Roland James Thorpe, Jr.

Roland James Thorpe, Jr.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health | JHSPH · Department of Health, Behavior and Society

PhD

About

417
Publications
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8,216
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Publications

Publications (417)
Article
Interest in studying structural racism's impacts on health has grown exponentially in recent years. Across these studies, there is much heterogeneity in the definition and measurement of structural racism, leading to mixed interpretations of structural racism's impact on health. A precise definition of structural racism can offer conceptual clarity...
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Place and race are two important predictors of fatal police shootings. We used Mapping Police Violence Data and the Washington Post Fatal Force Data to determine whether a county's deprivation status within communities influences the association between the number of fatal police shootings, and how the number of fatal police shootings differs by ra...
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Background Previous research has found an inverse relationship between risk of chronic disease and two indices of dietary quality, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Objective This study aimed to investigate sociodemographic factors associated with dietary quality scores and whether HEI and AEHI scores were...
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Objective To assess domains of social determinants of health (SDoH) and their associations with cognition and quality of life. Method This investigation uses baseline data from individuals participating in the ACTIVE trial ( n = 2505) to reproduce the SDoH domains described in Healthy People 2030 (economic stability, health care, education, neighb...
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Objectives: To evaluate the relationships between perceived neighborhood racial composition (PNRC), psychosocial risks and resources, and depressive symptoms among young (ages 22–35), middle-aged (ages 36–49), and older (ages 50+) Black Americans. Methods: Full sample and age-stratified linear regression models estimated the PNRC-depressive symptom...
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Background and Objectives: This study assessed how attributions for everyday discrimination typologies relate to all-cause mortality risk among older Black adults. Research Design and Methods: Data come from Black participants in the 2006/2008 Health and Retirement Study (N=1,232). Attributions for everyday discrimination (i.e., ancestry, gender,...
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Background and Objectives Abundant evidence documents racial/ethnic disparities in access, quality of care, and quality of life (QoL) among nursing home (NH) residents who are Black, Indigenous and people of color (BIPOC) compared to White residents. BIPOC residents are more likely to be admitted to lower quality NHs and to experience worse outcome...
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Importance: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. Depression prevalence varies by income and sex, but more evidence is needed on the role income inequality may play in these associations. Objective: To examine the association between the Poverty to Income Ratio (PIR)-as a proxy for income-and depressive symp...
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Objectives: Cognitive abilities have been implicated as predictors of mortality in older adults. This study examines the effects of cognitive training on mortality 20 years post-intervention. Methods: Data come from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized control trial (N = 2802). Participants were cogn...
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Objectives Substantial evidence documents the protective role of racial identity—or the meaning and significance that individuals attribute to race—among Black Americans, yet the impact of racial identity on physical health outcomes beyond young adulthood remains unclear. To clarify the extent to which racial identity remains influential for physic...
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There is a well-established link between psychosocial risks and psychological health among African American (AA) men. Yet, the psychosocial sources and physical health consequences of resilience (i.e., the ability to maintain good health despite adversity) remain underexplored. Using data from 283 AA men in the Nashville Stress and Health Study, th...
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Education continues to be a key factor contributing to increased access to critical life-improving opportunities and has been found to be protective against Allostatic Load (AL). The purpose of this study was to assess AL among Non-Hispanic (NH) White and NH Black men with the same level of education. We used 1999–2016 National Health and Nutrition...
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Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between three specific indicators of financial hardship (difficulty paying bills, food insecurity, reduced medication use due to cost) and depressive symptoms by race. Methods This was a cross sectional study using the Health and Retirement Study to analyze the data by conducting...
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Police violence is a multidimensional issue that requires consideration of the violent events and how these events reflect systemic oppression. Violence and policing practices are influenced by race and ethnicity, place/neighborhood, structural inequality, and racism. We performed an integrated literature review to critically evaluate the current e...
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Background: Multiple factors may influence the risk of being homebound, including social isolation and race. This study examines the relationship between social isolation and homebound status by race over 9 years in a sample of adults. Methods: Utilizing a representative sample of 7788 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ from 2011-2019, we assessed...
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The USA was built on legalized racism that started with enslavement and continues in the form of structural racial discrimination. This discrimination is difficult to measure because its many manifestations are hard to observe and dynamic. A useful tool would measure across settings, institutions, time periods in a person’s life and the country’s h...
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Allostatic load (AL)—the biological assessment of long-term exposure to stress—may explain mortality-rate disparities among non-Hispanic Black (Black) men. We aimed to investigate AL among Black men with equivalent education status after controlling for income. A cross-sectional study was employed to investigate AL among 4113 Black men who particip...
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Background To measure the association between individual life-course socioeconomic position (SEP) and hearing aid use, we examined childhood and adulthood socioeconomic variables collected at the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study baseline visit (1987–1989)/Life Course Socioeconomic Status study (2001–2002) and hearing aid use data co...
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Introduction: Over the course of 24 hours, humans engage in multiple movement behaviors including sleep, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB) that are each associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Traditional regression models do not allow for the estimation of the relative contributions of each of these behavior...
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Research indicates that income is significantly associated with allostatic load (AL) and that this association may differ between White and Black Americans. Most existing income-AL link work focuses on women and less is known about this association among men. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined...
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Objectives Substantial evidence documents gender and racial disparities in C-reactive protein (CRP), a measure of systemic inflammation, among older adults. Yet, the comparative approaches of these studies may obscure distinct risk and protective factors associated with elevated CRP among older Black Americans. To pinpoint opportunities for interve...
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There is a paucity of research seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among individuals living in a gentrifying neighborhood. American Community Survey data were used to identify gentrifying neighborhoods. In a cross-sectional analysis, these data were then linked to the 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, yielding an analytic sample...
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Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of premature morbidity and mortality. Physical activity (PA) beneficially affects MetS; however, it is unclear if PA types differ among adolescents 12–15 years old, according to their MetS status. This study compared self-reported PA types by MetS status. Methods: Using the 2015–2016 National...
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Doubling in size since the 1970s, the aging needs of the African immigrant population are not fully understood. This qualitative study examined experiences of aging and retirement planning for African immigrant older adults in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, it explored the factors, processes, and ultimate decision of where these older adul...
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We reviewed research that examines racism as an independent variable and one or more health outcomes as dependent variables in Black American adults aged 50 years and older in the USA. Of the 43 studies we reviewed, most measured perceived interpersonal racism, perceived institutional racism, or residential segregation. The only two measures of str...
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Background: Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs, used widely for patient benefit, have increasingly been used for healthcare workers (HCW) to reduce occupational stress. However, there are barriers to these programs which limit their utilization, for both patients and HCW, specifically infectious disease concerns. The aim of the research p...
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Background and Objectives Nearly 8.2 million of community-dwelling, older Medicare beneficiaries receive support from long-term services and supports (LTSS) with routine daily activities. Prior work demonstrates disability related disparities; however, it is unclear whether these patterns persist among LTSS recipients and across specific sets of ac...
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Modifiable, behavioral risk factors like occupational sitting may contribute to inflammation, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This study evaluated the association of self-reported occupational sitting with changes in c-reactive protein (CRP) and the role of sex. We examined occupational sitting and baseline CRP levels for 2889 African Amer...
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Background and objectives: Prior research documents accelerated physiological aging among African Americans due to their greater lifetime exposure to social and economic adversity. Yet, less is known about the mechanisms through which early life stressors, such as early life racial discrimination (ELRD), and later life psychosocial resources, such...
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The needs and conceptualization of age-friendliness likely vary for immigrant older adults compared to native-born older adults. For example, Hispanic immigrant older adults often return to their home country following the development of ill health. Doubling in size since the 1970’s, the aging needs of African immigrants are not fully understood. T...
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Although Black-White disparities in health and mortality among men persist, there has been a paucity of work focusing on race differences in physiological dysregulation of biological processes resulting from the cumulative impact of stressors among men. The purpose of this study was to assess potential race differences in Allostatic Load (AL) among...
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There is a paucity of research focusing on the complex interaction between social, behavioral, biological, and psychosocial factors, and health outcomes among men. This symposium contains a collection of papers that discuss some key social determinants of health (SDOH) that can provide insights to advance our understanding of men’s health and aging...
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Black men experience high levels of social and psychological stress and religion has been a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between religious service attendance and mortality among Black men. Data were drawn from the NHANES III (1988-1994) sample linked to the 2015 public use Mortality File. The analytic sa...
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This study examined whether the effects of received and provided social support on blood pressure (BP) would differ by education. Data from 602 African American adults (48-95 years) enrolled in the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging were analyzed using multiple linear regression. We found no main effects of received and prov...
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The health profile of African Americans clearly shows that stress works to worsen chronic conditions. To improve the health of aging African Americans, interventions need to address how effects of stress are reduced by individual resilience factors and exacerbated by anxiety or other traits. We will characterize the effects of stress by measuring r...
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Religion and related institutions have resources to help individuals cope with chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this investigation is to examine the association between religious service attendance and mortality for adults with CKD. Data were drawn from NHANES III linked to the 2015 public use Mortality File...
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Objectives Black persons in the US are more likely to suffer from social inequality. Chronic stress caused by social inequality and racial discrimination results in weathering of the body that causes physiological dysregulation and biological age being higher than chronological age (accelerated aging). Depression has been linked to both racial disc...
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There has been sparse attention paid to the cognition of older men and potential race differences in cognitive ability among older men. Men’s health disparities are likely to continue to increase in the next few decades, likely due to an aging baby boom cohort; increases in racial diversity in the US; and increases in life expectancy among both Bla...
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Chronic kidney disease is an important clinical condition beset with racial and ethnic disparities that are associated with social inequities. Many medical schools and health centres across the USA have raised concerns about the use of race — a socio-political construct that mediates the effect of structural racism — as a fixed, measurable biologic...
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Background: Social isolation is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality comparable to well-established risk factors including smoking, hypertension, and a sedentary lifestyle. The specific biological mechanisms that connect social isolation to morbidity and mortality remain unclear. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are biologica...
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Obesity is a major public health problem both globally and within the U.S. It varies by multiple factors, including but not limited to income and sex. After controlling for potential covariates, there is little evidence to determine the association between income and obesity and how obesity may be moderated by sex and family income. We examined the...
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Background: Eliminating the NIH funding gap among underrepresented minorities (URMs) remains a high priority for the National Institutes of Health. In 2014, the National Research Mentoring Network1 Steps Toward Academic Research (NRMN STAR) program recruited postdoctoral, early-stage and junior faculty to participate in a 12-month grant writing an...
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The annual National Conference on Health Disparities (NCHD) was launched in 2000. It unites health professionals, researchers, community leaders, and government officials, and is a catalyzing force in developing policies, research interventions, and programs that address prevention, social determinants, health disparities, and health equity. The NC...
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The relationship between chronic medical conditions and PTSD within-race in Black adults is not well understood and there exists a dearth of empirical research investigating the gender differences. Cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life were used to examine the relationship between PTSD and obesity, hypertension, diabetes, h...
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Background This study examined whether the effects of received and provided social support on blood pressure (BP) would differ by education. Methods Data from 602 African American adults (48-95 years) enrolled in the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results We found no main...
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Children learn best when they are healthy. Therefore, access to school-based health and providing family support for social needs play an essential role in shaping a child's ability to succeed academically. The purpose of this mixed-methods review, which considers studies with all methods, is to describe and examine the effect of US school-based ca...
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The purpose of this article is to discuss poverty as a multidimensional factor influencing health. We will also explicate how racism contributes to and perpetuates the economic and financial inequality that diminishes prospects for population health improvement among marginalized racial and ethnic groups. Poverty is one of the most significant chal...
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Pain associated with financial hardship among older men varies by race. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of financial hardship with the presence of pain in men 50 years and older by race. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2010 wave, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the assoc...
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Non-Hispanic (NH) Black, American Indian/Alaska Native (Indigenous), and NH-White men have the highest colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates among all other racial/ethnic groups. Contributing factors are multifaceted, yet no studies have examined the psychometric properties of a comprehensive survey examining potential masculinity barriers to CRC...
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This study aimed to determine whether 1882 Black young adults’ educational attainment was associated with their obesity ([BMI] ≥ 30) and whether this association varied with household food insecurity. Data from interviews with Black young adults and a medical examination from the 2007–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analy...
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Background: Race disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related morbidity and mortality are evident among men. While previous studies show health in young adulthood and racial residential segregation (RRS) are important factors for CVD risk, these factors have not been widely studied in male populations. We sought to examine race differences...
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Background: African American children and adolescents make up a disproportionately large segment of those classified as overweight and obese. The purpose of this study was to examine social and behavioral factors associated with accelerated accumulation of weight and adiposity among this group. Methods: The data for this cross-sectional study we...
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Background: Weight misperception is a common problem among adolescents; however, few studies have examined contributing factors among an exclusively African American population. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with weight misperception among 12- to 19-year-old participants in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study (JHS-KIDS...
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Obesity is a major public health problem that varies by income and sex, yet there is little evidence to determine the association between income inequality and obesity. We examined the association between income and obesity in adults ages 20 years and older and tested whether this relationship differs by sex in the United States. We used the 1999–2...
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Research innovation that leads to discovery in the battle against neurological disease and disorders requires diverse ideas. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, one of the National Institutes of Health's 27 institutes and centers, strives to reduce the burden of neurological disease and disorders. The National Institutes of...
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Microbial sharing between humans and animals has been demonstrated in a variety of settings. However, the extent of microbial sharing that occurs within the healthcare setting during animal-assisted intervention programs is unknown. Understanding microbial transmission between patients and therapy dogs can provide important insights into potential...
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African Americans (AAs) are 20% more likely to develop serious psychological distress compared to Whites but are less likely to use mental health services. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment strategies to engage AA fathers in a mental health intervention. Using the community-based participatory research (CBPR) appr...
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Background: Our objective is to examine whether residential racial segregation may be constraining capacities for social distancing thus leaving African Americans potentially more exposed to contracting COVID-19. We hypothesized that residential racial segregation constrains African Americans' spatial mobility when the whole population is locked d...
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Background: The criminal justice system is the second largest referral source to publicly funded marijuana use disorder treatment. Individuals with criminal justice contact (being unfairly treated or abused by the police, lifetime arrest, incarceration, or parole) have reported notably high levels of stress, sleep problems, and marijuana use. Ther...
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IMPACT: This research study will provide evidence for public policy, systemic changes, and other interventions to address the adverse impacts of prolonged stress exposure experienced by young Black men. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between allostatic load (i.e., stress-induced cumulative biological risk)...
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Objective The objective of the paper is to critically review the current state of the literature on the association between discrimination and allostatic load (AL) in adults and determine whether this association differs by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods An extensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Embas...
Preprint
Background: Microbial sharing between humans and animals has been demonstrated in a variety of settings. However, the extent of microbial sharing that occurs within the healthcare setting during animal-assisted intervention programs, a validated and valuable part of holistic patient wellness, is unknown. Understanding microbial transmission between...
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Background Medicine and public health are shifting away from a purely “personal responsibility” model of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention towards a societal view targeting social and environmental conditions and how these result in disease. Given the strong association between social conditions and CVD outcomes, we hypothesize that accelerat...
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Objectives The theory of selective survival suggest that possibly around 70-75 years of age, Blacks may display substantive changes in their pattern of cognitive decline. This study examined the age-graded pattern of cognitive decline within older Blacks by describing a trend that characterizes differences in the change of cognitive decline from ag...