Roman Bednarik

Roman Bednarik
University of Eastern Finland | UEF · School of Computing

PhD

About

131
Publications
19,985
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2,105
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - December 2011
University of Eastern Finland
January 2004 - present
University of Eastern Finland

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
Background : 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) – precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) – is utilized in fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) of high-grade gliomas. PpIX is used to identify traces of glioma during resection. Visual inspection of the fluorescence seems inaccurate in comparison to optic techniques such as hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Aim :...
Article
Real-time mental stress monitoring from surgeons and surgical staff in operating rooms may reduce surgical injuries, improve performance and quality of medical care, and accelerate implementation of stress-management strategies. Motivated by the increase in usage of objective and subjective metrics for cognitive monitoring and by the gap in reviews...
Conference Paper
Research in surgical intervention and technology development is increasingly interdisciplinary. Despite the great potential of working in this way, recent research suggests that interdisciplinary collaborations and competing stakeholder interests can be challenging to initiate and manage, with the result that knowledge and expertise from different...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we provide a new viewpoint on the body of literature regarding rewards in serious and educational games. The study includes a quantitative bibliometric analysis of literature in this context from 1969 to 2020. The dataset from the Scopus abstract and citation database was analyzed with the Bibliometrix R library. The data set was manu...
Article
Background Eye tracking is a powerful tool for unobtrusive and real time assessment of workload in clinical settings. Before the complex eye tracking derived surrogates can be proactively utilized to improve surgical safety, the indications, validity and reliability requires careful evaluation. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature...
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Purpose Microsurgical techniques require highly skilled manual handling of specialized surgical instruments. Surgical process models are central for objective evaluation of these skills, enabling data-driven solutions that can improve intraoperative efficiency. Method We built a surgical process model, defined at movement level in terms of element...
Article
In microsurgical procedures, surgeons use micro-instruments under high magnifications to handle delicate tissues. These procedures require highly skilled attentional and motor control for planning and implementing eye-hand coordination strategies. Eye-hand coordination in surgery has mostly been studied in open, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted sur...
Article
Noncontact camera-based methods for measuring the pulse rate have been introduced in recent years. However, in previous studies, pulse-rate measurement experiments have been conducted only for adults and/or sleeping infants, and not for infants, who are awake. In this study, we compare the principal noncontact camera-based methods for pulse-rate me...
Article
Objective We examined performance differences between expert and novice neurosurgeons under a surgical microscope with the goal to evaluate surgical expertise. Methods The Tobii eye-tracker was used to record surgeons’ eye movements while they perform a micro-suturing task. A total of 19 expert and 18 novice trials were recorded under the microsco...
Conference Paper
In this work-in-progress, we present the design and implementation of a novel higher education medical computing continuous program that addresses on-demand, relevant clinical and health-care industry needs. A consortium of computing science and engineering academics and researchers, entrepreneurship and industry representatives, and clinicians is...
Article
A large dataset that contains the eye movements of N=216 programmers of different experience levels captured during two code comprehension tasks is presented. Data are grouped in terms of programming expertise (from none to high) and other demographic descriptors. Data were collected through an international collaborative effort that involved eleve...
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Full-text available
Background. Evaluation of microsurgical proficiency is conventionally subjective, time consuming, and unreliable. Eye movement–based metrics have been promising not only in detection of surgical expertise but also in identifying actual cognitive stress and workload. We investigated if pupil dilations and blinks could be utilized in parallel to accu...
Article
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During music reading, performers create expectations of the upcoming music. When these expectations are violated due to changes in the notation, performers have to adjust their reading and adapt their motor responses to match this new information. In this study, we examine how selected background, outcome, and process measures reflect the successfu...
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Full-text available
For several years, the software engineering research community used eye trackers to study program comprehension, bug localization, pair programming, and other software engineering tasks. Eye trackers provide researchers with insights on software engineers’ cognitive processes, data that can augment those acquired through other means, such as on-lin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Distinct tissue types are differentiated based on the surgeon’s knowledge and subjective visible information, typically assisted with white-light intraoperative imaging systems. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) assists in tissue identification and enables automated classifiers, but many anatomical details moderate computational predictions and...
Article
Pupil center and pupil contour are two of the most important features in the eye-image used for video-based eye-tracking. Well annotated databases are needed in order to allow benchmarking of the available- and new pupil detection and gaze estimation algorithms. Unfortunately, creation of such a data set is costly and requires a lot of efforts, inc...
Article
Pupil center and pupil contour are two of the most important features in the eye-image used for video-based eye-tracking. Well annotated databases are needed in order to allow benchmarking of the available- and new pupil detection and gaze estimation algorithms. Unfortunately, creation of such a data set is costly and requires a lot of efforts, inc...
Conference Paper
Music and source code are non-natural symbolic languages that humans use to interact not only among themselves, but also with devices. Music-reading research has a longer history than that of reading source code, the latter being a much less matured domain. In this paper we highlight the similarities and differences between source-code and music re...
Article
Code reviews are an important practice in software development that increases team productivity and improves product quality. They are also examples of remote, computer-mediated asynchronous communications which are prone to the loss of affective information. Prior research has focused on sentiment analysis in source codes, as positive affect has b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye-movement modeling examples (EMME) have previously been shown to impact attention of learners in various domains. Potentials of such training methods, however, have remained unexplored in computer programming education. In the current study, participants attended to a classroom experiment in which their comprehension strategies were cued by an e...
Conference Paper
Pupil-related feature detection is one of the most common approaches used in the eye-tracking literature and practice. Validation and benchmarking of the detection algorithms relies on accurate ground-truth datasets, but creating of these is costly. Many approaches have been used to obtain human based annotations. A recent proposal to obtain these...
Conference Paper
Pupillary responses have been for long linked to cognitive workload in numerous tasks. In this work, we investigate the role of pupil dilations in the context of microsurgical training, handling of microinstruments and the suturing act in particular. With an eye-tracker embedded on the surgical microscope oculars, eleven medical participants repeat...
Conference Paper
Embedded close-to-the-eye gaze tracking permits new types of interaction in see-through augmented and virtual environments. It is however unclear how gaze-input can be used to select and confirm commands when the tracking technologies are located at close proximity to user's eyes, but cannot utilize fixed geometry as in screen-based environments. W...
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Background: Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic m...
Article
Understanding software engineers’ behaviour plays a vital role in the software development industry. It also provides helpful guidelines for teaching and learning. In this article, we conduct a study of the extrafoveal vision and its role in information processing. This is a new perspective on source code comprehension. Despite its major importance...
Conference Paper
Studies of visual attention during web-browsing belong to long standing applications of eye-tracking. Before researchers can analyze characteristics of visual attention, they often have to manually annotate each Area of Interest (AOI) at the web page. The longer, more complex, and dynamic the web pages are, the more time the researcher spends on cr...
Conference Paper
A way to improve gaze tracking by spectral imaging is presented. Spectral still and video cameras enabled a collection of a novel database consisting of 180 multispectral eye movement videos and 30 spectral images of the eyes of 30 voluntary human subjects. Unfavorable conditions, such as eyewear reflections, extreme angles and make-up were incorpo...
Article
Interactions in micro-neurosurgical operating rooms form a complex orchestration of labor and information flows. In the center, there is the focus on patient safety and outcome quality in shortest possible time, while a neurosurgeon is fully focused on the task using a surgical microscope. To guarantee a successful outcome, maintaining a high level...
Article
Eye gaze has been used broadly in interactive intelligent systems. The research area has grown in recent years to cover emerging topics that go beyond the traditional focus on interaction between a single user and an interactive system. This special issue presents five articles that explore new directions of gaze-based interactive intelligent syste...
Conference Paper
When modeling natural conversational behavior of an agent, a head direction becomes an intuitive proxy to visual attention. We examine this assumption and carefully investigate the relationship between head directions and gaze dynamics through the use of eye-movement tracking. In a group conversation settings, we analyze relationships of the two no...
Article
Short intensive interactions with unfamiliar pervasive displays coerce users to perform cognitive operations with uncertainty and risk of not being able to access the information of relevance later. We developed a new way of interaction with pervasive displays by harnessing the eye tracking technology to extract information that is most likely rele...
Article
The moving-window paradigm, based on gazecontingent technic, traditionally used in a studies of the visual perceptual span. There is a strong demand for new environments that could be employed by non-technical researchers. We have developed an easy-to-use tool with a graphical user interface (GUI) allowing both execution and control of visual gaze-...
Conference Paper
Every purposive interactive action begins with an intention to interact. In the domain of intelligent adaptive systems, behavioral signals linked to the actions are of great importance, and even though humans are good in such predictions, interactive systems are still falling behind. We explored mouse interaction and related eye-movement data from...
Article
Pupillary response is associated with perceptual and cognitive loads in visual and cognitive tasks, but no quantitative link between pupil response and the task workload in visual-motor tasks has been confirmed. The objective of this study is to investigate how the changes of task requirement of a visual-motor task are reflected by the changes of p...
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Full-text available
Developments in micro-neurosurgical microscopes have improved operating precision and ensured the quality of outcomes. Using the stereoscopic magnified view, however, necessitates frequent manual adjustments to the microscope during an operation. This article reports on an investigation of the interaction details concerning a state-of-the-art micro...
Article
NordiCHI'14 conference attendees got hands-on experience with a number of great new interactive systems. Among the accepted poster, video, and demo submissions, we selected the following four prototypes to illustrate the high-quality design research displayed during the conference, which was held in Helsinki, Finland, October 26--30, 2014. Mikael W...
Article
We map the state of the practice of user-centred design in industrial settings. We evaluated the level of adoption of user-centred approaches in small IT companies at the Eastern Finland border area. We focus on the perception of UCD, on the methods employed and on the adoption level. A set of interviews with 12 IT companies revealed a tension betw...
Article
Eye tracking has long been known as a tool for attention tracking, however, the understanding of gaze in the critical domains such as surgery is still in its infancy. In image-guided surgery, studying the role that visual attention plays in eye-hand coordination, situation awareness, and instrumentation control is critical in order to understand th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a summary of the seventh workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction. The Gaze-in 2014 workshop is a part of a series of workshops held around the topics related to gaze and multimodal interaction. The workshop web-site can be found at http://hhhuang.homelinux.com/gaze_in/.
Conference Paper
Micro-neurosurgery has been revolutionized by advances in the surgical microscope such as high magnification that have increased a surgeon's ability to have a clear view of the surgical field. High magnification necessitates frequent interaction with the microscope during an operation, and the current interaction technique for positioning and adjus...
Conference Paper
One of the important characteristics of a window and gaze-contingent tool is the speed of reaction to the pointer or eye-movements and the update delay or the so-called latency of the contingent response. In our video we demonstrate a handy possibility of measuring the latency of the gaze-contingent or mouse-based software. We present a low-cost La...
Conference Paper
Inuential statements during conversations change the flow of the discussion and open new directions in the conversation. The content of the statement does not make the statement inuential alone, it is strengthened by behavioral patterns, such as voice pitch, facial gestures, gaze and body postures. In this work we focus on the relationship between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The methodology of eye tracking has been gradually making its way into various fields of science, assisted by the diminishing cost of the associated technology. In an international collaboration to open up the prospect of eye movement research for programming educators, we present a case study on program comprehension and preliminary analyses toget...
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We analyze the Computing Education Research (CER) literature to discover what theories, conceptual models and frameworks recent CER builds on. This gives rise to a broad understanding of the theoretical basis of CER that is useful for researchers working in that area, and has the potential to help CER develop its own identity as an independent fiel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pupil size is known to correlate with the changes of cognitive task workloads, but how the pupil responds to requirements of basic goal-directed motor tasks involved in human-machine interactions is not yet clear. This work conducted a user study to investigate the pupil dilations during aiming in a tele-operation setting, with the purpose of bette...
Article
Latest developments in remote and head-mounted eye tracking and automated eye movement analysis point the way toward unobtrusive eye-based humancomputer interfaces that will become pervasively usable in everyday life. We call this new paradigm pervasive eye tracking-continuous eye monitoring and analysis 24/7. Pervasive Eye Tracking and Mobile Eye-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pupil size is known to correlate with changes of cognitive task workloads, but the pupillary response to requirements of basic goaldirected motor tasks is not yet clear, although pointing with tools is a ubiquitous human task. This work describes a user study to investigate the pupil dilations during aiming in two tele-operation tasks with differen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While knowledge about reading behavior in natural-language text is abundant, little is known about the visual attention distribution when reading source code of computer programs. Yet, this knowledge is important for teaching programming skills as well as designing IDEs and programming languages. We conducted a study in which 15 programmers with va...
Conference Paper
Heatmap is one of the most popular visualizations of gaze behavior, however, increasingly voluminous streams of eye-tracking data make processing of such visualization computationally demanding. Because of high requirements on a single processing machine, real-time visualizations from multiple users are unfeasible if rendered locally. We designed a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Novices were trained to perform a unimanual peg transport task in a laparoscopic training box with an illuminated interior displayed on a monitor. Subjects were divided into two groups; one group was verbally instructed to direct their gaze at distant targets, while the other group had their gaze behaviour implicitly manipulated using distant targe...
Conference Paper
Using dual eye tracking we performed a study characterising the differences in interaction patterns while learning online materials individually or with a peer. The findings show that in majority of cases, user prefer to use the online learning materials in parallel when working on a learning task on their own tool. Collaborative learning took long...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a summary of the sixth workshop in Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction. The GazeIn'13 workshop is a part of a series of workshops held around the topics related to gaze and multimodal interaction. The workshop web-site can be found at http://cs.uef.fi/gazein2013/
Conference Paper
We present the conceptual and technical framework we are developing in order to design and evaluate suitable applications for varying cognitive strengths. Our concept is based on an interconnected network of multitouch tables and a hardware-agnostic thin framework that supports natural interaction and proximal connections of tablets and other sens...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most of the current methods for user experience evaluation require that users are able to reflect on and communicate their own experience. Such methods, however, are not suitable when users have limited communication skills. We conducted video observations to evaluate user experience of four low-functioning children with an autism spectrum disorder...
Conference Paper
Interaction error prevention needs to start from a good understanding of the context of an error. One of the central issues in gaze-interaction research is the suppression of the so-called Midas touch: the interface's incorrect evaluation of user gaze as a purposeful interaction command. We conduct a detailed analysis of numerous instances of these...
Chapter
Inference about high-level cognitive states during interaction is a fundamental task in building proactive intelligent systems that would allow effective offloading of mental operations to a computational architecture. We introduce an improved machine-learning pipeline able to predict user interactive behavior and performance using real-time eye-tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Little is known about the effectiveness of automatic explanations in educational program visualization. We designed a study in which the order of animations and related explanations was manipulated. Two groups of a total of 18 participants interacted with either animation-first or explanation-first version of a tool. The results indicate that anima...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At two European universities providing technical and general computing education, we conducted a survey of undergraduate and graduate student experiences with final thesis work. We focused on the needs of students, role of their supervisor, and perception of institutional scaffolding. Learning style as a background variable was measured using the N...
Article
Full-text available
Eye-tracking presents an attractive tool in testing of design alternatives in all stages of interface evaluation. Access to the operator's visual attention behaviors provides information supporting design decisions. While mobile eye-tracking increases ecological validity it also brings about numerous constraints. In this work, we discuss mobile eye...
Article
Full-text available
When using a multiparty video mediated system, interacting participants assume a range of various roles and exhibit behaviors according to how engaged in the communication they are. In this paper we focus on estimation of conversational engagement from gaze signal. In particular, we present an annotation scheme for conversational engagement, a stat...
Article
Full-text available
This work-in-progress paper reports on the initial results of an eye-tracking research of collaborative program development, more particularly, in the case of pair programming. The study was conducted in nearly industrial-like settings and focused on pair programming productivity and improvement of the protocol that is followed by the pair-programm...
Article
Interaction intent prediction and the Midas touch have been a longstanding challenge for eye-tracking researchers and users of gaze-based interaction. Inspired by machine learning approaches in biometric person authentication, we developed and tested an offline framework for task-independent prediction of interaction intents. We describe the princi...
Article
Differences between visual attention strategies of experts and novices have been investigated in many fields, but little has been done in the field of microneurosurgery. In the hands of an experienced surgeon, microneurosurgery seems like an elegant, routine and clean procedure with minimal blood loss. However, microneurosurgery is a multifaceted t...