Roi Cohen Kadosh

Roi Cohen Kadosh
University of Surrey · School of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

239
Publications
86,487
Reads
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8,675
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Senior Researcher
July 2006 - July 2009
University College London
Education
September 2002 - July 2006
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Field of study
  • Neuropsychology
October 1998 - June 2002
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Field of study
  • Behavioral Sciences

Publications

Publications (239)
Article
Full-text available
Inter-individual variability in outcomes across individuals poses great challenges for the application of non-invasive brain stimulation in psychological research. Here, we examine how the effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on sustained attention vary as a function of a well-studied electrocortical marker, sponta...
Article
Objective Although relatively costly and non-scalable, non-invasive neuromodulation interventions are treatment alternatives for neuropsychiatric disorders. The recent developments of highly-deployable transcranial electric stimulation (tES) systems, combined with mobile-Health technologies, could be incorporated in digital trials to overcome metho...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Processing Speed (PS), the ability to perceive and react fast to stimuli in the environment, has been shown to be impaired in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear whether PS can be improved following targeted treatments for ADHD. Here we examined potential changes in PS following applicatio...
Article
As transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) protocols advance, assumptions underlying the technique need to be retested to ensure they still hold. Whilst the safety of stimulation has been demonstrated mainly for a small number of sessions, and small sample size, adverse events (AEs) following multiple sessions remain largely untested. Similarly,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research has highlighted the role of the excitation/inhibition ratio (E/I) for typical and atypical development, mental health, cognition, and learning. Parallel research has highlighted the benefits of high-frequency random noise stimulation (tRNS)—an excitatory form of neurostimulation—on learning. We examined the E/I as a potential mech...
Article
Full-text available
Attempts to enhance human memory and learning ability have a long tradition in science. This topic has recently gained substantial attention because of the increasing percentage of older individuals worldwide and the predicted rise of age-associated cognitive decline in brain functions. Transcranial brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial m...
Article
Previous work has shown relations between domain-general processes, domain-specific processes, and mathematical ability. However, the underlying neurophysiological effects of mathematical ability are less clear. Recent evidence highlighted the potential role of beta oscillations in mathematical ability. Here we investigate whether domain-general (w...
Preprint
As transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) protocols advance, assumptions underlying the technique need to be retested to ensure they still hold. Whilst the safety of stimulation has been demonstrated mainly for a small number of sessions, and small sample size, adverse events (AEs) following multiple sessions remain largely untested. Similarly,...
Article
Full-text available
Background The current evidence on an integrative role of the domain-specific early mathematical skills and number-specific executive functions (EFs) from informal to formal schooling and their effect on mathematical abilities is so far unclear. The main objectives of this study were to (i) compare the domain-specific early mathematics, the number-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous work has shown relations between domain-general processes, domain-specific processes, and mathematical ability. However, the underlying neurophysiological effects of mathematical ability are less clear. Recent evidence highlighted the potential role of beta oscillations in mathematical ability. Here we investigate whether domain-general (w...
Article
Complex numerical cognition is a crucial ability in the human brain. Conventional neuroimaging techniques do not differentiate between epiphenomena and neuronal groups critical to numerical cognition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows defining causal models of the relationships between specific activated or inhibited neural regions and...
Article
Full-text available
The increased prevalence of test anxiety in our competitive society makes it a health issue of public concern. However, its neurobiological basis, especially during the years of formal education, is currently scant. Previous research has highlighted the association between neural excitation/inhibition balance and psychopathology and disease. We exa...
Article
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a possible alternative to psychostimulants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its mechanisms of action in children and adolescents with ADHD are poorly understood. We conducted the first 15-session, sham-controlled study of anodal tDCS over right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) c...
Article
Full-text available
Numbers are everywhere, and supporting difficulties in numerical cognition (e.g., mathematical learning disability (MLD)) in a timely, effective manner is critical for their daily use. To date, only low-efficacy cognitive-based interventions are available. The extensive data on the neurobiology of MLD have increased interest in brain-directed appro...
Chapter
TDCS is a promising method for altering cortical excitability with clinical implications. It has been increasingly used in children and adolescents especially in recent years. Yet, its potential target populations, developmental aspects, and efficacy parameters still require further investigation. In this chapter, we discuss the physiological mecha...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence from human-based research has highlighted that the prevalent one-size-fits-all approach for neural and behavioral interventions is inefficient. This approach can benefit one individual, but be ineffective or even detrimental for another. Studying the efficacy of the large range of different parameters for different individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Several scientific, engineering, and medical advancements are based on breakthroughs made by people who excel in mathematics. Our current understanding of the underlying brain networks stems primarily from anatomical and functional investigations, but our knowledge of how neurotransmitters subserve numerical skills, the building block of mathematic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a possible neurotherapeutic alternative to psychostimulants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of action of tDCS in children and adolescents with ADHD. We conducted the first multi-session, sham-controlled study of anodal tDCS o...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has highlighted the role of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in learning and plasticity. What is currently unknown is how this knowledge translates to real-life complex cognitive abilities that emerge slowly and how the link between these neurotransmitters and human learning and plasticity is shaped by development. Whi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be a side-effect-free alternative to psychostimulants in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there is limited evidence for clinical and cognitive effects, most studies were small, single-session and stimulated left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). No sham-c...
Article
Full-text available
Randomised assignment of individuals to treatment and controls groups is often considered the gold standard to draw valid conclusions about the efficacy of an intervention. In practice, randomisation can lead to accidental differences due to chance. Researchers have offered alternatives to reduce such differences, but these methods are not used fre...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Our knowledge of the effect of a specific lack of education on the brain and cognitive development is currently poor but is highly relevant given differences between countries in their educational curricula and the differences in opportunities to access education. We show that within the same society, adolescent students who specifical...
Chapter
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been highlighted as a powerful tool to promote neuroplasticity, and an attractive approach to support cognitive remediation. Here we provide a systematic review of 26 papers using NIBS to ameliorate cognitive dysfunctions in three prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Current evidence on an integrative role of the domain-specific early mathematical skills and domain-general executive functions (EFs) from informal to formal schooling and their effect on mathematical abilities is so far unclear. The main objectives of this study were to (i) compare the domain-specific early mathematics, the number-speci...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific investigations have long emphasized the cortex’s role in cognitive transfer and arithmetic abilities. To date, however, this assumption has not been thoroughly empirically investigated. Here we demonstrated that primitive mechanisms—lower visual channels—have a causal role in cognitive transfer of complex skills such as symbolic arithmet...
Article
Full-text available
Neurochemical profile and brain connectivity are both critical aspects of brain function. However, our knowledge of their interplay across development is currently poor. We combined single‐voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging in a cross‐sectional sample spanning from childhood to adulthood which wa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence from human-based research has highlighted that the prevalent one-size-fits-all approach for neural and behavioral interventions is inefficient. This approach can benefit one individual, but be ineffective or even detrimental for another. Studying the efficacy of the large range of different parameters for different individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Aging is associated with a decline in attentional and executive abilities, which are linked to physiological, structural, and functional brain changes. A variety of novel non-invasive brain stimulation methods have been probed in terms of their neuroenhancement efficacy in the last decade; one that holds significant promis...
Article
The article is open access until May 19th, using the following link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cq4g55vZ2Cch
Article
Full-text available
Objective Improving symptomology and cognitive deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders is a crucial challenge. We examined whether neurostimulation protocols, which have been shown to yield long-term effects when combined with cognitive training, could benefit children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD), the most common neurodeve...
Chapter
Full-text available
Numerical skills encompass a variety of cognitive processes and are crucial for performance in today’s modern world but vary greatly between individuals. Several approaches of numerical cognition have been studied ranging from behavioral to neuroimaging studies. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has become a promising tool to influence nume...
Chapter
Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique capable of altering cortical activity, has been proposed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the neuronal level and the sensitivity of the neurons following an inverted U-function. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tRNS on vGLUT1 and GAD 65–...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be a side-effect free alternative to psychostimulants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although there is limited evidence for clinical and cognitive effects, most studies were small, single-session, and stimulated left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). No sham-...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been debate about the effectiveness of interventions from different fields (e.g., non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), neurofeedback, cognitive training programs) due to contradictory and nuanced experimental findings. Up to date, studies are focused on comparing the effects of an active form of the intervention to a pl...
Article
While the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is dominated by pharmacological agents, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is gaining attention as an alternative method for treatment. Most current meta-analyses have suggested that tES can improve cognitive functions that are otherwise impaired in ADHD, such as inhibiti...
Article
Working memory (WM) capacity, the amount of information one can hold online in mind, has a central role in cognition. Previous electrophysiological and imaging studies revealed the pivotal role of persistent activity within parietal and frontal regions as the neural foundations underpinning WM capacity. The best candidate molecules determining pers...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive control is a pivotal aspect of cognition and it is impaired in many clinical populations. To date, several distinct types of cognitive control have been proposed, and prior work demonstrated the instrumental role of basal ganglia, frontal and parietal regions. However, the role of the structural variation of these regions in cognitive con...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have shown an association between sensorimotor α-oscillation and pain perception. It suggests the potential use of neurofeedback (NFB) training for pain modulation through modifying sensorimotor α-oscillation. Here, a single-session NFB training protocol targeted on increasing sensorimotor α-oscillations was applied to forty-five healthy pa...
Article
Seven experiments conducted in India and the United States (N ∼7,000; 5 preregistered) examined the effects of wealth on warmth and competence, 2 fundamental dimensions of social impressions. Wealth causally influenced perceptions of a target's competence: high wealth increased perceived competence and low wealth decreased perceived competence (Exp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique capable of altering cortical activity, has been proposed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the neuronal level and the sensitivity of the neurons following an inverted U-function. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tRNS on vGLUT1 and GAD 65-...
Article
Working memory, the ability to maintain and manipulate information over seconds, is central to cognition and it is impaired in many clinical populations. However, our knowledge of the structural properties associated with individual variation in visuospatial working memory capacity is currently poor. Across two locations (Stockholm and Oxford), we...
Article
Full-text available
Modulating the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), especially the right counterpart, shows promises in enhancing social cognitive ability. However, it is ambiguous whether the functional lateralization of TPJ determines people's responsiveness to brain stimulation. Here, this issue is investigated with an individual difference approach. Forty‐five part...
Article
Full-text available
In article number 1902863, Hai Li, Xiaochu Zhang, and co‐workers demonstrate the necessity and feasibility of pre‐stimulation screening before neurostimulation. A lesser degree of functional asymmetry of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and a higher degree of social‐related difficulties predicts more beneficial effects on social abilities for bot...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been used to improve cognitive performance in patients and healthy individuals in different domains. It is therefore considered as a promising method for cognitive enhancement and rehabilitation. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of tRNS are poorly understood, mainly due to difficulties in separ...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroenhancement aims to improve cognitive performance in typically and atypically functioning populations. However, it is currently debated whether it is also effective in exceptionally high-functioning individuals. Present theories suggest that homeostatic set points for learning and cortical plasticity limit the beneficial effects of neuroenhanc...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to choose the larger between two numbers reflects a mature understanding of the magnitude associated with numerical symbols. The present study explores how the knowledge of the number sequence and memory capacity (verbal and visuospatial) relate to number comparison skills while controlling for cardinal knowledge. Preschool children’s (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mental abacus is the mental arithmetic with the help of an imagined abacus. Children skilled in mental abacus have been shown to exhibit advantages in arithmetic abilities. The current study investigated whether children with high-level mental abacus ability could outperform controls in non-symbolic number sense, which is considered to be much fund...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Various methods have been attempted to effectively ameliorate psychiatric and neurological conditions in children and adults. One of the attractive ideas is to develop interventions to create a lasting, rather than only an immediate, effect. Such a concept has important implications including increased independency of the patient, reduc...
Article
Full-text available
The present study introduces a novel cognitive intervention aimed at improving fluid intelligence (Gf), based on a framework we refer to as FAST: Flexible, Adaptive, Synergistic Training. FAST leverages a combination of novel game-based executive function (EF) training—designed specifically to enhance the likelihood of transfer—and transcranial ele...
Article
Interindividual variability in outcomes across individuals poses great challenges for the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in psychological research. Here, we examined how the effects of high-frequency transcranial random-noise stimulation (tRNS) on sustained attention varied as a function of a well-studied electrocortical marker: spont...
Presentation
Full-text available
The goal of this symposium will be to demonstrate the efficacy and importance of clinical and experimental non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) applications (tRNS, tDCS, TMS, rTMS) in atypical neurodevelopment. Emphasizing cognitive/neurological benefits and potential health risks to children and adolescents will be a common theme throughout the s...
Article
Full-text available
We employed a simulated production task that mimics the real-world skill acquisition required of operators working in control rooms of power plants to assess short and long-term effects of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). tRNS has shown potential for enhancing learning and performance of cognitive skills. 40 subjects (24 female) learne...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in several domains of expertise have established that experience-dependent plasticity brings about both functional and anatomical changes. However, little is known about how such changes come to shape the brain in the case of expertise acquired by professional mathematicians. Here, we aimed to identify cognitive and brain-structural (grey a...
Article
Full-text available
The investigation of mathematical expertise can shape numerical and mathematical cognition theories by providing insights about the modifications that the neurocognitive system undergoes when mastering mathematical knowledge. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative methods should be combined within a developmental perspective to identify t...
Article
Full-text available
Neural oscillations in the alpha band (7–13 Hz) have long been associated with reductions in attention. However, recent studies have suggested a more nuanced perspective in which alpha oscillations also facilitate processes of cognitive control and perceptual stability. Transcranial alternating current stimulation over occipitoparietal cortex at 10...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA, respectively) have been found in various neuropsychiatric disorders, but have not been examined in individuals with prodigious cognitive abilities. Understanding exceptional brain processing is critical for developing biomedical interventions for cognitive and neurodeve...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
Article
Full-text available
In this review, we describe transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques currently being used in neuroscientific research, including transcranial direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS) and random noise (tRNS) stimulation techniques. We explain how these techniques are used and summarise the proposed mechanisms of action for each...
Article
Ongoing treatments for genetic developmental disorders of the central nervous system are mostly symptomatic and do not correct the genetic cause. Recent identification of common mechanisms between diseases has suggested that new therapeutic targets could be applied across intellectual disabilities with potential disease-modifying properties. The Eu...
Article
Full-text available
Math Anxiety (MA) is characterized by a negative emotional response when facing math-related situations. MA is distinct from general anxiety and can emerge during primary education. Prior studies typically comprise adults and comparisons between high- versus low-MA, where neuroimaging work has focused on differences in network activation between gr...