Rogier B Mars

Rogier B Mars
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Experimental Psychology

Ph.D.

About

179
Publications
40,460
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11,086
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - December 2012
University of Oxford
January 2007 - present
University College London
January 2006 - December 2007

Publications

Publications (179)
Article
Exploration is curiosity-driven when it relies on the intrinsic motivation to know rather than on extrinsic rewards. Recent evidence shows that artificial agents perform better on a variety of tasks when their learning is curiosity-driven, and humans often engage in curiosity-driven learning when sampling information from the environment. However,...
Article
Full-text available
The biological foundation for the language-ready brain in the human lineage remains a debated subject. In humans, the arcuate fasciculus (AF) white matter and the posterior portions of the middle temporal gyrus are crucial for language. Compared with other primates, the human AF has been shown to dramatically extend into the posterior temporal lobe...
Article
Full-text available
Recent tractography and microdissection studies have shown that the left arcuate fasciculus (AF)—a fiber tract thought to be crucial for speech production—consists of a minimum of 2 subtracts directly connecting the temporal and frontal cortex. These subtracts link the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) to the i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Microscopy data can provide detailed descriptions of how cortical microstructure varies across the brain. However, the relationship between cortical microstructure and MRI signals remains relatively unexplored. Here we develop a pipeline to extract cortical profiles from co-registered MRI and microscopy data in the BigMac dataset. We compare cortic...
Preprint
The ever-increasing use of mouse models in preclinical neuroscience research calls for an improvement in the methods used to translate findings between mouse and human brains. Using openly accessible brain-wide transcriptomic data sets, we evaluated the similarity of mouse and human brain regions on the basis of homologous gene expression. Our resu...
Article
Full-text available
Post-mortem MRI provides the opportunity to acquire high-resolution datasets to investigate neuroanatomy, and validate the origins of image contrast through microscopy comparisons. We introduce the Digital Brain Bank (open.win.ox.ac.uk/DigitalBrainBank), a data release platform providing open access to curated, multimodal post-mortem neuroimaging d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Developmental and evolutionary effects on brain organisation are complex, yet linked, as evidenced by the striking correspondence in cortical expansion changes. However, it is still not possible to study concurrently the ontogeny and phylogeny of cortical areal connections, which is arguably more relevant to brain function than allometric changes....
Article
Full-text available
The triple-network model of psychopathology is a framework to explain the functional and structural neuroimaging phenotypes of psychiatric and neurological disorders. It describes the interactions within and between three distributed networks: the salience, default-mode, and central executive networks. These have been associated with brain disorder...
Article
Full-text available
Brains come in many shapes and sizes. Nature has endowed big-brained primate species like humans with a proportionally large cerebral cortex. Comparative studies have suggested, however, that the total volume allocated to white matter connectivity—the brain’s infrastructure for long-range interregional communication—does not keep pace with the cort...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale comparative neuroscience requires data from many species and, ideally, at multiple levels of description. Here, we contribute to this endeavor by presenting diffusion and structural MRI data from eight primate species that have not or rarely been described in the literature. The selected samples from the Primate Brain Bank cover a prosi...
Article
Full-text available
Open science initiatives are creating opportunities to increase research coordination and impact in nonhuman primate (NHP) imaging. The PRIMatE Data and Resource Exchange community recently developed a collaboration-based strategic plan to advance NHP imaging as an integrative approach for multiscale neuroscience.
Article
Full-text available
Social interaction is thought to provide a selection pressure for human intelligence, yet little is known about its neurobiological basis and evolution throughout the primate lineage. Recent advances in neuroimaging have enabled whole brain investigation of brain structure, function, and connectivity in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), leading...
Article
The ability to attribute thoughts to others, also called theory of mind (TOM), has been extensively studied in humans; however, its evolutionary origins have been challenged. Computationally, the basis of TOM has been interpreted within the predictive coding framework and associated with activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Here, we reve...
Article
Full-text available
Comparative neuroimaging has been used to identify changes in white matter architecture across primate species phylogenetically close to humans, but few have compared the phylogenetically distant species. Here, we acquired postmortem diffusion imaging data from ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), a...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have a remarkable capacity to arrange and rearrange perceptual input according to different categorizations. This begs the question whether the categorization is exclusively a higher visual or amodal process, or whether categorization processes influence early visual areas as well. To investigate this we scanned healthy participants in a mag...
Preprint
Full-text available
The diffusion of water molecules through the brain is constrained by tissue and cellular substructure, which imposes an anisotropy that can be measured through diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). In the white matter, myelinated axons strongly shape diffusion anisotropy; however, in gray matter the determinants of dMRI signals remain poorly...
Article
Many daily choices are based on one's own knowledge. However, when predicting other people's behavior, we need to consider the differences between our knowledge and other people's presumed knowledge. Social agents need a mechanism to use privileged information for their own behavior but exclude it from predictions of others. Using fMRI, we investig...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal cortex is a primate specialization that shows considerable variation in size, morphology, and connectivity across species. Human temporal cortex is involved in many behaviors that are considered especially well developed in humans, including semantic processing, language, and theory of mind. Here, we ask whether the involvement of temporal...
Article
Full-text available
Gray matter connectivity can be described in terms of its topographical organization, but the differential role of white matter connections underlying that organization is often unknown. In this study, we propose a method for unveiling principles of organization of both gray and white matter based on white matter connectivity as assessed using diff...
Article
Comparative neuroscience is entering the era of big data. New high-throughput methods and data-sharing initiatives have resulted in the availability of large, digital data sets containing many types of data from ever more species. Here, we present a framework for exploiting the new possibilities offered. The multimodality of the data allows vertica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Post-mortem MRI provides the opportunity to acquire high-resolution datasets to investigate neuroanatomy, and validate the origins of image contrast through microscopy comparisons. We introduce the Digital Brain Bank (open.win.ox.ac.uk/DigitalBrainBank), an interactive data discovery and release platform providing open access to curated, multimodal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brains come in many shapes and sizes. Nature has endowed big-brained primate species like humans with a proportionally large cerebral cortex. White matter connectivity - the brain's infrastructure for long-range communication - might not always scale at the same pace as the cortex. We investigated the consequences of this allometric scaling for whi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The BigMac dataset is a unique resource that includes extensive MRI and densely sampled microscopy data acquired in a single, whole macaque brain. However, the high-resolution microscopy currently only informs on the fibre orientations in the 2D plane of sampled slides, precluding 3D reconstruction of the microscopy connectome. Here we use precise...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are a highly social species. Complex interactions for mutual support range from helping neighbors to building social welfare institutions. During times of distress or crisis, sharing life experiences within one’s social circle is critical for well-being. By translating pattern-learning algorithms to the UK Biobank imaging-genetics cohort (n...
Article
Full-text available
A wide homology between human and macaque striatum is often assumed as in both the striatum is involved in cognition, emotion and executive functions. However, differences in functional and structural organization between human and macaque striatum may reveal evolutionary divergence and shed light on human vulnerability to neuropsychiatric diseases...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability to attribute thoughts to others, also called theory of mind (TOM), has been extensively studied. Computationally, the basis of TOM in humans has been interpreted within the predictive coding framework and associated with activity in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). However, the evolutionary origins of these human mindreading abiliti...
Article
Full-text available
Evolution, as we currently understand it, strikes a delicate balance between animals’ ancestral history and adaptations to their current niche. Similarities between species are generally considered inherited from a common ancestor whereas observed differences are considered as more recent evolution. Hence comparing species can provide insights into...
Article
Full-text available
There is a long-established link between anatomy and function in the somatomotor system in the mammalian cerebral cortex. The morphology of the central sulcus is predictive of the location of functional activation peaks relating to movement of different effectors in individuals. By contrast, morphological variation in the subcentral region and its...
Article
Full-text available
Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) are, along with bonobos, humans’ closest living relatives. The advent of diffusion MRI tractography in recent years has allowed a resurgence of comparative neuroanatomical studies in humans and other primate species. Here we offer, in comparative perspective, the first chimpanzee white matter atlas, constructed from...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lesion research in humans and non-human primates classically maps the behavioral effects of focal damage to the directly-injured brain region. However, given the interconnectedness of the brain, it has long been known that such damage can also have distant effects. Modern imaging methods provide new ways to assess those effects. Further, triangulat...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroimaging non-human primates (NHPs) is a growing, yet highly specialized field of neuroscience. Resources that were primarily developed for human neuroimaging often need to be significantly adapted for use with NHPs or other animals, which has led to an abundance of custom, in-house solutions. In recent years, the global NHP neuroimaging communi...
Article
Full-text available
Along with the increased interest in and volume of social cognition research, there has been higher awareness of a lack of agreement on the concepts and taxonomy used to study social processes. Two central concepts in the field, empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM), have been identified as overlapping umbrella terms for different processes of limited c...
Article
Full-text available
Successful social interaction requires humans to predict others’ behavior. To do so, internal models of others are generated based on previous observations. When predicting others’ preferences for objects, for example, observations are made at an individual level (5-year old Rosie often chooses a pencil), or at a group level (kids often choose penc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Intra-axonal axial diffusivity could be interesting biomarker of disease, yet it is often assumed constant across the white matter. Furthermore, when intra-axonal diffusivity is estimated, few models account for fibre orientation dispersion which (when not explicitly modelled) will greatly affect the estimates of axial diffusion. Here we combine th...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal association cortex is considered a primate specialization and is involved in complex behaviors, with some, such as language, particularly characteristic of humans. The emergence of these behaviors has been linked to major differences in temporal lobe white matter in humans compared with monkeys. It is unknown, however, how the organiza...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuroimaging non-human primates (NHPs) is a growing, yet highly specialized field of neuroscience. Resources that were primarily developed for human neuroimaging often need to be significantly adapted for use with NHPs or other animals, which has led to an abundance of custom, in-house solutions. In recent years, the global NHP neuroimaging communi...
Article
Full-text available
The representations of the articulators involved in human speech production are organized somatotopically in primary motor cortex. The neural representation of the larynx, however, remains debated. Both a dorsal and a ventral larynx representation have been previously described. It is unknown, however, whether both representations are located in pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evolution, as we currently understand it, strikes a delicate balance between animals' ancestral history and adaptations to their current niche. Similarities between species are generally considered inherited from a common ancestor whereas observed differences are considered more recent occurrences. Hence comparing species can provide insights into...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 15 years, research on canid cognition has revealed that domestic dogs possess a surprising array of complex socio‐cognitive skills pointing to the possibility that the domestication process might have uniquely altered their brains; however, we know very little about how evolutionary processes (natural or artificial) might have modifie...
Chapter
We present a multimodal registration algorithm for simultaneous alignment of datasets with both scalar and tensor MRI images. We employ a volumetric, cubic B-spline parametrised transformation model. Regularisation is based on the logarithm of the singular values of the local Jacobian and ensures diffeomorphic warps. Tensor registration takes reori...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most influential accounts of central orbitofrontal cortex—that it mediates behavioral flexibility—has been challenged by the finding that discrimination reversal in macaques, the classic test of behavioral flexibility, is unaffected when lesions are made by excitotoxin injection rather than aspiration. This suggests that the critical bra...
Article
Full-text available
To establish the link between structure and function of any large area of the neocortex, it is helpful to identify its principles of organisation. One way to establish such principles is to investigate how differences in whole-brain connectivity are struc-tured across the area. Here, we use Laplacian eigenmaps on diffusion MRI tractography data to...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new software package with a library of standardised tractography protocols devised for the robust automated extraction of white matter tracts both in the human and the macaque brain. Using in vivo data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and the UK Biobank and ex vivo data for the macaque brain datasets, we obtain white matter atla...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing necessity of animal models in biomedical research, there is a vital need to harmonise findings across species by establishing similarities and differences in rodent and primate neuroanatomy. Using connectivity fingerprint matching, we compared cortico-striatal circuits across humans, non-human primates, and mice using resting-st...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing necessity of animal models in biomedical research, there is a vital need to harmonise findings across species by establishing similarities and differences in rodent and primate neuroanatomy. Using connectivity fingerprint matching, we compared cortico-striatal circuits across humans, non-human primates, and mice using resting-st...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing necessity of animal models in biomedical research, there is a vital need to harmonise findings across species by establishing similarities and differences in rodent and primate neuroanatomy. Using connectivity fingerprint matching, we compared cortico-striatal circuits across humans, non-human primates, and mice using resting-st...
Article
Full-text available
To compare findings across species, neuroscience relies on cross-species homologies, particularly in terms of brain areas. For cingulate cortex, a structure implicated in behavioural adaptation and control, a homologous definition across mammals is available – but currently not employed by most rodent researchers. The standard partitioning of roden...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary adaptations of temporo-parietal cortex are considered to be a critical specialization of the human brain. Cortical adaptations, however, can affect different aspects of brain architecture, including local expansion of the cortical sheet or changes in connectivity between cortical areas. We distinguish different types of changes in brai...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary adaptations of temporo-parietal cortex are considered to be a critical specialization of the human brain. Cortical adaptations, however, can affect different aspects of brain architecture, including local expansion of the cortical sheet or changes in connectivity between cortical areas. We distinguish different types of changes in brai...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary adaptations of temporo-parietal cortex are considered to be a critical specialization of the human brain. Cortical adaptations, however, can affect different aspects of brain architecture, including local expansion of the cortical sheet or changes in connectivity between cortical areas. We distinguish different types of changes in brai...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a long-established link between anatomy and function in the somatomotor system in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Morphology of the central sulcus predicts the location of functional activation peaks in individuals, but morphological variation in the subcentral region and its relationship to functional activation is unknown. Investigating t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human speech production requires fine neural control of the articulators and the larynx during vocalization. The representation of the larynx in the human brain is debated. Vocalizations can be elicited by stimulation of the ventral motor cortex, but neuroimaging reveals that producing vocalizations evokes activity in both a dorsal and a ventral ar...