Rohan H Clarke

Rohan H Clarke
Monash University (Australia) · School of Biological Sciences, Clayton

Doctor of Philosophy

About

164
Publications
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1,863
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Publications

Publications (164)
Article
Observations made by citizen-scientists are highly regarded in many fields of biology. Public participation in research leads to increased environmental stewardship, greater data-acquisition, and multi-disciplinary advances. However, to date, there is a paucity of literature that acknowledges the professional benefits we, as scientists, gain throug...
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Advances in technology are changing the way that ecological monitoring is carried out, especially for those species with ecological characteristics that have traditionally made monitoring difficult. Autonomous acoustic recorders coupled with automated signal detection software is one such approach where technological advances are delivering rapid i...
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Gadfly petrels (genus Pterodroma) are one of the most threatened groups of birds. They are exceptionally well adapted to forage over enormous areas to maximize chances of encountering prey. Their wide-ranging travel, extensive use of oceanic habitats beyond national jurisdictions (the high seas), and limited information on their at-sea distribution...
Article
Advances in artificial intelligence for computer vision hold great promise for increasing the scales at which ecological systems can be studied. The distribution and behavior of individuals is central to ecology, and computer vision using deep neural networks can learn to detect individual objects in imagery. However, developing supervised models f...
Article
Antibiotic resistance is an ongoing threat to both human and animal health. Migratory birds are a potential vector for the spread of novel pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes. To date, there has been no comprehensive study investigating the presence of antibiotic resistance (AMR) in the bacteria of Australian shorebirds or terns. In the curre...
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Background: The helmeted honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix) is a Critically Endangered bird endemic to Victoria, Australia. To aid its conservation, the population is the subject of genetic rescue. To understand, monitor, and modulate the effects of genetic rescue on the helmeted honeyeater genome, a chromosome-length genome and a high-d...
Article
Ecological restoration in rural environments is a global challenge for the 21st century. Restoration measures—such as agri‐environment activities, woodlots, natural regeneration and conservation plantings—collectively alter landscape structure with the aim of restoring conservation values that are characteristic of natural ecosystems. We tested the...
Article
Our understanding of the habitat needs of grassland fauna is often incomplete because of their cryptic behaviour. This presents a barrier to identifying important habitat attributes, whether these change at different spatial scales, and how this informs management decisions. Here, we use a critically endangered bird, the Plains‐wanderer (Pedionomus...
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Abstract Emergency conservation interventions will be increasingly necessary to prevent extinctions or severe population bottlenecks as extreme events become more frequent. We detail the emergency extraction of the endangered Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachpterus) during the unprecedented 2019–2020 Australian Black Summer bushfires, an interve...
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Translocation, the human‐mediated movement of organisms from one area to another, is a popular tool in conservation management. Wild‐caught individuals are more likely to persist following release than those sourced from captive breeding. However, this benefit of obtaining individuals from wild populations must be carefully weighed against the pote...
Preprint
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Advances in artificial intelligence for image processing hold great promise for increasing the scales at which ecological systems can be studied. The distribution and behavior of individuals is central to ecology, and computer vision using deep neural networks can learn to detect individual objects in imagery. However, developing computer vision fo...
Article
Light‐level geolocators are popular bio‐logging tools, with advantageous sizes, longevity, and affordability. Biologists tracking seabirds often presume geolocator spatial accuracies between 186‐202 km from previously‐innovative, yet taxonomically, spatially, and computationally limited, studies. Using recently developed methods, we investigated wh...
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On isolated islands, large arthropods can play an important functional role in ecosystem dynamics. On the Norfolk Islands group, South Pacific, we monitored the diet and foraging activity of an endemic chilopod, the Phillip Island centipede (Cormocephalus coynei), and used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate dietary proportions. Phillip Islan...
Article
1. Small‐scale revegetation plantings on farms are common to restoration efforts in agricultural regions worldwide. Such plantings provide habitat for diverse faunal groups. A key question concerns the degree to which their value for biodiversity is influenced by the features of individual plantings, which can be controlled by local land managers,...
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Conservation breeding management aims to reduce inbreeding and maximize the retention of genetic diversity in endangered populations. However, breeding management of wild populations is still rare, and there is a need for approaches that provide data-driven evidence of the likelihood of success of alternative in-situ strategies. Here, we provide an...
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Over the past decade, vertebrate populations globally have experienced significant declines in distribution and abundance. Understanding the reasons behind these population declines is the first step in implementing appropriate management responses to improve conservation outcomes. Uncovering drivers of extirpation events after the fact, however, r...
Article
Restoration of degraded ecosystems is a global issue, particularly in rural regions where excessive loss of natural vegetation has occurred. We investigated, at both landscape and patch scales, the benefits to butterfly communities of restoration by revegetation (planting trees and shrubs), typical of many rural landscapes in south-eastern Australi...
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When key ecological information is lacking, conservation translocations should be conducted within an adaptive, experimental framework to maximise knowledge gained and to increase the probability of success. Here we investigated whether timing of release or composition of release groups influenced indices of success during a trial reintroduction of...
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Artificial tree hollows (e.g., nest‐boxes) are commonly deployed to mitigate the loss of mature trees within human‐disturbed landscapes. Their effectiveness as a habitat resource, and thus conservation management tool, is strongly influenced by the suitability of internal microclimate conditions. In south‐eastern Australia, spout hollows are a nest...
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Impact assessment is an important and cost‐effective tool for assisting in the identification and prioritization of invasive alien species. With the number of alien and invasive alien species expected to increase, reliance on impact assessment tools for the identification of species that pose the greatest threats will continue to grow. Given the im...
Chapter
A case study and appraisal of success of wild-to-wild translocations of the endangered Mallee Emu-wren. Translocations for this species were required because large wildfires were reducing the number of extant populations over decades. Ultimately, translocations were deemed "Partially Successful" - Survival rates during transport were high and birds...
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Species that inhabit spatially-distinct regions at different stages of their lifecycle pose challenges to conservation managers, particularly when distributions span international or jurisdictional boundaries. Despite the importance of non-breeding habitat to the persistence of individuals and species, there remains limited information on the habit...
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Citrobacter is a ubiquitous bacterial genus whose members inhabit a variety of niches. Some species are clinically important for both antimicrobial resistance (AMR) carriage and as the cause of nosocomial infections. Surveillance of Citrobacter species in the environment can provide indicators of the spread of AMR genes outside clinical spaces. In...
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Globally, the occurrence of terrestrial vertebrates in mangrove forests is poorly documented, with little empirical data available. This knowledge gap is, at least in part, explained by the challenging survey conditions typically found in these environments. As an ecological understanding of ecosystems is essential to guide conservation management...
Article
Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and other disease presentations in both humans and animals. Serovars of S. enterica commonly cause foodborne disease in Australia and globally. In 2016-2017, S . Hvittingfoss was responsible for an outbreak that resulted in 110 clinically confirmed human cases throughout Australia. The o...
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In many animal species, individuals re-use the breeding site they used in the previous breeding season. Consequently, they accrue benefits including reduced time searching for a territory, and enhanced predator avoidance. Many seabirds display high levels of nest-site fidelity. We sought to determine whether nest-site fidelity occurs in Red-tailed...
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Abstract Making transparent and rational decisions to manage threatened species in situations of high uncertainty is difficult. Managers must balance the optimism of successful intervention with the risk that intervention could make matters worse. We assessed nest protection options for regent honeyeaters (Anthochaera phrygia) in Australia. Formal...
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Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA or drones) have become a powerful tool for use in spatial and temporal ecology. Major benefits for environmental management, including improved accuracy and precision for population monitoring of fauna, are being realized. We used Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) as a model system to assess how counts and...
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Compassionate conservation focuses on 4 tenets: first, do no harm; individuals matter; inclusivity of individual animals; and peaceful coexistence between humans and animals. Recently, compassionate conservation has been promoted as an alternative to conventional conservation philosophy. We believe examples presented by compassionate conservationis...
Article
Anthropogenic environmental change is driving the rapid loss of biodiversity. Large declines in the abundance of historically common species are now emerging as a major concern. Identifying declining populations through long‐term biodiversity monitoring is vital for implementing timely conservation measures. It is, therefore, critical to evaluate t...
Article
Birds can spread microorganisms through their movement; however, it is still not fully understood how wild birds acquire and disperse antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. We sampled wild Australian birds from three geographically distinct locations for the presence of AMR strains of two clinically important species of bacteria, Escherichia coli...
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en Most birds sleep while roosting at night. Although a widespread behavior, few investigators have studied the nocturnal roosting behavior of birds. Studies conducted to date have either focused on species that roost communally or used radio‐telemetry to locate sleeping individuals of a few focal species. Portable thermal cameras capable of detect...
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Feather fouling is a primary cause of seabird mortality during marine hydrocarbon oil spills. Understanding how oils interact with feathers is an important step in mitigating this threat. Seabird feathers from 12 taxa, representing most seabird families from the tropics and southern latitudes, were exposed to crude and condensate oil films under la...
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We compared the primary molt of the 4 species of skuas and jaegers (Stercorariidae) that breed in the Northern Hemisphere: Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus), Parasitic Jaeger (S. parasiticus), Pomarine Jaeger (S. pomarinus), and Great Skua (S. skua). We analyzed primary molt data of 1,573 individuals of multiple age classes, mostly coll...
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en Banding allows identification of individual birds, and many investigators use data from recaptured or recovered birds to infer population parameters, including survival rates, migration rates, and recruitment rates. Such analyses often assume that band loss is negligible, but wear rates have been found to differ markedly among different band siz...
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en Human modification of the environment is driving declines in population size and distributional extent of much of the world's biota. These declines extend to many of the most abundant and widespread species, for which proportionally small declines can result in the loss of vast numbers of individuals, biomass, and interactions. These losses coul...
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Population mortality curves, otherwise known as lifetime distribution functions, can be indispensable in many areas of ecology and environmental management including population viability and stock management analyses, disaster‐recovery monitoring, and fundamental evolutionary biology. Yet available modeling tools are often unable to estimate popula...
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Nest predation is a primary cause of nest failure in open-cup nesting woodland birds and low reproductive success is a common reason why reintroduced species fail to establish in the wild. We used video monitoring to record the breeding outcomes and identify the causes of nest failure in a reintroduced population of the Critically Endangered Regent...