# Romualdo Pastor-SatorrasUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya | UPC · Department of Physics (FIS)

Romualdo Pastor-Satorras

PhD

## About

189

Publications

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Introduction

## Publications

Publications (189)

Groups of animals are observed to transmit information across them with propagating waves or avalanches of behaviour. These behavioral cascades often display scale-free signatures in their duration and size, ranging from activating a single individual to the whole group, signatures that are commonly related to critical phenomena from statistical ph...

The process of opinion depolarization is assumed to be mediated through social networks, where interacting individuals reciprocally exert social influence leading to a consensus. While network topology plays a decisive role in many networked dynamical processes, its effect on depolarization dynamics remains unclear. Here, we show that, in a recentl...

Animals moving together in groups are believed to interact among each other with effective social forces, such as attraction, repulsion and alignment. Such forces can be inferred using 'force maps', i.e. by analysing the dependency of the acceleration of a focal individual on relevant variables. Here we introduce a force map technique for alignment...

Understanding the dynamics of opinion depolarization is pivotal to reducing the political divide in our society. We propose an opinion dynamics model, which we name the social compass model, for interdependent topics represented in a polar space, where zealots holding extreme opinions are less prone to change their minds. We analytically show that...

Understanding the dynamics of opinion depolarization is pivotal to reducing the political divide in our society. We propose an opinion dynamics model for interdependent topics represented in a polar space, where zealots holding extreme opinions are less prone to change their minds. We analytically show that the phase transition from initial polariz...

We study the effects of animal social networks with a weighted pattern of interactions on the flocking transition exhibited by models of self-organized collective motion. We consider variations of traditional models of collective motion in which interactions between individuals are mediated by static complex weighted networks, representing patterns...

Protecting interventions of many types (both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical) can be deployed against the spreading of a communicable disease, as the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically shown. Here we investigate in detail the effects at the population level of interventions that provide an asymmetric protection between the people in...

Behavioral contagion and the presence of behavioral cascades are natural features in groups of animals showing collective motion, such as schooling fish or grazing herbivores. Here we study empirical behavioral cascades observed in fish schools defined as avalanches of consecutive large changes in the heading direction of the trajectory of fish. In...

Percolation on networks is a common framework to model a wide range of processes, from cascading failures to epidemic spreading. Standard percolation assumes short-range interactions, implying that nodes can merge into clusters only if they are nearest neighbors. Cumulative merging percolation (CMP) is a percolation process that assumes long-range...

We study the effects of animal social networks with a weighted pattern of interactions on the flocking transition exhibited by models of self-organized collective motion. Considering a model representing dynamics on a one-dimensional substrate, application of a heterogeneous mean-field theory provides a phase diagram as function of the heterogeneit...

Protecting interventions of many types (both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical) can be deployed against the spreading of a communicable disease, as the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically shown. Here we investigate in detail the effects at the population level of interventions that provide an asymmetric protection between the people in...

Behavioral contagion and the presence of behavioral cascades are natural features in groups of animals showing collective motion, such as schooling fish or grazing herbivores. Here we study empirical behavioral cascades observed in fish schools defined as avalanches of consecutive large changes in the heading direction of the trajectory of fish. In...

Percolation on networks is a common framework to model a wide range of processes, from cascading failures to epidemic spreading. Standard percolation assumes short-range interactions, implying that nodes can merge into clusters only if they are nearest-neighbors. Cumulative Merging Percolation (CMP) is an new percolation process that assumes long-r...

In the study of epidemic dynamics a fundamental question is whether a pathogen initially affecting only one individual will give rise to a limited outbreak or to a widespread pandemic. The answer to this question crucially depends not only on the parameters describing the infection and recovery processes but also on where, in the network of interac...

In the study of epidemic dynamics a fundamental question is whether a pathogen initially affecting only one individual will give rise to a limited outbreak or to a widespread pandemic. The answer to this question crucially depends not only on the parameters describing the infection and recovery processes but also on where, in the network of interac...

Systems composed of interacting self-propelled particles (SPPs) display different forms of order–disorder phase transitions relevant to collective motion. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the Vicsek model characterized by an angular noise term following an arbitrary probability density function, which might depend on the state of the s...

Systems composed of interacting self-propelled particles (SPPs) display different forms of order-disorder phase transitions relevant to collective motion. In this paper we propose a generalization of the Vicsek model characterized by an angular noise term following an arbitrary probability density function, which might depend on the state of the sy...

Systems composed of reactive particles diffusing in a network display emergent dynamics. While Fick’s diffusion can lead to Turing patterns, other diffusion schemes might display more complex phenomena. Here we study the death and restoration of collective oscillations in networks of oscillators coupled by random-walk diffusion, which modifies both...

The spectrum of the non-backtracking matrix plays a crucial role in determining various structural and dynamical properties of networked systems, ranging from the threshold in bond percolation and non-recurrent epidemic processes, to community structure, to node importance. Here we calculate the largest eigenvalue of the non-backtracking matrix and...

We study the death and restoration of collective oscillations in networks of oscillators coupled through random-walk diffusion. Differently than the usual diffusion coupling used to model chemical reactions, here the equilibria of the uncoupled unit is not a solution of the coupled ensemble. Instead, the connectivity modifies both, the original uns...

The identification of which nodes are optimal seeds for spreading processes on a network is a nontrivial problem that has attracted much interest recently. While activity has mostly focused on the nonrecurrent type of dynamics, here we consider the problem for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) spreading model, where an outbreak seeded in o...

The spectrum of the non-backtracking matrix plays a crucial role in determining various structural and dynamical properties of networked systems, ranging from the threshold in bond percolation and non-recurrent epidemic processes, to community structure, to node importance. Here we calculate the largest eigenvalue of the non-backtracking matrix and...

We consider cumulative merging percolation (CMP), a long-range percolation process describing the iterative merging of clusters in networks, depending on their mass and mutual distance. For a specific class of CMP processes, which represents a generalization of degree-ordered percolation, we derive a scaling solution on uncorrelated complex network...

The identification of which nodes are optimal seeds for spreading processes on a network is a non-trivial problem that has attracted much interest recently. While activity has mostly focused on non-recurrent type of dynamics, here we consider the problem for the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) spreading model, where an outbreak seeded in one...

Abstract Echo chambers in online social networks, in which users prefer to interact only with ideologically-aligned peers, are believed to facilitate misinformation spreading and contribute to radicalize political discourse. In this paper, we gauge the effects of echo chambers in information spreading phenomena over political communication networks...

We present a comparison between stochastic simulations and mean-field theories for the epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on correlated networks (both assortative and disassortative) with power-law degree distribution $P(k)\sim k^{-\gamma}$. We confirm the vanishing of the threshold regardless of the correlation...

We investigate the effects of long-range social interactions in flocking dynamics by studying the dynamics of a scalar model of collective motion embedded in a complex network representing a pattern of social interactions, as observed in several social species. In this scalar model we find a phenomenology analogous to that observed in the classic V...

We investigate the effects of long-range social interactions in flocking dynamics by studying the dynamics of a scalar model of collective motion embedded in a complex network representing a pattern of social interactions, as observed in several social species. In this scalar model we find a phenomenology analogous to that observed in the classic V...

The interest in non-Markovian dynamics within the complex systems community has recently blossomed, due to a new wealth of time-resolved data pointing out the bursty dynamics of many natural and human interactions, manifested in an inter-event time between consecutive interactions showing a heavy-tailed distribution. In particular, empirical data h...

We present a comparison between stochastic simulations and mean-field theories for the epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on correlated networks (both assortative and disassortative) with power-law degree distribution $P(k)\sim k^{-\gamma}$. We confirm the vanishing of the threshold regardless of the correlation...

We consider cumulative merging percolation (CMP), a long-range percolation process describing the iterative merging of clusters in networks, depending on their mass and mutual distance. For a specific class of CMP processes, which represents a generalization of degree-ordered percolation, we derive a scaling solution on uncorrelated complex network...

The interest in non-Markovian dynamics within the complex systems community has recently blossomed, due to a new wealth of time-resolved data pointing out the bursty dynamics of many natural and human interactions, manifested in an inter-event time between consecutive interactions showing a heavy-tailed distribution. In particular, empirical data h...

Echo chambers in online social networks, in which users prefer to interact only with ideologically-aligned peers, are believed to facilitate misinformation spreading and contribute to radicalize political discourse. In this paper, we gauge the effects of echo chambers in information spreading phenomena over political communication networks. Mining...

The understanding of epidemics on networks has greatly benefited from the recent application of message-passing approaches, which allow us to derive exact results for irreversible spreading (i.e., diseases with permanent acquired immunity) in locally treelike topologies. This success has suggested the application of the same approach to recurrent-s...

The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix, in particular its largest eigenvalue and the associated principal eigenvector, dominate many structural and dynamical properties of complex networks. Here we focus on the localization properties of the principal eigenvector in real networks. We show that in most cases it is either localized on the st...

The understanding of epidemics on networks has greatly benefited from the recent application of message-passing approaches, which allow to derive exact results for irreversible spreading (i.e. diseases with permanent acquired immunity) in locally-tree like topologies. This success has suggested the application of the same approach to reversible epi...

We study the behavior of a generalized consensus dynamics on a temporal network of interactions, the activity driven network with attractiveness. In this temporal network model, agents are endowed with an intrinsic activity $a$, ruling the rate at which they generate connections, and an intrinsic attractiveness $b$, modulating the rate at which the...

Social relationships characterize the interactions that occur within social species and may have an important impact on collective animal motion. Here, we consider a variation of the standard Vicsek model for collective motion in which interactions are mediated by an empirically motivated scale-free topology that represents a heterogeneous pattern...

The cryptocurrency market has reached a record of $\$$54 billion in 2017 after months of steady growth. However, a comprehensive analysis of the whole system has been lacking so far, since most studies have focused on the behaviour of one (Bitcoin) or few cryptocurrencies. Here we consider the entire market and analyse the behaviour of $\sim$ 1,500...

Many progresses in the understanding of epidemic spreading models have been obtained thanks to numerous modeling efforts and analytical and numerical studies, considering host populations with very different structures and properties, including complex and temporal interaction networks. Moreover, a number of recent studies have started to go beyond...

The problem of mapping human close-range proximity networks has been tackled using a variety of technical approaches. Wearable electronic devices, in particular, have proven to be particularly successful in a variety of settings relevant for research in social science, complex networks and infectious diseases dynamics. Each device and technology us...

The problem of mapping human close-range proximity networks has been tackled using a variety of technical approaches. Wearable electronic devices, in particular, have proven to be particularly successful in a variety of settings relevant for research in social science, complex networks and infectious diseases dynamics. Each device and technology us...

Fractal and multifractal properties characterize many real-world scale-free networks. Here we present a deterministic approach to generate power-law networks from multifractal chaotic time series. We show, both analytically and numerically, how the resulting scale-free topologies preserve the multifractal information of the original chaotic source...

The largest eigenvalue of a network's adjacency matrix and its associated principal eigenvector are key elements for determining the topological structure and the properties of dynamical processes mediated by it. We present a physically grounded expression relating the value of the largest eigenvalue of any network to the largest eigenvalue of two...

Methods connecting dynamical systems and graph theory have attracted increasing interest in the past few years, with applications ranging from a detailed comparison of different kinds of dynamics to the characterisation of empirical data. Here we investigate the effects of the (multi)fractal properties of a time signal, common in sequences arising...

The static properties of the fundamental model for epidemics of diseases allowing immunity (susceptible-infected-removed model) are known to be derivable by an exact mapping to bond percolation. Yet when performing numerical simulations of these dynamics in a network a number of subtleties must be taken into account in order to correctly estimate t...

The generalized $H(n)$ Hirsch index of order $n$ has been recently introduced and shown to interpolate between the degree and the $K$-core centrality in networks. We provide a detailed analytical characterization of the properties of sets of nodes having the same $H(n)$, within the annealed network approximation. The connection between the Hirsch i...

Social interactions are composite, involve different communication layers and evolve in time. However, a rigorous analysis of the whole complexity of social networks has been hindered so far by lack of suitable data. Here we consider both the multi-layer and dynamic nature of social relations by analysing a diverse set of empirical temporal multipl...

We present an exhaustive mathematical analysis of the recently proposed Non-Poissonian Ac- tivity Driven (NoPAD) model [Moinet et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 114 (2015)], a temporal network model incorporating the empirically observed bursty nature of social interactions. We focus on the aging effects emerging from the Non-Poissonian dynamics of link act...

We consider a general criterion to discern the nature of the threshold in
epidemic models on scale-free (SF) networks. Comparing the epidemic lifespan of
the nodes with largest degrees with the infection time between them, we propose
a general dual scenario, in which the epidemic transition is either ruled by a
hub activation process, leading to a...

Certain nodes are influential in spreading information — or infection — across a network. But these nodes need not be those with the most connections, and topology can play a key role, as a 2010 paper in Nature Physics established.

The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of
information about the structure and function of complex networks. In
particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are
crucial in the understanding of node's centrality and the unfolding of
dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of lo...

The presence of burstiness in temporal social networks, revealed by a power
law form of the waiting time distribution of consecutive interactions, is
expected to produce aging effects in the corresponding time-integrated network.
Here we propose an analytically tractable model, in which interactions among
the agents are ruled by a renewal process,...

In a recent work, a new numerical method (the lifespan method) has been
introduced to study the critical properties of epidemic processes on complex
networks [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{111}, 068701 (2013)]. Here, we present a
detailed analysis of the viability of this method for the study of the critical
properties of generic absorbing-state phase t...

We investigate the dynamic relaxation of random walks on temporal networks by
focusing in the recently proposed activity driven model [Perra \textit{et al.}
Sci. Rep. srep00469 (2012)]. For realistic activity distributions with a
power-law form, we observe the presence of a very slow relaxation dynamics
compatible with aging effects. A theoretical...

Empirical data on the dynamics of human face-to-face interactions across a
variety of social venues have recently revealed a number of context-independent
structural and temporal properties of human contact networks. This universality
suggests that some basic mechanisms may be responsible for the unfolding of
human interactions in the physical spac...

In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence
for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide
range of biological and socio-technical systems. The complex properties of real
world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and
non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in va...

We study the temporal percolation properties of temporal networks by taking as a representative example the recently proposed activity-driven-network model [N. Perra et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 469 (2012)]. Building upon an analytical framework based on a mapping to hidden variables networks, we provide expressions for the percolation time Tp marking the...

We investigate the effects of local population structure in reaction-diffusion processes representing a contact process (CP) on metapopulations represented as complex networks. Considering a model in which the nodes of a large scale network represent local populations defined in terms of a homogeneous graph, we show by means of extensive numerical...

We develop an analytical approach to the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model that allows us to unravel the true origin of the absence of an epidemic threshold in heterogeneous networks. We find that a delicate balance between the number of high degree nodes in the network and the topological distance between them dictates the existence...

Here we consider the topological properties of the integrated networks emerging from the activity-driven model [N. Perra et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 469 (2012)], a temporal network model recently proposed to explain the power-law degree distribution empirically observed in many real social networks. By means of a mapping to a hidden-variable network model...

We develop a analytical approach to the susceptible-infected-susceptible
epidemic model that allows us to unravel the true origin of the absence
of an epidemic threshold in heterogeneous networks. We find that a
delicate balance between the number of high degree nodes in the network
and the topological distance between them dictates the existence o...

Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in Cognitive
Science, from artificial neural net- works to spreading activation models of
semantic mem- ory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed,
providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in
contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabo...

Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconvers...

The random walk process lies underneath the description of a large
number or real world phenomena. Here we provide a general framework for
the study of random walk processes in time varying networks in the
regime of time-scale mixing; i.e. when the network connectivity pattern
and the random walk process dynamics are unfolding on the same time
scal...

We investigate the properties of the threshold contact process (TCP), a process showing an absorbing-state phase transition with infinitely many absorbing states, on random complex networks. The finite-size scaling exponents characterizing the transition are obtained in a heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) approximation and compared with extensive simu...

We present a detailed investigation of the behavior of the nonlinear q-voter
model for opinion dynamics. At the mean-field level we derive analytically, for
any value of the number q of agents involved in the elementary update, the
phase diagram, the exit probability and the consensus time at the transition
point. The mean-field formalism is extend...

We propose a simple model for genetic adaptation to a changing environment, describing a fitness landscape characterized by two maxima. One is associated with "specialist" individuals that are adapted to the environment; this maximum moves over time as the environment changes. The other maximum is static, and represents "generalist" individuals not...

The random walk process underlies the description of a large number of real-world phenomena. Here we provide the study of random walk processes in time-varying networks in the regime of time-scale mixing, i.e., when the network connectivity pattern and the random walk process dynamics are unfolding on the same time scale. We consider a model for ti...

By considering three different spin models belonging to the generalized voter class for ordering dynamics in two dimensions [Dornic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 045701 (2001)], we show that they behave differently from the linear voter model when the initial configuration is an unbalanced mixture of up and down spins. In particular, we show that fo...

In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categorie...

Contains the derivation of
Equation 1
.
(DOC)

Recent work has shown that different theoretical approaches to the dynamics of the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model for epidemics lead to qualitatively different estimates for the position of the epidemic threshold in networks. Here we present large-scale numerical simulations of the SIS dynamics on various types of networks, allowing t...

The voter model is a paradigm of ordering dynamics. At each time step, a
random node is selected and copies the state of one of its neighbors.
Traditionally, this state has been considered as a binary variable. Here, we
relax this assumption and address the case in which the number of states is a
parameter that can assume any value, from 2 to \inft...

By considering three different spin models belonging to the generalized voter
class for ordering dynamics in two dimensions [I. Dornic, \textit{et al.} Phys.
Rev. Lett. \textbf{87}, 045701 (2001)], we show that they behave differently
from the linear voter model when the initial configuration is an unbalanced
mixture up and down spins. In particula...

Supplementary information

We describe a generalization of the voter model on complex networks that
encompasses different sources of degree-related heterogeneity and that is
amenable to direct analytical solution by applying the standard methods of
heterogeneous mean-field theory. Our formalism allows for a compact description
of previously proposed heterogeneous voter-like...

We show that generic, slow dynamics can occur in the contact process on
complex networks with a tree-like structure and a superimposed weight pattern,
in the absence of additional (non-topological) sources of quenched disorder.
The slow dynamics is induced by rare-region effects occurring on correlated
subspaces of vertices connected by large weigh...