Roman Pabayo

Roman Pabayo
University of Alberta | UAlberta · School of Public Health

PhD

About

83
Publications
14,471
Reads
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1,597
Citations
Introduction
Roman Pabayo currently works at the School of Public Health, University of Alberta. Roman does research in Epidemiology and Public Health.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - May 2020
University of Albera
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2014 - June 2017
University of Nevada, Reno
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2011 - present
Harvard University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Objectives We examined the relationship between income inequality and the risk for infant/neonatal mortality at the state and county level and tested possible mediators of this relationship.Methods We first linked state and county Gini coefficients to US Vital Statistics 2010 Cohort Linked Birth and Infant Death records (n = 3,954,325). We then fit...
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Although cross-sectional and ecological studies have shown that higher area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression, few longitudinal studies have been conducted. This investigation examines the relationship between state-level income inequality and major depression among adults participating in a population-based, repre...
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Concern has been raised regarding the increased prevalence of physical inactivity among children. Active transportation, such as walking and cycling to school, is an opportunity for children to be physically active. To identify the sociodemographic predictors of active transportation to schools across time among school-aged children participating i...
Article
Objectives While ecological studies indicate that high levels of structural racism within US states are associated with elevated infant mortality rates, studies using individual-level data are needed. To determine whether indicators of structural racism are associated with the individual odds for infant mortality among white and black infants in th...
Article
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The primary objective of this review is to assess the effect of UCTs for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities on the use of health services and health outcomes in children and adults in LMICs. Secondary objectives of the review are: to assess the effect of UC...
Article
Background: Several studies have linked neighbourhood environment to preschool-aged children's behavioural problems. Income inequality is an identified risk factor for mental health among adolescents, however, little is known as to whether this relationship extends to younger children. Objective: To explore the association between neighbourhood-...
Article
Purpose According to the social determinants of health framework, income inequality is a potential risk factor for adverse mental health. However, few studies have explored the mechanisms suspected to mediate this relationship. The current study addresses this gap through a mediation analysis to determine if social support and community engagement...
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Capturing socioeconomic inequalities in relation to chronic disease is challenging since socioeconomic status (SES) encompasses many aspects. We constructed a comprehensive individual-level SES index based on a broad set of social and demographic indicators (gender, education, income adequacy, occupational prestige, employment status) and examined...
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Background Since the 2010 election, the number of laws in the U.S. that create barriers to voting has increased dramatically. These laws may have spillover effects on population health by creating a disconnect between voter preferences and political representation, thereby limiting protective public health policies and funding. We examine whether v...
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Depression is a major public health concern among expectant mothers in Canada. Income inequality has been linked to depression, so interventions for reducing income inequality may reduce the prevalence of maternal depression. The current study aims to simulate the effects of government transfers and increases to minimum wage on depression in mother...
Article
Background Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age, or HIV infection) are a social protection intervention addressing a key social determinant of health (income) in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with co...
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Previous research indicates that the disproportionate distribution of income within society is associated with aggression and violence. Although research has been conducted identifying the relationship between income inequality and bullying victimization and perpetration, little is known about possible mediators. We investigated the association bet...
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Objectives: In the United States, Hispanics are more likely to experience financial barriers to mental health care than non-Hispanics. We used a unique survey to study the effect of these financial barriers on the severity of depressive symptoms among Hispanics who had previously been diagnosed as having depression. Methods: This cross-sectional st...
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Background Nearly one-third of secondary school students report experiencing depressive symptoms in the past year. Existing research suggests that increasing rates of depression are due in part to increasing income inequality. The aim of this study is to identify mechanisms by which income inequality contributes to depression among Canadian seconda...
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Objectives Rising income inequality is a potential risk factor for poor mental health, however, little work has investigated this link among mothers. Our goal was to determine if neighbourhood-level income inequality was associated with maternal mental health over time. Design Secondary data analysis using a retrospective cohort study design. Set...
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The misuse of prescription painkillers is a major contributor to the ongoing drug overdose epidemic. This study investigated variability in non-medical use of prescription painkillers (NMUPP) by race and early-life socioeconomic status (SES) in a sample now at increased risk for opioid overdose. Data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Stud...
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Objectives: Previous research has indicated that area-level income inequality is associated with increased risk in alcohol consumption. However, few studies have been conducted among adolescents living within smaller area units, such as neighborhoods. We investigated whether neighborhood income inequality is associated with alcohol consumption amo...
Article
Background: Many states in the United States (US) have introduced barriers to impede voting among individuals from socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This may reduce representation thereby decreasing access to lifesaving goods, such as health insurance. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 242,727 adults in the 50 states and District of...
Article
Our study examines the association between perceived discrimination due to race and unmet medical needs among a nationally representative sample of children in the United States. We used data from the 2016-2017 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based cross-sectional survey of randomly selected parents or guardians in the United Sta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Previous research has indicated that area-level income inequality is associated with increased risk in alcohol consumption. However, few studies have been conducted among adolescents living within smaller area-units, such as neighborhoods. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from a sample of 1,878 adolescents living in 38 neighborh...
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Background Previous research indicates that income inequality is associated with risk for mortality, self-rated health status, chronic conditions, and health behavior, such as physical activity. However, little is known about the relationship between income inequality and dietary intake, which is a major risk factor for common chronic diseases incl...
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Objectives: Since the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion, states have enacted laws restricting access to abortion services. Previous studies suggest that restricting access to abortion is a risk factor for adverse maternal and infant health. The objective of this investigation is to study the relationship between the...
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Little is known about the determinants of collective efficacy, a neighborhood social process comprised of social cohesion and social control, which has shown to be beneficially associated with health. Our goal was to identify determinants of collective efficacy, social cohesion and social control. We used data collected from the Boston Neighborhood...
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Objectives Fear of crime is associated with adverse mental health outcomes and reduced social interaction independent of crime. Because mental health and social interactions are associated with poor physical health, fear of crime may also be associated with death. The main objective is to determine whether neighbourhood fear is associated with time...
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Background: United States state-level income inequality is positively associated with infant mortality in ecological studies. We exploit spatiotemporal variations in a large dataset containing individual-level data to conduct a cohort study and to investigate whether current income inequality and increases in income inequality are associated with...
Article
Background Compared to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations, US infant mortality rates (IMRs) are particularly high. These differences are partially driven by racial disparities, with non-Hispanic black having IMRs that are twice those of non-Hispanic white. Income inequality (the gap between rich and poor) is...
Article
Introduction This study examined the levels of utilitarian walking by age and gender and associations between utilitarian walking, meeting global physical activity guidelines, and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. Methods The 2016 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey included complete...
Article
Objective: To investigate the possible effects of middle and high school racial composition on later reporting of lifetime non-medical use of prescription painkillers (NMUPP) in young adulthood, and to explore whether there is evidence of variability by individual race/ethnicity in such effects. Methods: Using data from Wave 1 (1994/5) of the Na...
Article
Background: The association between income inequality and health has been analyzed predominantly in developed countries with modest levels of inequality. The study aimed to analyze the association between income inequality and self-reported health (SRH) in the adult population of the 27 Brazilian capitals. Methods: Individuals aged 18 years or o...
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Background: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs com...
Article
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Purpose: Vulnerability to post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event can be influenced by individual-level as well as contextual factors. Characteristics of the social and economic environment might increase the odds for PTSD after traumatic events occur. One example that has been identified as a potential environmental determinant...
Article
Background: Previous work has identified a relationship between income inequality and risk for obesity and heart attack. We investigated the relationship between state-level income inequality and physical activity among US adults. Methods: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cross-sectional data from a population based and...
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Background: Emerging evidence suggests that body weight misperception may be associated with psychological distress among people in developed countries. Participating in physical activity (PA) may negate the association between weight misperception and psychological distress given the well-known benefits of PA on psychological health. This study e...
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Objective We aimed to analyse the individual and contextual determinants associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) morbidity among the elderly. Methods The sample consisted of 1333 individuals aged 60 or older residing in the city of São Paulo, from the Health, Welfare and Aging (SABE) study survey performed in 2010. The association between C...
Article
Objective: To investigate the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Design: In a cross-sectional study, adolescents were asked how often they drank soda and fruit drinks in the past 7 d. Depressive symptoms were measured using a brief adapted version of the Modified Depression Scale. Summa...
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Objectives This study examined the timing of menarche and spermarche and their associations with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) after controlling for body mass index (BMI). Methods Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether the timing of menarche in girls and spermarche in boys is associated with...
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Background: Although recent evidence has shown that area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression among adults, few studies have tested this association among adolescents. Methods: We analysed the cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighbourhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth S...
Article
Background: Late HIV diagnosis is associated with higher medical costs, early mortality among individuals, and HIV transmission in the population. Even under optimal configurations of stable or declining HIV incidence and increase in HIV case findings, no change in proportion of late HIV diagnosis is projected after year 2019. We investigated the...
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To examine prospectively the association between US state income inequality and incidence of heart attack. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,445). Respondents completed interviews at baseline (2001-2002) and follow-up (2004-2005). Weighted multilevel modeling was used to determine if US st...
Article
BACKGROUND: Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. METHODS: Data were derived from the...
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Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social...
Article
Objective: To examine associations between utilitarian walking, utilitarian cycling, leisure time physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Participants from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) of Statistics Canada were interviewed by telephone every two years from 1994 to 2010. Analysis includes data from 6894 living partic...
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Objectives: We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high sch...
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The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999–2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers....
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Objectives To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered...
Article
Purpose: Being a perpetrator or victim of assaults can have detrimental effects on the development and health of adolescents. Area-level income inequality has been suggested to be associated with crime and aggressive behavior. However, most prior research on this association has been ecological. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to...
Article
BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep is needed for the healthy development of youth. However, only a small minority of adolescents obtain adequate amounts of sleep. Although individual-level correlates of sleep have been identified, studies investigating the influence of the environment on sleep are warranted. METHODS: By using cross-sectional data collect...
Article
Sufficient sleep is needed for the healthy development of youth. However, only a small minority of adolescents obtain adequate amounts of sleep. Although individual-level correlates of sleep have been identified, studies investigating the influence of the environment on sleep are warranted. By using cross-sectional data collected from 1878 urban ad...
Conference Paper
Background Youth violence is a significant public health problem. In 2011 the Youth Risk Behavior Survey by the CDC estimated 32.5% of youth in the U.S. fought and 3.9% were injured in a fight in the past year, and 16.6% carried a weapon at least one day in the 30 days prior to the survey. Research has shown that youth violence occurs in multiple c...
Conference Paper
Background The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between neighborhood social fragmentation and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among 1,878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey (BYS), which is a biennial survey of high school students (grades 9-12)....
Article
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Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smok...
Article
Objectives: We determined whether community-level income inequality was associated with mortality among a cohort of older adults in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: We analyzed the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE) survey, a sample of community-dwelling older adults in São Paulo (2000-2007). We used survival analysis to examine the relationship be...
Article
Objectives: To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods: Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administere...
Article
Healthy eating during early childhood is important for growth and development. Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (CFG) provides dietary recommendations. We investigated patterns of food consumption among preschool children and attempted to determine whether these children's intakes met nutrition recommendations. Between 2005 and 2007, four- and...
Article
We determined whether social fragmentation, which is linked to the concept of anomie (or normlessness), was associated with a decreased likelihood of willingness to walk for exercise. Data were collected from mothers and fathers of 630 families participating in the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth Cohort, an ongoing longitudinal...
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In addition to individual-level characteristics, the social and physical environment may influence the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. The objective of this paper is to describe the association between smoking intolerance in schools, and in restaurants and corner stores located near schools, and initiation of cigarette smoking among...
Article
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To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age. Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants...