Romuald Lepers

Romuald Lepers
University of Burgundy | UB · Laboratoire Motricité-Plasticité

PhD

About

325
Publications
147,956
Reads
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9,821
Citations
Citations since 2017
71 Research Items
4473 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Introduction
Research Interests : - Interaction between mental fatigue and physical performance - Neuromuscular fatigue during prolonged exercise - Age-related change and sex difference in endurance performance
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - April 2016
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Invited Professor
January 2016 - present
University Bourgogne Franche-Comté
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2014 - present
French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (325)
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on the duration of actual and imagined goal-directed arm movements involving speed-accuracy trade-off. Ten participants performed actual and imagined point-to-point arm movements as accurately and as fast as possible before and after a 90-min sustained cognitive task inducing me...
Article
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Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order thre...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to test the effects of mental exertion involving response inhibition on pacing and endurance performance during a subsequent 5-km running time trial. After familiarization, 12 physically active subjects performed the time trial on a treadmill after two different cognitive tasks: (i) an incongruent Stroop task involving res...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion (i) reduces maximal muscle activation and (ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: The neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: (i...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, the participation of elderly trained people in endurance events such as marathon running has dramatically increased. Previous studies suggested that the performance of master runners (>40 years) during marathon running has improved. The aims of the study were (1) to analyze the changes in participation and performance trends of...
Article
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Paddling technique and stroke kinematics are important performance factors in flatwater sprint kayaking and entail significant energetic demands and a high strength from the muscles of the trunk and upper limbs. The various distances completed (from 200 m to 1000 m) require the athletes to optimize their pacing strategy, to maximize power output di...
Preprint
Paddling technique and stroke kinematics are important performance factors in flatwater sprint kayaking that require important energetic demand and high strength from the muscles of the trunk and upper limb. The various distance competed (from 200-m to 1000-m) requires the ath-letes to optimize their pacing strategy to maximize power output distrib...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several studies in psychology suggest that relationships exist between emotional context and motor control. Such a claim is based mainly on behavioral investigations whereas the underlying neurophysiological processes remain little known. Using a classical paradigm in motor control, we tested the impacts of viewing standardized affective pictures d...
Article
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Purpose: This study assessed the cardiorespiratory capacity, anaerobic speed reserve, and anthropometric and spatiotemporal variables of a 75-year-old world-class middle-distance runner who previously obtained several European and world records in the age categories of 60-70 years, achieved 13 European titles and 15 world champion titles, and also...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eccentric, compared to concentric muscle contraction, is thought to be attributed to different strategies of neuro-motor processing and a higher level of mental demand. This study aimed to evaluate the mental demand and related-cortical activation patterns to eccentric and concentric cycling at matched perceived effort and torque. Nineteen healthy...
Article
Full-text available
How corticospinal excitability changes during eccentric locomotor exercise is unknown. In the present study, 13 volunteers performed 30-min strenuous concentric and eccentric cycling bouts at the same power output (60% concentric peak power output). Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations were applied at exercise onset (3rd...
Article
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This study examined the influence of knee extensors’ hip and knee angle on force production capacity and their neuromuscular and architectural consequences. Sixteen healthy men performed sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of knee extensors with four different combinations of the knee and hip angles. Muscle architecture,...
Article
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This study aimed to compare neuromuscular alterations and perceptions of effort and muscle pain induced by concentric and eccentric cycling performed at the same power output or effort perception. Fifteen participants completed three 30-min sessions: one in concentric at 60% peak power output (CON) and two in eccentric, at the same power output (EC...
Article
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Mental fatigue impairs both cognitive and physical performance. Bioactive substances (e.g., caffeine) have been used to counteract mental fatigue but could have side effects. The present study aimed to test two non-bioactive strategies to counteract mental fatigue: physical activity and listening to music. The participants first performed an arm-po...
Article
Full-text available
There is a wide range of cadence available to cyclists to produce power, yet they choose to pedal across a narrow one. While neuromuscular alterations during a pedaling bout at non-preferred cadences were previously reviewed, modifications subsequent to one fatiguing session or training intervention have not been focused on. We performed a systemat...
Data
Online corrections of arm movements to visual targets is dependent upon proprioceptive and visual feedback of the arm and body. We asked participants to perform online corrections of arm movements during stance in 2 conditions: 1) full vision of the arm and body, and 2) vision only of final target position. Data shows unperturbed reach movements (l...
Article
To meet their high energy requirements, trained racehorses are commonly fed high-cereal diets which have been correlated with increased health and behavior risks. Replacing part of cereal with dehydrated alfalfa could minimize these risks and provide higher protein levels for optimizing muscle protein synthesis in exercised horses. This study asses...
Article
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Corticospinal excitability, and particularly the balance between cortical inhibitory and excitatory processes (assessed in a muscle using single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation), are affected by neurodegenerative pathologies or following a stroke. This review describes how locomotor exercises may counterbalance these neuroplastic...
Article
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Are you looking for a training buddy to prepare for your next marathon race? Have you ever considered that your father could be the right person? Would not it be great to cross the finish line side by side and get on the podium together? You probably think that your father is not young enough for such an effort, do not you? We believe that your fat...
Article
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Your muscles can contract in different ways: when you walk upstairs, the muscles at the fronts of your thighs shorten (concentric contraction), whereas when you walk downstairs, they lengthen (eccentric contraction). Concentric contractions require more oxygen and thus make you burn more calories. Eccentric contractions are easier but break parts o...
Article
Full-text available
Estimation of the age-related decline in athletic performance by analyzing age-group world record performances presents an inherent limitation because the records generally belong to different individuals. Longitudinal studies describing the changes in performance with advancing age for the same individuals with a consistent training regimen are mo...
Article
Full-text available
Recent literature suggests that when prolonged, motor imagery (MI) induces mental fatigue and negatively impacts subsequent physical exercise. The aim of this study was to confirm this possibility with neurophysiological and self-reported measures. Thirteen participants performed 200 imagined isometric knee extension contractions (Prolonged MI cond...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of mental fatigue on both cognitive and physical performance are well described in the literature, but the recovery aspects of mental fatigue have been less investigated. The present study aimed to fill this gap by examining the persistence of mental fatigue on behavior and electrophysiological mechanisms. Fifteen participants performed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Mental fatigue (MF) is defined as a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and characterized by subjective feelings of “tiredness” and “lack of energy (Boksem and Tops, 2008). MF can have many effects on physical performances (for a review see Pageaux and Lepers, 2018). Among the negative ef...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study tested muscle activity (EMG) and perception of effort in eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) cycling before and after four sessions of both. Methods: Twelve volunteers naïve to ECC cycling attended the laboratory six times. On day 1, they performed a CON cycling peak power output (PPO) test. They then carried-out four sessio...
Article
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Exercise Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology
Conference Paper
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PURPOSE: Perceptions of effort (PE) and muscle pain (MP) influence performance and engagement in regular physical exercise. Literature-based standardized instructions describe PE as resulting from multiple sensory cues including “aches”. This description of PE creates a possible confound when PE and MP are being considered separately. This project...
Conference Paper
Purpose: This work aimed to examine the effect of contraction type (eccentric- ECC- or concentric- CON) on neuromuscular fatigue magnitude and etiology following exercise performed at maximal intensity and similar total mechanical work. Methods: Ten males participated in 4 experimental sessions (separate days) during which they performed 2 sets of...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo examine corticospinal excitability and neuromuscular function following the completion of eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CON) maximal exercises of same mechanical work.Methods Ten males (29.9 ± 11.8 years) performed maximal isokinetic knee extensor contractions in four experimental sessions. The two first sessions (one in ECC and one in C...
Article
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TO THE EDITOR: Over the last three decades, the improvement in the marathon world record (WR) has been ~4–5% for elite runners (1). During the same time period, marathon performances of the best master runners have improved at a much greater rate, especially for the older age groups (� 60 yr old) (2, 3). When changes in marathon world record perfo...
Article
In their Viewpoint, Joyner et al. (2) proposed that a convergence of factors (physiology, training, technology, and logistics) may explain the recent swift improvement in marathon times. While we agree on the importance of these factors and we acknowledge previous research in elite marathon runners, we believe that masters athletes can add to the d...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the physiological profiles and the pacing strategies of the father (59 years old) and son (34 years old) who broke the World record time (4:59:22; father : 2:27:52, son : 2:31:30) for combined father and son marathon in 2019. Oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), blood lactate concentration (...
Chapter
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Age-related changes in physiology of master triathletes (i.e. >40 years old) result inevitably in a decrease in triathlon performance. The increase in participation of master triathletes in short- and long-distance triathlons over the last decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a faster rate than their younger count...
Article
Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) is not only an indicator of endurance performance, but also a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This physiological parameter is known to decrease with aging. In turn, physical exercise might attenuate the rate of aging-related decline in VO2max, which in light of the global population agin...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) semi-recumbent leg cycling on global corticospinal excitability (CSE), assessed through the activity of a non-exercised hand muscle. Thirteen healthy male adults completed two 30-min bouts of moderate intensity ECC and CON recumbent cycling on separate days. Power output (P...
Article
Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate (HR), energy cost (EC) and oxygen pulse are lower during downhill compared to level or uphill locomotion. However, a change in oxygen pulse and EC during prolonged grade exercise is not well documented. This study investigated changes in cardiorespiratory responses and EC during 45-min grade exercises. Nine male hea...
Poster
Full-text available
Understanding neurophysiological functioning of eccentric (ECC) contractions is necessary when considering strategies for improving muscle strength to both sports performance and rehabilitation programs. Indeed, ECC contraction requires a lower energy consumption to develop the same amount of force compared to concentric (CON) contraction. At the s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Decrease in torque developed during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVCISO) has been broadly employed to quantify neuromuscular fatigue. However, little is known on how well loss of MVCISO torque reflects magnitude and etiology of neuromuscular fatigue induced by dynamic exercise (concentric- CON- or eccentric- ECC). Hence,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Introduction : De nombreux travaux issus des sciences affectives et de la psychologie ont démontré l'existence de liens entre contexte émotionnel et paramètres du mouvement. Néanmoins, ceux-ci s'appuient majoritairement sur des mesures uniquement comportementales, si bien que les mécanismes neurophysiologiques sous-jacents restent encore très peu c...
Conference Paper
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Introduction La fatigue mentale est état psychobiologique causé par la réalisation d’une tâche cognitive prolongée et/ou intense, caractérisée par une sensation subjective de fatigue et de manque d’énergie (Boksem & Tops, 2008). Elle impacte les performances cognitives (e.g., baisse de l’attention) mais également physiques (e.g., Pageaux & Lepers,...
Article
Life expectancy is increasing globally, and the oldest old (≥85 years) are the fastest-growing population segment. Preservation of physical fitness at advanced ages is, therefore , a major medical problem that no drug is likely to target in the foreseeable future. However, some sports achievements by centenarians suggest that, with proper exercise...
Article
Purpose: To examine the cardiorespiratory, muscular, and skeletal characteristics of an 83-year-old champion female master athlete (called DL in this study) who had set multiple world running records in the 80-to-84-year-old age group. Methods: Measures of maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, maximal isometric torque for knee extensor musc...
Article
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Purpose: This study assessed the cardiorespiratory capacity and running economy (RE) of a 59-yr-old ex-Olympian athlete who ran a marathon in 2:30:15 in 2019. The athlete retired from running at 32 yr old (best marathon performance: 2:13:59) for a 16-yr period after his participation at the Olympics. Methods: Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V˙O2...
Article
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This study aimed to analyse the performance of Hiromu Inada (HI), an 85-year-old triathlete, who became the oldest athlete in the world to complete the famous Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of a 3.8 km swim, 180-km cycle and 42-km run. HI swam in 1 h 51 min, cycled in 8 h 02 min, ran in 6 h 28 min and took 31 min for his transitions, for a tot...
Article
Full-text available
Locomotor exercise may induce corticospinal excitability and/or cortical inhibition change in the knee extensors. This study investigated whether the mode of muscle contraction involved during a locomotor exercise modulates corticospinal and intracortical responsiveness. Eleven subjects performed two 45-min treadmill walking exercises in an uphill...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION As muscle pain and effort are two exercise-related sensations involved in the regulation of endurance performance [1, 2], it is crucial to test the ability of humans to dissociate these two perceptions during physical exercise [3]. This study aimed to test the dissociation between PE and muscle pain during cycling exercise. We hypothes...
Article
Full-text available
This brief review investigates how sex influences triathlon performance. Performance time for both Olympic distance and Ironman distance triathlons, and physiological considerations are discussed for both elite and non-elite male and female triathletes. The relative participation of female athletes in triathlon has increased over the last three dec...
Article
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Objective Eccentric (ECC) cycle-ergometers have recently become commercially-available, offering a novel method for rehabilitation training. Many studies have reported that ECC cycling enables the development of higher levels of muscular force at lower cardiorespiratory and metabolic loads, leading to greater force enhancements after a training per...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the sex differences in (3.8 km) swim, (180 km) cycle, (42 km) run, and overall performance time at the 2018 Ironman triathlon World Championship. Sex differences in performance times were analysed for the top 10 male and female amateur triathletes of each 5 years age group between 18–24...
Chapter
Mental fatigue is known to increase subjective feelings of fatigue and to decrease cognitive performance, but its impact on physical performance remains poorly understood. The aim of this chapter was to review the results of 29 studies published between 2009 and April 2018 and focusing on the impact of mental fatigue on sport-related performance. T...
Article
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PURPOSE: To describe the neuromuscular and perceptual responses to incline, decline or level treadmill exercise. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects performed on separate days 45 min treadmill exercise at 75% heart rate reserve in a level (+ 1% slope), incline (+ 15%) or decline condition (− 15%). Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors (KE)...
Article
Full-text available
The present study assessed neuromuscular and corticospinal changes during and after a fatiguing submaximal exercise of the knee extensors in different modes of muscle contraction. Twelve subjects performed two knee extensors exercises in a concentric or eccentric mode, at the same torque and with a similar total impulse. Exercises consisted of 10 s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Motor Imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of action without concomitant movements. Recently, it has been shown that prolonged MI increases feeling of fatigue and impairs motor control, suggesting that MI may induce mental fatigue. The present study, which used electroencephalography (EEG), aims first at analyzing the changes in EEG-...
Article
Full-text available
The swimrun is a new endurance team-sport based on two persons swimming and running alternatively through open water and mostly trails. The aim of this study was to analyse participation and performance trends for males, females and mixed duo team at the ÖTILLÖ Swimrun race (10km open-water swimming and 65km trail running). During the 2012-2016 per...
Chapter
Full-text available
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the age-related decline in endurance running performance of one of the greatest master runners ever, Ed Whitlock. His running performances from 1500 m to marathon were analyzed for five periods of 5 years from 65-69 years to 85-89 years. Despite exceptional running performances for his advanced age, the rate of decline in his pe...
Article
Background: Age-related declines in sport performance are characteristic of all endurance and sprinting disciplines. However, it is not known if the mode of locomotion (i.e. swimming, cycling or running) influences the age-related decline in sport performance in sprinting and endurance events. Methods: To examine the age-related decline in three...
Article
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The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses during 15 min of intermittent running consisting of 30 s high intensity running exercise at maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) interspersed with 30 s passive recovery (30-30) performed outdoor versus on a motorized treadmill. Fifteen collegiate physically active males (age: 22±1 years-old...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To describe the effects of uphill walking versus cycling exercises on knee extensors (KE) neuromuscular properties and subsequent running exercise. Methods: Nine athletes performed four different sessions (one familiarization and three experimental sessions, visit 2 to 4). Visit 2 (cycling + 10 km condition) consisted of the completion of...
Article
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Purpose: This study analyzed the impact of several protocols of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), matched with a similar total torque-time integral, on muscle activation pathways and neuromuscular fatigue. Methods: Ten young healthy participants (age: 24.6 ± 4.2) performed 3 randomized NMES sessions on the triceps surae muscles with 2...