betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Debate over what influence (if any) solar variability has had on surface air temperature trends since the 19th century has been controversial. In this paper, we consider two factors which may have contributed to this controversy: 1. Several different solar variability datasets exist. While each of these datasets is constructed on plausible grounds,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Two independent surveys have found that about 70% of the thermometer stations in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) dataset are currently poorly or badly sited. Previous investigations into how this poor siting has affected estimates of U.S. temperature trends have led to apparently contradictory conclusions. However, in this study, th...
Preprint
Full-text available
A previously-overlooked mechanism for energy transmission throughout the atmosphere is presented and characterised. This mechanism, which we have named pervection, involves the transmission of mechanical energy through a mass-in this case, the atmosphere. It is distinct from convection in that it does not require mass transport. It is also distinct...
Preprint
Full-text available
The extent to which two widely-used monthly temperature datasets are affected by urbanization bias was considered. These were the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN). These datasets are currently the main data sources used to construct the various weather station-based global tem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several studies have claimed that the warming bias introduced to global temperature estimates by urbanization bias is negligible. On the basis of this claim, none of the groups calculating global temperature estimates (except for NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies) explicitly correct for urbanization bias. However, in this article, by re-eval...
Preprint
Full-text available
NASA GISS are currently the only group calculating global temperature estimates that explicitly adjust their weather station data for urbanization biases. In this study, their urbanization adjustment procedure was considered. A number of serious problems were found with their urbanization adjustments: 1.) The vast majority of their adjustments invo...
Preprint
Full-text available
A review of the various global (or hemispheric) millennial temperature reconstructions was carried out. Unlike previous reviews, technical analyses presented via internet blogs were considered in addition to the conventional peer-reviewed literature. There was a remarkable consistency between all of the reconstructions in identifying three climatic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atmospheric profiles in North America during the period 2010-2011, obtained from archived weather balloon radiosonde measurements, were analysed in terms of changes of molar density (D) with pressure (P). This revealed a pronounced phase change at the tropopause. The air above the troposphere (i.e., in the tropopause/stratosphere) adopted a "heavy...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a companion paper, a pronounced phase transition was found to occur between the troposphere and the tropopause/stratosphere regions. In this paper, it is argued that this phase change is due to the formation of multimers of the main atmospheric gases (N2 and O2) in the tropopause/stratosphere. This has several implications for our current unders...
Article
Single-chain Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, in continuous space, of polymers with various topologies (branched and linear) in the good solvent. Using an inherently flexible bead-and-spring model, the backbone of linear polymers with either linear or dendritic side-groups attached was found to be elongated, indicative of an induced stiffn...
Article
Single−chain Monte Carlo simulations of amphiphilic diblock dendritic copolymers (co-dendrimers) with single and binary trifunctional cores were carried out in continuous space using implicit solvent. Two distinct topologies were studied:  dendrimers with the hydrophobic blocks attached to the core, and dendrimers with the polar blocks attached to...
Article
Single-chain simulations of densely branched comb polymers, or "molecular bottle-brushes" with side-chains attached to every (or every second) backbone monomer, were carried out by off-lattice Monte Carlo technique. A coarse-grained model, described by hard spheres connected by harmonic springs, was employed. Backbone lengths of up to 100 units wer...
Article
Full-text available
Single-chain Monte Carlo simulations of amphiphilic diblock star copolymers were carried out in continuous space using implicit solvents. Two distinct architectures were studied: stars with the hydrophobic blocks attached to the core, and stars with the polar blocks attached to the core, with all arms being of equal length. The ratio of the lengths...
Article
Full-text available
Conformations of isolated homo- dendrimers of G=1-7 generations with D=1-6 spacers have been studied in the good and poor solvents, as well as across the coil-to-globule transition, by means of a version of the Gaussian self-consistent (GSC) method and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation in continuous space based on the same coarse-grained model. The latte...
Article
Full-text available
We present results of Monte Carlo study of the monomer-monomer correlation functions, static structure factor and asphericity characteristics of a single homopolymer in the coil and globular states for three distinct architectures of the chain: ring, open and star. To rationalise the results we introduce the dimensionless correlation functions resc...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Project
Examining epidemiological models of COVID-19
Project
Research into the physics of the Earth's atmosphere. Using publicly archived weather balloon soundings.