Ronald F. Turco
, West Lafayette

Soil Science, Environmental Science, Water Science

Ph.D. Soil Microbiology
35.06

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Currently we lack knowledge on how the soil microbial community responds to the transition from traditional grain production to cellulosic feedstock production systems with residue removal for biofuel production. Implementation of second-generation biofuel production systems could create a challenge in meeting the goal of providing cellulose biomass if the processes impact soil’s function as part of ecosystem services. Our goal was to assess the transition period as we move from a grain harvest system with residue return into biomass production systems with both residue and grain removal. The existing traditional systems were continuous corn (CC) and corn–soybean rotations (corn–soybean–corn (R1) or soybean–corn–soybean (R2)). The biomass production systems include a previously established mixed tall grass prairie dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii; PR) where the above ground biomass is now harvested when it had been previously burned, corn–soybean rotations transitioned to residue recovery based on: Miscanthus × giganteus (MS), dual-purpose sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SG), upland switchgrass (Panicum virgatum; c.v. Shawnee; SW) and a tilled continuous corn changed to continuous no-till corn (Zea mays; CR) with the residue removed. Over a three-year transition period, biological indicators of soil health included microbial biomass and community structure profile using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biochemical markers, and an assessment of the saprotrophic fungal diversity using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction amplified ITS rRNA genetic marker. Over the course of the transition, bacterial biomass dominated soils in the annual systems of CC, R1, R2, CR and SG, and the perennial system of MS. While fungal biomass dominated soils under PR. Fungal PLFA signatures and ITS-DGGE profiles demonstrated similarity between PR and the transitioned SW system, and to a lesser extent SG. In contrast, MS did not statistically alter the microbial biomass, community structure or fungal diversity away from patterns observed in the corn–soybean system. Our findings support microbial community stability and resilience as we found no negative impacts in any of the biomass recovery systems (PR, MS, SG, SW and CR) relative to the traditional systems (CC, R1 and R2), as indicated by measures of soil health. We did find that the selection of the plant types used in the biomass system could have a significant impact on the structure of both bacterial and fungal communities. With respect to soil health indicators including the fungal community, our findings suggest the dual-purpose SG system provides an encouraging alternative to continuous maize when considering plant biomass production. The selection of this dedicated perennial biomass system offers an avenue to enhance indicators of soil health and associated ecosystem services while supporting the bioenergy economy.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Applied Soil Ecology
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    ABSTRACT: Soil microorganisms secrete enzymes used to metabolize carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) from the organic materials typically found in soil. Because of the connection with the active microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities can be used to investigate microbial nutrient cycling including the microbial response to environmental changes, transformation rates and to address the location of the most active biomass. In a 9-year field study on global change scenarios related to increasing N inputs (ambient to 15 g N m-2 yr-1) and precipitation (ambient to 180 mm yr-1), we tested the activities of soil β-glucosidase (BG), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME) for three soil aggregate classes: large macroaggregates (> 2000 μm), small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm) and microaggregates (< 250 μm). Results showed higher BG and PME activities in micro- vs. small macroaggregates whereas the highest NAG activity was found in the large macroaggregates. This distribution of enzyme activity suggests a higher contribution of fast-growing microorganisms in the micro- compared with the macroaggregates size fractions. The responses of BG and PME were different from NAG activity under N addition, as BG and PME decreased as much as 47.1 % and 36.3 %, respectively, while the NAG increased by as much as 80.8 %, which could imply better adaption of fungi than bacteria to lower soil pH conditions developed under increased N. Significant increases in BG and PME activities by as much as 103.4 and 75.4 %, respectively, were found under water addition. Lower ratio of BG:NAG and higher NAG:PME underlined enhanced microbial N limitation relative to both C and P, suggesting the repression of microbial activity and the accompanied decline in their ability to compete for N with plants and/or the accelerated proliferation of soil fungi under elevated N inputs. We conclude that changes in microbial activities under increased N input and greater water availability in arid- and semi-arid grassland ecosystems where NPP is co-limited by N and water may result in substantial redistribution of microbial activity in different-sized soil particles. This shift will influence the stability of SOM in the soil aggregates and the nutrient limitation of soil biota.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Soil Biology and Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Biotransformation of fluorotelomer (FT) compounds, such as 8:2 FT alcohol (FTOH) is now recognized to be a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids. In this study, microbially mediated hydrolysis of FT industrial intermediates 8:2 FT acrylate (8:2 FTAC) and 8:2 FT methacrylate (8:2 FTMAC) was evaluated in aerobic soils for up to 105d. At designated times, triplicate microcosms were sacrificed by sampling the headspace for volatile FTOHs followed by sequential extraction of soil for the parent monomers as well as transient and terminal degradation products. Both FTAC and FTMAC were hydrolyzed at the ester linkage as evidenced by 8:2 FTOH production. 8:2 FTAC and FTMAC degraded rapidly with half-lives ⩽5d and 15d, respectively. Maximum 8:2 FTOH levels were 6-13mol% within 3-6d. Consistent with the known biotransformation pathway of 8:2 FTOH, FT carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were subsequently generated including up to 10.3mol% of PFOA (105d). A total mass balance (parent plus metabolites) of 50-75mol% was observed on the last sampling day. 7:2 sFTOH, a direct precursor to PFOA, unexpectedly increased throughout the incubation period. The likely, but unconfirmed, concomitant production of acrylic acids was proposed as altering expected degradation patterns. Biotransformation of 8:2 FTAC, 8:2 FTMAC, and previously reported 8:2 FT-stearate for the same soils revealed the effect of the non-fluorinated terminus group linked to the FT chain on the electronic differences that affect microbially-mediated ester cleavage rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are increasingly produced and used in consumer goods, yet our knowledge regarding their environmental risks is limited. Environmental risks are assessed by characterizing exposure levels and biological receptor effects. As MNMs have rarely been quantified in environmental samples, our understanding of exposure level is limited. Absent direct measurements, environmental MNM concentrations are estimated from exposure modeling. Hazard, the potential for effects on biological receptors, is measured in the laboratory using a range of administered MNM concentrations. Yet concerns have been raised regarding the "relevancy" of hazard assessments, particularly when the administered MNM concentrations exceed those predicted to occur in the environment. What MNM concentrations are administered in hazard assessments, and which are "environmentally relevant"? This review regards MNM concentrations in hazard assessments, from over 600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2008 and 2013. Some administered MNM concentrations overlap with, but many diverge from, predicted environmental concentrations. Other uncertainties influence the environmental relevance of current hazard assessments and exposure models, including test conditions, bioavailable concentrations, mode of action, MNM production volumes, and model validation. Therefore, it may be premature for MNM risk research to sanction information on the basis of concentration "environmental relevance".
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Environmental Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: The pH and hardness of water used as agrochemical carrier can influence herbicide efficacy. The objective of this research was to determine the role of carrier water pH and hardness on saflufenacil efficacy and solubility. Saflufenacil was mixed in eight different carrier waters with one of five pH levels (4.0, 5.2, 6.5, 7.7, 9.0) or one of three hardness levels (0, 310, 620 mg L-1) and applied POST to common lambsquarters and giant ragweed in a field experiment and to field corn in a greenhouse experiment. Solubility testing was also completed on saflufenacil mixed in the five pH levels used in the field and greenhouse experiments. Water hardness did not influence the efficacy of saflufenacil on common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, or field corn. Control of giant ragweed or common lambsquarters in field experiments was reduced by up to 56% when saflufenacil was applied in water with a pH of 4.0 compared with water with a pH of 7.7. When nonsoluble saflufenacil was removed from the spray solution, saflufenacil efficacy on field corn in the greenhouse was reduced by 61 % or more when applied in water with a pH of 4.0 than when applied with water with a pH of 5.2 or higher. When nonsoluble saflufenacil was applied with the soluble saflufenacil in the spray solution, at least a 7 % reduction in control of field corn was observed when applied in water with pH of 4.0 as compared with saflufenacil applied in water with pH of 5.2 or higher. Solubility of saflufenacil was (1) 10.1 mg L-1 in water with a pH of 4.0, (2) 3,461.4 mg L-1 in water with a pH of 7.7, and (3) > 5,000 mg L-1 at a pH of 9. Some degradation of parent saflufenacil was detected in the pH at 9.0 treatment, with only 90 % of added product being recovered after 3 d of storage. This research provides information on how saflufenacil efficacy and solubility is influenced by carrier water pH and potentially explains some differences noticed between field applications of saflufenacil.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Weed Technology
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Soil and Water Conservation

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Soil and Water Conservation
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    ABSTRACT: The natural manure-borne hormones, 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), and estrone (E1), are routinely detected in surface water near agricultural land and wastewater treatment facilities. Once in the stream network, hormones may enter the sediment bed where they are subject to anaerobic conditions. This study focuses on the difference in anaerobic transformation rates and formation of metabolites from 17α-E2, 17β-E2, and E1 (applied at ~3.66 mol kg-1 of sediment on a dry weight basis) under nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. Sediment extracts were analyzed using negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Under both redox conditions, degradation was stereospecific and followed similar trends in half-lives: 17β-E2 < 17α-E2 < E1, with degradation considerably slower under sulfate-reducing conditions. Both E2 isomers were predominantly converted to E1; however, isomeric conversion also occurred with peak concentrations of ~1.7 mol% of 17β-E2 formed in 17α-E2 amended soils and peak concentrations of ~2.4 mol% of 17α-E2 formed from 17β-E2. In E1-amended systems, E1 transformed to E2 with preferential formation of the more potent 17β isomer up to ~30 mol% suggesting that isomer interconversion is through E1. Sediments, therefore, may serve as both a sink and a source of the more estrogenic compound E2. Transformation of amended hormones in autoclaved sediments was markedly slower than in non-autoclaved sediments. Results support the inclusion of isomer-specific behavior and the potential for reversible transformation and interconversion in anaerobic sediments in modeling fate in stream networks and developing risk management strategies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • Kavitha Dasu · Linda S Lee · Ronald F Turco · Loring F Nies
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    ABSTRACT: Aerobic biodegradation of 8:2 fluorotelomer stearate (FTS) and 8:2 fluorotelomer citrate triester (TBC) was evaluated in a forest soil in closed bottle microcosms. Loss of parent, production of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH), which is released along with stearic acid (SA) by microbial ester linkage, and subsequent metabolites from FTOH degradation were monitored for up to 7months. Soil microcosms were extracted with ethyl acetate followed by two heated 90/10 v/v acetonitrile/200mM NaOH extractions. Cleavage of the ester linkage in the 8:2 FTS occurred (t(1/2)∼28d), producing 8:2 FTOH and various levels of subsequent metabolites. Quantifying the generation of SA from ester cleavage in FTS was complicated by the natural production and degradation of SA in soil, which was probed in an additional FTS and SA study with the same soil that had been stored at 4°C for 12months. In the latter study, FTS degraded faster (t(1/2)∼5d) such that SA production well above soil background levels was clearly observed along with rapid subsequent SA degradation. Cold storage was hypothesized to enrich fungal enzymes, which are known to be effective at hydrolytic cleavage. 8:2 TBC biotransformation was slow, but evident with the production of PFOA well above levels expected from known FTOH residuals. Slower degradation of TBC compared to FTS is likely due to steric hindrances arising from the close proximity of three 8:2 FT chains on the citrate backbone limiting the enzyme access.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: The use of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in manufacturing and biomedical applications is increasing at a rapid rate; however data on the effects of a potential environmental release of the materials remain sparse. In this study, soils with either low or high organic matter contents as well as pure cultures of E. coli are challenged with either raw As-Produced SWNTs (AP-SWNTs) or SWNTs functionalized with either polyethyleneglycol (PEG-SWNTs) or m-polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid (PABS-SWNTs). To mimic chronic exposure, the soil systems were challenged weekly for six weeks; microbial activities and community structures for both the prokaryote and eukaryote community were evaluated. Results show that repeated applications of AP-SWNTs can affect microbial community structures and induce minor changes in soil metabolic activity in the low organic matter systems. Toxicity of the three types of SWNTs was also assessed in liquid cultures using a bioluminescent E. coli-O157:H7 strain. Although decreases in light were detected in all treated samples, low light recovery following glucose addition in AP-SWNTs treatment and light absorption property of SWNTs particles suggest that AP-SWNTs suppressed metabolic activity of the E. coli, while the two functionalized SWNTs are less toxic. The metals released from the raw forms of SWNTs would not play a role in the effects seen in soil or the pure culture. We suggest that sorption to soil organic matter plays a controlling role in the soil microbiological responses to these nanomaterials.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • R F Turco · M Bischoff · Z H Tong · L Nies
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    ABSTRACT: A fundamental lack of data on the potential impacts of carbon based nanomaterials on natural ecosystems currently exists. The gap between what we know about environmental impacts and new products that may contain nanomaterials continues to get wider especially related to knowledge about nanocomposites. In this paper we present ideas and concerns about the current state of knowledge on nanomaterials in the environment and present a number of points about what recent work has provided us about the novel materials.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial subsurface drainage in cropland creates pathways for nutrient movement into surface water; quantification of the relative impacts of common and theoretically improved management systems on these nutrient losses remains incomplete. This study was conducted to assess diverse management effects on long-term patterns (1998-2006) of NO, NH, and PO loads (). We monitored water flow and nutrient concentrations at subsurface drains in lysimeter plots planted to continuous corn ( L.) (CC), both phases of corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotations (corn, CS; soybean, SC), and restored prairie grass (PG). Corn plots were fertilized with preplant or sidedress urea-NHNO (UAN) or liquid swine manure injected in the fall (FM) or spring (SM). Restored PG reduced NO eightfold compared with fields receiving UAN (2.5 vs. 19.9 kg N ha yr; < 0.001), yet varying UAN application rates and timings did not affect NO across all CCUANs and CSUANs. The NO from CCFM (33.3 kg N ha yr) were substantially higher than for all other cropped fields including CCSM (average 19.8 kg N ha yr, < 0.001). With respect to NH and PO, only manured soils recorded high but episodic losses in certain years. Compared with the average of all other treatments, CCSM increased NH in the spring of 1999 (217 vs. 680 g N ha yr), while CCFM raised PO in the winter of 2005 (23 vs. 441 g P ha yr). Our results demonstrate that fall manuring increased nutrient losses in subsurface-drained cropland, and hence this practice should be redesigned for improvement or discouraged.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Environmental Quality
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of Johne's disease, has a robust ability to survive in the environment. However, the ability of Map to migrate through soil to drainage tiles or ground water, leave the farm, and leak into local watersheds is inadequately documented. In order to assess the ability of Map to leach through soil, two laboratory experiments were conducted. In the first study, 8 columns (30 cm long each) of a sandy loam soil were treated with pure cultures of Map. Two soil moisture levels and two Map concentrations were used. The columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for three weeks, the leachate was collected, and detection analysis was conducted. In the second experiment, manure from Map negative cows (control) and Map high shedder cows (treatment) were deposited on 8 similar columns and the columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for four weeks. Map detection and numeration in leachate samples were done with RT-PCR and culture techniques, respectively. Using RT-PCR, Map could be detected in the leachates in both experiments for several weeks but could only be recovered using culture techniques in experiment one. Combined, these experiments indicate the potential for Map to move through soil as a result of rainfall or irrigation following application.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Veterinary Medicine International
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    ABSTRACT: To better protect consumers from exposure to produce contaminated with Escherichia coli, the potential transfer of E. coli from manure or irrigation water to plants must be better understood. We used E. coli strains expressing bioluminescence (E. coli O157:H7 lux) or multiantibiotic resistance (E. coli²(+)) in this study. These marked strains enabled us to visualize in situ rhizosphere colonization and metabolic activity and to track the occurrence and survival of E. coli in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere. When radish and lettuce seeds were treated with E. coli O157:H7 lux and grown in an agar-based growth system, rapid bacterial colonization of the germinating seedlings and high levels of microbial activity were seen. Introduction of E. coli²(+) to soil via manure or via manure in irrigation water showed that E. coli could establish itself in the lettuce rhizosphere. Regardless of introduction method, 15 days subsequent to its establishment in the rhizosphere, E. coli²(+) was detected on the phyllosphere of lettuce at an average number of 2.5 log CFU/g. When E. coli²(+) was introduced 17 and 32 days postseeding to untreated soil (rather than the plant surface) via irrigation, it was detected at low levels (1.4 log CFU/g) on the lettuce phyllosphere 10 days later. While E. coli²(+) persisted in the bulk and rhizosphere soil throughout the study period (day 41), it was not detected on the external portions of the phyllosphere after 27 days. Overall, we find that E. coli is mobile in the plant system and responds to the rhizosphere like other bacteria.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of food protection
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. We describe the toxicity of two commercial silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) products, NanoAmor and Sigma on Pimephales promelas embryos. Embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of either sonicated or stirred NP solutions for 96 h. LC(50) values for NanoAmor and Sigma Ag NPs were 9.4 and 10.6 mg/L for stirred and 1.25 and 1.36 mg/L for sonicated NPs, respectively. Uptake of Ag NPs into the embryos was observed after 24 h using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Ag NPs induced a concentration-dependent increase in larval abnormalities, mostly edema. Dissolved Ag released from Ag NPs was measured using Inductively Coupled-Mass Spectrometry and the effects tested were found to be three times less toxic when compared to Ag nitrate (AgNO(3)). The percentage of dissolved Ag released was inversely proportional to the concentration of Ag NPs with the lowest (0.625 mg/L) and highest (20 mg/L) concentrations tested releasing 3.7 and 0.45% dissolved Ag, respectively and percent release was similar regardless if concentrations were stirred or sonicated. Thus increased toxicity after sonication cannot be solely explained by dissolved Ag. We conclude that both dissolved and particulate forms of Ag elicited toxicity to fish embryos.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Ecotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: An enrichment culture approach was used to isolate a pure culture of the yeast Lipomyces kononenkoae, which had the ability to grow on the herbicide picloram. The yeast rapidly and completely degraded 50 microg mL(-1) picloram by 48 h of growth. While L. kononenkoae was found to use both N atoms of picloram as a sole nitrogen source for growth, it failed to mineralize the herbicide or use it as a sole C source. Product analysis done using LC-ESI-MS indicated that biodegradation of picloram by L. kononenkoae proceeds via a didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, pyridinecarboxylic acid derivative. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the majority of picloram degradation in the soil is likely due to microbial catabolic processes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    Matthew D Ruark · Sylvie M Brouder · Ronald F Turco
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial subsurface drainage is commonly used in midwestern agriculture and drainage losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from such systems are an under-quantified portion of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of common agricultural management practices on DOC losses from subsurface tile drains and to assess patterns of loss as a function of year, time of year, and drainflow. Daily drainflow was collected across six water years (1999-2004) from a restored prairie grass system and cropping systems which include continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations fertilized with urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN) or swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent. The DOC concentrations in tile drainflow were low, typically <2 mg L(-1). Yearly DOC losses, which ranged from 1.78 to 8.61 kg ha(-1), were not affected by management practices and were small compared to organic C inputs. Spring application of lagoon effluent increased yearly flow-weighted (FW)-DOC concentrations relative to other cropping systems in three of the years and increased monthly FW-DOC concentrations when drainflow occurred within 1 mo of application. Drainflow was significantly and positively correlated with DOC loss. Drainflow also affected DOC concentrations as greater 6-yr cumulative drainflow was associated with lower 6-yr FW-DOC concentrations and greater daily drainflow was associated with higher daily DOC concentrations. Our results indicate that lagoon effluent application and fertilizer N rates do not affect long-term losses of DOC from tile drains and that drainflow is the main driver of DOC losses.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Environmental Quality
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term sustainable biofuels production with the concomitant protection and improvement of air, soil and water resources requires a concerted effort by the scientific community to gain knowledge regarding the comparative production potentials and environmental impacts of biofuel cropping systems. U.S. agriculture has extensive experience with intensive maize production and much recent discussion on energy from plants has focused on simply repurposing the existing farming systems towards ethanol instead of or in addition to animal feed. Both the grain and the stover can be used in energy production but removing the majority of the aboveground biomass from a farm field may negatively impact air, soil, and water quality. Alternative annuals, herbaceous perennials including novel species such as Miscanthus imported from Europe and low-input native systems may offer key advantages over maize production. Farmers can use existing farm equipment and these systems are expected to require far fewer energy and financial inputs than maize. However, at present, research on N and C cycling in these candidate biomass systems is fragmented and incomplete, a critical barrier to profitable, sustainable, and environmentally benign on-farm implementation of the U.S. biofuel agenda. Likewise, understanding crop water balance and optimizing water use efficiency will be essential to renewable biofuel success as water is expected to be the single, most limiting factor that transcends the multiple agro-ecozones in which U.S. biofuel production will be pursued. Accompanying this field experimentation will be the creation of a model repository and cyberinfrastructure that provide for curation of a wide variety of data such that archived data can be preserved, retrieved, understood, and accurately repurposed in a user environment that facilitates data mining, integration, and synthesis of disparate datasets. Project results will provide critical baseline knowledge regarding the relevant production and environmental merits of candidate biofuel systems, knowledge also necessary for valid, model-based food and fuel projections and development of informed public policy.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2008
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    ABSTRACT: A prototype bioluminescence-based biosensor was designed and constructed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas under various treatment conditions. The biosensor consisted of a bioluminescent bioreporter (Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL), an optical transducer (photomultiplier tube), and a light-tight chamber housing, the bioreporter and the transducer. The bioluminescent recombinant P. fluorescens 5RL in the biosensor allowed for online monitoring of bioluminescence during ClO(2) gas disinfection. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the two key physical parameters associated with ClO(2) disinfection: relative humidity (40, 60, 80%) and ClO(2) gas concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.6, 2.1 mg/l) on the bioreporter. Results showed that increasing concentrations of ClO(2) gas corresponded to a faster decrease in luminescence. The rates of luminescence decrease from P. fluorescens 5RL, and the log reduction time (LRT, time required to obtain 1-log reduction in luminescence) were calculated for each treatment tested. The LRT values of luminescence were 103, 78, 53, and 35 s for 0.5, 1.0, 1.6, and 2.1 mg/l of ClO(2) gas treatment, respectively, at 78% relative humidity. The gas concentration which caused a tenfold change in LRT (z value) for luminescence of P. fluorescens 5RL was 3.4 mg/l of ClO(2). The prototype biosensor showed potential for many applications, such as monitoring real-time microbial inactivation and understanding parameters that influence the efficacy of gaseous decontamination procedures.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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