Ronald CGM Smetsers

Ronald CGM Smetsers
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) | RIVM · Centre for Environmental Safety and Security

PhD

About

48
Publications
12,691
Reads
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287
Citations
Citations since 2017
18 Research Items
123 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023051015202530
2017201820192020202120222023051015202530
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
Position
  • Consultant
Description
  • Radiation Protection, Nuclear Emergencies, Aircraft Noise, Healthy Urban Living
July 1997 - December 2012
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
Position
  • Head of Department
October 1988 - June 1997
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
Position
  • Middle management and research
Education
April 1992 - April 1996
University of Groningen
Field of study
  • Physics
September 1975 - July 1982
Radboud University
Field of study
  • Experimental Physics

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
On 4 October 1992, a large cargo plane crashed into an apartment building in the Bijlmermeer quarter of Amsterdam. In the years following the accident, an increasing number of people started reporting health complaints, which they attributed to exposure to dangerous substances after the crash. Since the aircraft had been carrying depleted uranium a...
Article
Full-text available
The significant variations in time exhibited by background radiation hinders a sensitive recognition of human-induced factors. A comprehensive study in the Netherlands has examined the influence of the various natural processes on the natural background using six years data from the Dutch nuclear emergency network. Results presented concentrate on...
Article
In the Netherlands considerable attention has been given to the exposure from thoron progeny in dwellings. For this purpose a nationwide survey on the thoron exhalation and thoron progeny concentration has been completed in 2015. Furthermore, extensive laboratory studies have been performed to measure activity concentrations and thoron exhalation r...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals receive a significant part of their radiation exposure indoors. We anticipate that this exposure is likely to increase in the near future, due to a growing use in the uilding industry of recycled materials and materials previously regarded as waste. Such materials often contain elevated levels of natural radionuclides. Directive 2013/59...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Everyone is exposed to radiation the whole day long. RIVM has put together a detailed overview of what is currently known about natural radiation in the Netherlands. A new overview was necessary because the contributions made by different sources to the overall radiation dose change over time. Scientific insights regarding health risks relating...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), the Royal Netherlands Aerospace Center (NLR) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) have developed a national measurement strategy for aircraft noise. The measurement strategy focuses on two main goals – validating the currently used aircraft noise models a...
Article
Full-text available
Nuclear accidents do not occur frequently, but their biological, psychosocial and/or economic consequences may be severe. Hence, a thorough preparation for nuclear emergencies is needed to provide appropriate actions. During the transition phase of an accident, it is vital to include stakeholders in the decision‐making process in order to gain supp...
Article
Full-text available
Within the CONFIDENCE project, comprehensive methods have been developed for better support of decision making under uncertain conditions, mainly by use of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). While MCDA in general was available for use in the radiological crisis management community, no method of analysing uncertain conditions and supporting r...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the event of a nuclear accident, the government must take measures to minimise exposure of the public to radiation. People in the immediate vicinity of the site of the accident can, for example, take shelter, take iodine pills or leave the area. The measures deemed appropriate will depend on the nature and severity of the nuclear accident in que...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Risks can be so small that we deem them ‘negligible’. This also applies to the risks resulting from radiation. When communicating with the public about radiation, the government sometimes uses the term negligible to indicate that there is no significant risk if people are exposed to a small quantity of radiation. This term is also used in radiation...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Omwonenden van luchthavens willen graag dat vliegtuiggeluid gemeten wordt, en niet alleen maar berekend. Er is veel maatschappelijke druk om hier snel mee te starten. Het RIVM Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu , het NLR Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium en het KNMI Koninklijk Meteorologisch Instituut hebben op verzoek van het...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In a report issued in 2008, the Health Council of the Netherlands noted that the scientific knowledge on radiation protection was seriously in decline. This statement is still valid nowadays. It is therefore important to collate existing radiation knowledge, to make state-of-the-art expertise available to government and society and to acquire more...
Poster
Full-text available
Individuals receive a significant part of their radiation exposure indoors. We anticipate that this exposure is likely to increase in the future, due to a growing use in the building industry of recycled materials and materials previously regarded as waste, which often contain elevated levels of natural radionuclides. Directive 2013/59/Euratom (‘BS...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In a report issued in 2008, the Health Council of the Netherlands noted that the scientific knowledge on radiation protection was seriously in decline. This statement is still valid nowadays. It is therefore important to collate existing radiation knowledge, to make state-of-the-art expertise available to government and society and to acquire more...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Radon concentrations are low at almost all workplaces and public buildings in the Netherlands. The average radon concentration in workplaces and public buildings within this study is 15,9 Bq/m3. The average radon concentration in buildings worldwide is around 40 Bq/m3. The radon concentrations exceeded 300 Bq/m3 only in a very few specific cases in...
Article
Radon and thoron progenies in Dutch dwellings cause ~400 cases of lung cancer per year. Some 30% of the risk is due to thoron progeny, which demonstrates that the influence of thoron progeny is much larger than previously anticipated. This was concluded from a national survey in 2500 Dutch dwellings, built since 1930. Radon concentrations (15.6 ± 0...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A significant proportion of the radiation to which the Dutch population is exposed arises from radiation in dwellings. Construction materials are the dominant source of this radiation. The latest Euratom directive requires Member States to establish regulations to limit exposure to radiation in dwellings. This includes the introduction of a refere...
Poster
Full-text available
Highlights: 1) Radon and thoron progeny cause 400 cases of lung cancer per year in the Netherlands: 70% are due to radon and 30% to thoron progeny 2) Type of building, manner of ventilation and location / soil type are the main predictors of radon in Dutch dwellings 3) A national reference level for radon in dwellings of 100 Bq/m3 is feasible for t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Nederland bevinden zich naar schatting 24.000 woningen met een jaargemiddelde radonconcentratie boven 100 becquerel (Bq) per kubieke meter. Vooral in eengezinswoningen met natuurlijke ventilatie in Zuid-Limburg en het Rivierengebied worden vaker overschrijdingen aangetroffen: 80 procent van de woningen met meer dan 100 Bq radon per kubieke meter...
Technical Report
Full-text available
New research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) indicates that the health risk of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with an infill of rubber granulate is virtually negligible. Therefore, it is considered safe for people to play sports on such pitches. The research was conducted following public conce...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf fields with rubber granulate. New research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) indicates that the health risk of playing sports on synthetic turf fields with an infill of rubber granulate is virtually negligible. Therefore, it is considered safe...
Article
A new Euratom directive demands that Member States establish a national action plan for indoor radon. Important requirements are a national reference level for the radon concentration in dwellings, actions to identify dwellings with radon concentrations that might exceed this reference level and the encouragement of appropriate measures to reduce t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In 2007 formuleerde het kabinet de Strategie Nationale Veiligheid. Die strategie heeft tot doel de nationale veiligheid te versterken via een gezamenlijke, kabinetsbrede aanpak. De eerste stap in deze strategie, de analyse, is gericht op het in kaart brengen en beoordelen van de risico’s van verschillende rampen, dreigingen en crises voor de nation...
Technical Report
Nationaal uitvoeringsprogramma voor het langetermijnbeheer van radioactief afval en verbruikte splijtstoffen Toetsingsadvies over het ontwerpprogramma 26 november 2015 / projectnummer 2842
Technical Report
Full-text available
Radon and thoron in Dutch dwellings built since 1930 Concentrations of radon and thoron progeny are low in virtually all Dutch dwellings, built since 1930. That is the outcome of a national survey, conducted by RIVM in approximately 2500 dwellings in the period 2013-2014. Radon and thoron are naturally occurring radioactive noble gasses, which are...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Stedelijke gebieden zullen in de toekomst duurzaam moeten worden ingericht. Niet alleen als motor voor een vitale, circulaire en concurrerende economie, maar ook als een omgeving waarin gezondheid wordt beschermd, wordt bevorderd, en waarvoor gezondheid en welzijn duurzame uitgangswaarden zijn. Een gezonde omgeving levert namelijk niet alleen gezon...
Technical Report
Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) stelt een nationaal uitvoeringsprogramma op voor het beheer van radioactief afval en verbruikte splijtstof (hierna: het nationale programma). Met het oog daarop wordt onder andere een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de opties voor het langetermijnbeheer van dat afval en naar de gevolgen voor mens en milieu die a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Het zo goed mogelijk voorkómen en adequaat afhandelen van kleine stralingsincidenten is in Nederland staande praktijk. De wet- en regelgeving is toereikend en de betrokken instanties zijn goed op hun taken ingespeeld. In de afgelopen jaren zijn diverse maatregelen genomen om de kans op een incident te verminderen, dan wel om onregelmatigheden in ee...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentatie (voorlopige) resultaten impact kernramp Fukushima op Nederland en Nederlanders in Japan
Technical Report
Full-text available
De in Nederland gemeten radioactiviteit uit Japan ligt duizenden keren lager dan tijdens Tsjernobyl en vormt geen risico voor de Nederlandse bevolking. De berekende stralingsdosis door inhalatie van I-131 over de gehele meetperiode bedraagt minder dan 0,00001 millisievert. De stralingsdosis van Nederlanders is normaal ongeveer 2,5 millisievert per...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In het Radiologisch Handboek Hulpverleningsdiensten wordt een set van standaard procedures gepresenteerd die richting geeft aan de aanpak van elk willekeurig stralingsincident. Alle procedures gaan er vanuit dat hulpverleners ter plaatse de eerste maatregelen nemen, en zo nodig hulp inroepen van collega’s die over specifieke stralingskennis beschik...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Na een melding van een derde partij over mogelijke ongecontroleerde lozingen op de Onderzoeks Locatie Petten (OLP) heeft de VROM-Inspectie Kernfysische Dienst aan het RIVM gevraagd om gegevens van het Nationaal Meetnet Radioactiviteit (NMR) op specifieke data en tijdstippen in september 2001 nader te analyseren. Het RIVM heeft twee compensatiemetho...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report is a reprint of a subset of the results of a 1998 NATO Pilot Study. Possible accident scenarios involving decommissioned nuclear submarines are discussed. Criticality accidents are found to be the potentially most dangerous events as far as cross-border contamination is concerned. As a case study, the effects of such an accident in North...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 1986 the Chernobyl accident led the Dutch Government to a reconsideration of their possibilities for managing nuclear emergencies. It was decided to improve both the national emergency management organization and the infrastructure for collecting and presenting technical information. The first improvement resulted in the National Plan for Nuclea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The potential cross-border radiological consequences of accidents with a decommissioned non-defuelled nuclear submarine moored at the Ara Bay are evaluated. Among the three types of events which may lead to an environ-mental release of radioactivity, only a criticality accident during defuelling may lead to non-negligible radiation doses to the gen...
Presentation
Full-text available
Betreft een openbaar verhoor door de parlementaire enquêtecommissie Vliegramp Bijlmermeer n.a.v. het RIVM-rapport 609026002 ”Gezondheidsrisico’s brand EL-AL-Boeing” (1998) Bron: Tweede Kamer, vergaderjaar 1998–1999, 26 241, nr. 11
Technical Report
Full-text available
UK: In May 1998, the Dutch government asked RIVM to make an assessment of the human exposure that could have resulted from the 1992 airplane crash in Amsterdam. The request was prompted by persistent health complaints of the bystanders of the crash. Starting point of the health risk assessment was the latest version of the list of Airway Cargo Bill...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In 1994, the Sector Substances and Risks of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) decided to strengthen strategically its research into risk assessment methodology. To further this goal, this report describes the research area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM. A representative selection of human exposure assessm...
Article
Full-text available
Several sources and processes contribute to the natural radiation background level, causing significant fluctuations in time. Quantified knowledge on the probability of these variations is desirable for many reasons, e.g. to discriminate between natural and human-induced factors or to support the management of nuclear emergency networks. Frequency...
Article
Full-text available
Airborne radioactivity monitors put up in a network as a warning system in case of nuclear accidents were used to gain insight in the temporal variations of 222Rn and its decay products. Average equilibrium equivalent decay product concentrations (EEDCs) over a period of five years for stations across the country range from 1 to 3 Bq.m-3. Hourly av...
Article
Full-text available
Automated monitors for the determination of airborne radioactivity are widely in use as early warning systems for nuclear emergencies; however, the data acquired for this purpose are seldom used for analyzing spatial and temporal variations of natural radioactivity (especially radon and short-lived decay products). This paper shows that a specific...
Article
Full-text available
After the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 many European Governments decided to improve their organisation and infrastructure for the management of nuclear emergencies. In the Netherlands this resulted in an update of the national organisation for emergency planning and response, and a series of technical facilities for the collection and present...
Article
Full-text available
Risk management applied to human-induced radiological problems requires proper knowledge of what the situation would be without human interference. In cases where enhanced levels of natural radioactivity are present, this is far from simple, due to the existence of comparatively high and variable natural background levels. More knowledge on the spa...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of the shift of the laser emission energy and the threshold current of a GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructure injection laser with a p-type active layer in DC magnetic fields up to 25 T were carried out at temperatures T=20.3K and T=46.0K. A slight difference ( approximately=7%) in the threshold current was observed between measurements...

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Projects

Projects (11)
Project
There is societal discontent with regard to the calculated level of noise produced by aircrafts. Local residents do not trust the information provided by government on this subject. They want aircraft noise to be measured. The Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management (IenW) has therefore promised to improve the modelling and measurement of aircraft noise. That is more difficult than it seems. Therefore, IenW has asked RIVM, the KNMI (National Weather Service), and the NLR - Netherlands Aerospace Centre for advice.
Archived project
Gezond en duurzaam samenleven in een stedelijke leefomgeving is afhankelijk van talloze met elkaar samenhangende processen en factoren. Hierin staat de mens centraal, die steeds voor keuzes wordt gesteld door de dynamiek en interactie tussen de fysieke leefomgeving, de samenleving en kaders vanuit de overhead. Een aantal kennisinstituten, waaronder RIVM, hebben de overtuiging dat zij met hun gezamenlijke kennis een stuk van de complexe puzzel kunnen oplossen door de nu vaak versnipperde kennis te integreren en gebruik te maken van nieuwe technologieën.
Archived project