Ronald E Smith

Ronald E Smith
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

173
Publications
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Introduction
Ronald E Smith is Professor Emeritus at the Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle. Ronald does research in Sport Psychology, Personality Psychology and Clinical Psychology. Their most recent publication is 'Leveling the playing field: can psychological coping resources reduce the influence of physical and technical skills on athletic performance?' He is author of "Promoting Emotional Resilience: Cognitive-Affective Stress Management Training" (Guilford Press, 2016).

Publications

Publications (173)
Article
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Background and Objectives: The present study assessed the extent to which individual differences in psychological coping resources are related to athletic performance; whether they can attenuate the amount of performance variance accounted for by physical/technical skills; and whether coping resources remain significant predictors of performance wh...
Article
Normally, high scores on the MMPI L (Lie) scale are associated with underreporting of symptoms. However, in certain circumstances, such as disability applications and personal injury litigation, individuals may be motivated to convey elevated symptomatology in combination with exaggerated portrayals of virtuosity and truthfulness. Information about...
Article
Fifty-one youth athletes (n = 27 female, age = 14.53 years, SD = 1.85) presented to a local hospital outpatient concussion clinic on average 7.67 days postconcussion for standard medical assessment, including the self-report Sport-Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (Time 1). They completed follow-up symptom assessments at Time 2 (7.48 ± 1.24 days after T...
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Coaches and parents play a major role in determining the consequences of sport participation in young athletes. This study focuses on the assessment of a systemic, empirically inspired intervention directed at coaches and parents. Parallel workshops derived in part from achievement goal theory were presented to the coaches and parents of 9 to 15 ye...
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The purpose of this paper is to highlight the use of induced affect (IA) and collaborative (therapeutic) assessment (CA) as components of Cognitive-Affective Stress Management Training (CASMT). IA is a technique for rehearsing cognitive and physical relaxation coping skills under conditions of high affective arousal, which has been shown to result...
Article
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The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS), adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998) to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. T...
Article
The Lie (L) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is widely regarded as a measure of conscious attempts to deny common human foibles and to present oneself in an unrealistically positive light. At the same time, the current MMPI-2 manual states that "traditional" and religious backgrounds can account for elevated L scale s...
Article
Is winning everything? We investigated the importance of team success and motivational climate on male and female athletes’ evaluative reactions to their athletic experience. Seasonal won-lost record had a less pervasive influence on athletes’ reactions than coaching behaviors. Notable sex differences were observed, with winning exhibiting stronger...
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The distinction made by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) and by Bandura (1997) between coping strategy selection ("ways of coping") and successful execution of coping behaviors (coping skills) is the basis for 2 types of sport-related coping measures. First, we discuss how these constructs and measures differ. Then we describe a longitudinal study involv...
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The aim of this study is to describe the establishment and fundamental achievements of a sport psychology department in a football club from its introduction. Moreover, this study explains the two main tools which are used: 1) An adaptation of the Coach Behavioral Assessment System (CBAS) (observing coaches) and 2) the Weekly Monitoring Program (PS...
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Motivational climate research has focused more empirical attention on coach-initiated motivational climate than on the parent-initiated climate. In this study of 238 competitive swimmers (ages 9–14 years), we compared the strength of relations between athletes’ late-season perceptions of coach and parent-initiated climates and their self-esteem, pe...
Article
This study analysed the relationships between competitive anxiety (both cognitive and somatic) and perceived motivational climate (ego and mastery) in 54 young competitive soccer players (mean age: 9.45 years), related to their four coaches’ perceptions of the soccer players’ skills and performance. We administered the Spanish versions of the SAS-2...
Article
Ss, differing in the degree to which they were led to believe that a stranger’s attitudes were similar to their own, observed the stranger (a confederate) in a verbal learning situation in which shock was supposedly administered for incorrect responses. The confederate’s performance jrcepuon was programmed so as to be the same for all Os. Attitude...
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Ss differing in the degree to which they were led to believe that a stranger’s attitudes were similar to their own observed the stranger (a confederate) in a verbal learning situation in which shock was supposedly administered for incorrect responses. The confederate’s performance was programmed so as to be the same for all Ss. Ss in the high-simil...
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Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitiv...
Article
Previous research has shown a surprisingly low correlation between leader intelligence and leader performance. Consistent with earlier reports, a recent meta-analysis yielded an average correlation of +.17 across 151 samples involving more than 40,000 leaders. One factor that contributes to the low overall correlation is that under conditions of hi...
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Sport is an important developmental context for children, and experiences involving parents, coaches, and peers affect a variety of important psychosocial outcomes, including motivational processes. Linking concepts from achievement goal theory with motivational constructs in self-determination theory, this study examined relations between the moti...
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According to the cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) model, behavior is a function of how the distinct cognitive-affective system of the individual processes one's subjective experience of the situation encountered. Thus an individual's maladaptive coping processes may be understood by identifying the nature of the situations that a client...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitiv...
Article
Full-text available
Relations among body size, stress coping strategies, and mental health were examined in female high-school gymnasts (n=44) and basketball players (n=105), aged 14-18 years (M = 15.8, SD = 1.1), through hierarchical regression analyses. Athletes completed the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist prior to the season and the Mental Health Inventory at the...
Article
After extensive consultation, thorough updating, inclusion of new research and topics, and the addition of a fantastic new online learning platform, Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour is better than ever. The second edition is an engaging and exciting introduction to the study of psychology. This book's scientific approach, which brings...
Article
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Collaborative (or therapeutic) assessment is an empirically supported procedure that involves the client as an active participant in the assessment process. Clients discuss data they provide with the assessor in a collaborative manner designed to provide insights and assist in setting mutually agreeable treatment goals. Internet-based procedures al...
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We assessed the role of parental behaviors on sport performance anxiety. Measures of trait anxiety, parental pressure, and parent-initiated motivational climate were administered to youth swimmers throughout the season. High parental pressure within either a low mastery or a high ego motivational climate was associated with the highest levels of an...
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This study involved the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28) for a Spanish-speaking sport environment. The sample was made up of 1,253 Spanish athletes, 967 males and 286 females. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the 7-factor structure found in the English version was replic...
Chapter
The science of psychology exists as a sprawling domain within which behavioral phenomena are studied at multiple and complementary levels of analysis in the search for biological, psychological, and environmental causal factors. One consequence of this approach is an increased emphasis on translational research, which involves the application of th...
Article
This study analysed the relationships between competitive anxiety (both cognitive and somatic) and perceived motivational climate (ego and mastery) in 54 young competitive soccer players (mean age, 9.45 years), related to their four coaches' perceptions of the soccer players' skills and performance. We administered the Spanish versions of the SAS-2...
Article
Full-text available
This study analysed the relationships between competitive anxiety (both cognitive and somatic) and perceived motivational climate (ego and mastery) in 54 young competitive soccer players (mean age: 9.45 years), related to their four coaches' perceptions of the soccer players' skills and performance. We administered the Spanish versions of the SAS-2...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the resilience resources and coping profiles of patients with diabetes. A total of 145 patients with diabetes completed a questionnaire packet including two measurements of coping (COPE and Coping Styles Questionnaires) and personal resources. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was also assessed. Resilience was defined by a fa...
Article
This study investigated the resilience resources and coping profiles of diabetes patients. A total of 145 patients with diabetes completed a questionnaire packet including two measurements of coping (COPE and Coping Styles questionnaires), and personal resources. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) was also assessed. Resilience was defined by a facto...
Article
Full-text available
Development of achievement-related motives in young athletes is believed to be influenced by the motivational climate created by coaches. In a longitudinal multilevel design utilizing 47 youth basketball teams, coach-initiated motivational climate was used to predict changes in 9–13year old athletes’ achievement goal orientations over the course of...
Article
Behavioral signatures of adults in naturally occurring social situations have yet to be established using reliable behavior observations, nor have they been related to the reactions of other people. In the present study, youth baseball coaches’ behaviors were unobtrusively assessed in vivo across a variety of game situations, and situation–behavior...
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The age-appropriate Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2; Smith, Smoll, Cumming, & Grossbard, 2006) was used to assess levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety among male and female youth sport participants. Confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of 9-14 year old athletes (N=1038) supported the viability of a three-factor model of anxiety involving soma...
Article
Objective: The objective was to develop and validate an achievement goal scale for young athletes that was aligned with the 2 (mastery/ego)×2 (approach/avoidance) achievement goal framework. Method: A total of 1675 male and female athletes ranging in age from 9 to 14 years participated in the AGSYS scale development and validation phases. Items hav...
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Coach Effectiveness Training (CET) has been shown to have positive effects on a range of outcome variables, especially in young athletes (Smith & Smoll, 2005). Based on CET principles, and coupled with behavioral feedback, an individualized goal-setting intervention was developed and assessed using a replicated case study approach. Outcome variable...
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This study used a longitudinal design to investigate the buffering role of resilience on worsening HbA(1c) and self-care behaviours in the face of rising diabetes-related distress. A total of 111 patients with diabetes completed surveys and had their glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Resilience was def...
Chapter
IntroductionNational Coach Training ProgramsTheoretical and Empirical Foundation of CetCoaching Principles and ProceduresAchievement Goal Theory and CoachingConclusion Author NoteReferences
Article
We investigated the transituational coherence of coping strategy use by collecting coping data on multiple occasions, and assessing the effects of aggregation over varying numbers of occasions. Study 1 examined the effects of aggregating daily coping reports over three- and six-day periods. Study 2 extended the results of Study 1 by assessing the e...
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The Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports (MCSYS) provides an age-appropriate measure of coach-initiated motivational climates in youth sports. Items have a readability level of grade 4.0 or below. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both child and adolescent athletes (ages 9–14) discriminate between mastery- and ego-in...
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Many theories and intervention techniques in sport psychology have a cognitive-behavioral emphasis, and sport psychologists have long been interested in individual differences. Recent developments in cognitive social personality theory offer new opportunities for understanding sport behavior. The finding of stable individual differences in situatio...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the main and interactive effects of motivational climate and won-lost percentage upon young athletes’ evaluations of their coaches, enjoyment of their team experience, and perceived parental liking for the coach. A total of 268 male and female youth basketball players, aged 10 to 15 years, completed the Moti...
Article
ObjectivesTo examine the impact of a social desirability response set on relations between goal orientation and performance anxiety in youth sports.DesignCorrelational field design.MethodData assessing goal orientation, performance anxiety, and social desirability were obtained from male (n=106) and female (n=75) adolescent athletes (M age=12.1 yea...
Article
Mastery-oriented motivational climates and achievement goal orientations have been associated with a range of salutary and clinically relevant outcomes in both educational and sport research. In view of this, an intervention was developed for youth sport coaches designed to promote a mastery motivational climate, and a field experiment was conducte...
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The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes'cognitive and somatic performance a...
Article
To study the prevalence of ocular manifestations in African American and Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis at the initial ophthalmic examination and to determine the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels, chest x-ray findings, and ocular signs of sarcoidosis. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational st...
Article
In chapter 6, Ronald Smith and Frank Smoll present a cogent description of the work on the mediational model of coach leadership. The fundamental assumption of the model is that coaches' actual behaviors affect athletes' thoughts and feelings through the athletes' recall and understanding of their coaches' behaviors. The characteristics and process...
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This article describes the development and validation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), a multidimensional measure of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety in sport performance settings. Scale development was stimulated by findings that the 3-factor structure of the original Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) could not be rep...
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A heuristic model is presented concerning leadership behaviors in youth sports. The cognitive-behavioral model specifies individual difference variables, situational factors, and cognitive processes assumed to mediate overt coaching behaviors and athletes' reactions to them. Initially, the status of leadership research is reviewed, focusing on the...
Article
In a 2 × 2 experimental design, male subjects were exposed to a “lady in distress” in the presence of a confederate who was either similar or dissimilar to the subject and who reacted to the situation with either passive unconcern or with apparent alarm. Consistent with a social comparison interpretation, the confederate's reactions markedly influe...
Article
The authors reply to commentaries on their target article “Self-Regulation: Reminders and Suggestions from Personality Science”. Substantial consensus is evident across the target article and multiple commentaries. The message conveyed is that personality science and the study of self-regulation are mutually complementary and that applied efforts t...
Article
La littérature sur l’autorégulation est couramment accusée de faiblesse théorique. Il est possible que les avancées dans les recherches sur la personnalité puissent ouvrir des horizons dans ce secteur. Notre objectif est double. Nous rappelons d’abord des distinctions conceptuelles qui, bien que parfois négligées, sont essentielles dans les études...
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For more than two decades, the behavioral categories of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) and the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) have been used by a wide range of researchers to measure coaching behaviors, yet little is known about how the behavioral categories in the two models relate statistically to one another. Male and female a...
Article
Results of several recent studies have called into question the factorial integrity of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) because two items (14 and 20) that loaded on the Concentration Disruption subscale in our validation and cross-validation samples have loaded or cross-loaded on the Worry subscale in other samples. We ag...
Article
Recent developments in social-cognitive personality theory have promising applications to sport psychology. Of special significance is Mischel and Shoda's (1995)55. Mischel , W. and Shoda , Y. 1995. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Ps...
Article
ObjectivesTo investigate relations among body size, perceptions of coaching behaviors, and attitudes toward the coach and sport in adolescent female athletes in three sports.DesignField correlational design.MethodFemale athletes, 14–18 years, participating in high school basketball, gymnastics, and soccer (N=227) completed questionnaires dealing wi...
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Coping correlates of resilience, defined as resistance to illness in the face of exposure to high numbers of negative life events, were studied in a sample of 404 young women high school athletes. Negative life events and coping strategies were assessed preseason, and daily illness data were collected during the course of the season. Among athletes...
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This article outlines a conceptualization of personality as a cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) and explores its implications for understanding disorders and pursuing therapeutic change. The CAPS conception of personality was proposed in 1995 in order to resolve a long-standing paradox in personality and social psychology, namely, the ap...
Article
Through this textbook we have the pleasure and privilege of sharing our enthusiasm of psychology with today's instructors and a new generation of students. We've endeavored to create a thoughtfully integrated book and multimedia package that strikes just the right balance between student friendliness and scientific integrity--a teaching tool that i...
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The authors assessed the impact of self-defense training for women on multifaceted aspects of perceived self-efficacy. As compared to a waiting list control condition, training increased self-efficacy perceptions not only for self-defense skills but also across a variety of domains, including self-defense abilities, sports competencies, and coping...
Article
Previous research concerning the relation between life stress and athletic injury has not assessed the separate predictive contribution of sport-related stress and stressors in other life domains. We propose that stressful life events that occur within the same environmental context as the outcome may have an impact that goes beyond general life st...
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Many applicants to clinical and counseling psychology programs are interested in receiving the training needed to practice competently in the professional specialty area of sport psychology. In this article, the authors describe a collaborative training and service relationship between an APA-accredited clinical psychology program and an intercolle...
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Concern for personal safety is a pervasive stressor for many women. Developing competencies in physical self-defense may empower women to engage more freely in daily activities with less fear. This study assessed the effects of physical self-defense training on multiple aspects of women's perceived self-efficacy and other self-reported personality...
Article
Social desirability has long been viewed as a potential source of error variance in self-report measures. We suggest that social desirability (whether in the form of impression management or self-deception) has the capacity to mask relations between psychosocial variables and sport-related outcome or criterion measures that are not measured by self...
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Among the processes thought to mediate relations between life stress and injuries in physical performance settings are physiological arousal and cognitive interference. Such processes are known to occur with greater frequency and intensity in people who are high in dispositional performance anxiety, suggesting that trait anxiety may constitute a vu...
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An important consideration in coping skills training is the extent to which acquired skills generalize to other life domains. For example, sport-oriented performance enhancement skills are often regarded as life skills that can also facilitate adaptation in other areas of life. Moreover, task-specific increases in self-efficacy produced by coping s...
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Using alternate forms derived from 6 scales from the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (P. P. Vitaliano, 1993), the authors obtained daily coping scores from students as they prepared for a demanding test, then obtained a 7-day retrospective measure of their coping. On average, only 25% shared variance was found between the daily and retrospective a...
Article
Although men are far less likely than women to be victims of heterosexual assault, such cases have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. We compared social judgments about male and female victims of heterosexual and homosexual rape and tested hypotheses concerning social cognitions that are assumed to underlie a male rape mytholo...
Article
Participants completed anxiety and coping diaries during 10 periods that began 7 days before an academic stressor and continued through the evening after the stressor. Profile analysis was used to examine the anxiety and coping processes in relation to 2 trait anxiety grouping variables: debilitating and facilitating test anxiety (D-TA and F-TA). A...
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In youth sports, fostering the development of a positive and cohesive team climate is one objective of psychologically oriented training programs for coaches. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical bases for team building as developed within the field of industrial and organizational psychology, as well as attempts that have been made t...