Roger Woods

Roger Woods
Queen's University Belfast | QUB · School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

BSc, PhD

About

259
Publications
21,431
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2,509
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1996 - December 2011
Queen's University Belfast

Publications

Publications (259)
Preprint
Full-text available
Radio frequency fingerprint identification (RFFI) is an emerging device authentication technique, which exploits the hardware characteristics of the RF front-end as device identifiers. RFFI is implemented in the wireless receiver and acts to extract the transmitter impairments and then perform classification. The receiver hardware impairments will...
Article
Full-text available
The practical deployment of machine vision presents particular challenges for resource constrained edge devices. With a clear need to execute multiple tasks with variable workloads, there is a need for a robust approach that can dynamically adapt at runtime and which can maintain the maximum quality of service (QoS) within the available resource co...
Article
Full-text available
Developing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based applications is typically a slow and multi-skilled task. Research in tools to support application development has gradually reached a higher level. This paper describes an approach which aims to further raise the level at which an application developer works in developing FPGA-based implementati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine vision tasks present challenges for resource constrained edge devices, particularly as they execute multiple tasks with variable workloads. A robust approach that can dynamically adapt in runtime while maintaining the maximum quality of service (QoS) within resource constraints, is needed. The paper presents a lightweight approach that moni...
Article
Full-text available
With growing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device sizes and their integration in environments enabling sharing of computing resources, such as cloud and edge computing, there is a requirement to share the FPGA area between multiple tasks. The resource sharing typically involves partitioning the FPGA space into x-sized slots. This results in...
Article
Full-text available
Device authentication is essential for securing Internet of things. Radio frequency fingerprint identification (RFFI) is an emerging technique that exploits intrinsic and unique hardware impairments as the device identifier. The existing RFFI literature focuses on experimental exploration but comprehensive modelling is missing. This paper systemati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Real-time video analytics on the edge is challenging as the computationally constrained resources typically cannot analyse video streams at full fidelity and frame rate, which results in loss of accuracy. This paper proposes a Transprecise Object Detector (TOD) which maximises the real-time object detection accuracy on an edge device by selecting a...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst FPGAs have been used in cloud ecosystems, it is still extremely challenging to achieve high compute density when mapping heterogeneous multi-tasks on shared resources at runtime. This work addresses this by treating the FPGA resource as a service and employing multi-task processing at the high level, design space exploration and static off-l...
Conference Paper
High level synthesis frameworks, such as OpenCL, allow effective design space exploration by scaling of resource allocation via simple to use tunable parameters. The same process can be supported in multi-task processing but long synthesis time hinders system analysis and resource management optimization. This work proposes a methodology for simula...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new opportunistic non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme under wireless backhaul unreliability and fronthaul channel uncertainty, where fronthaul represents regular radio access link. In particular, we propose two opportunistic methods for the proposed NOMA, which allow the best transmitter selection approaches based on either a...
Article
Recent emphasis has been placed on improving the processes in manufacturing by employing early detection or fault prediction within production lines. Whilst companies are increasingly including sensors to record observations and measurements, this brings challenges in interpretation as standard approaches do not highlight the presence of unknown re...
Article
Full-text available
A low-complexity, yet secure framework is proposed for protecting the Internet of Things (IoT) and for achieving both authentication and secure communication. In particular, the slight random difference among transceivers is extracted for creating a unique radio frequency fingerprint and for ascertaining the unique user identity. The wireless chann...
Article
Full-text available
FPGA-based embedded image processing systems offer considerable computing resources but present programming challenges when compared to software systems. The paper describes an approach based on an FPGA-based soft processor called Image Processing Processor (IPPro) which can operate up to 337 MHz on a high-end Xilinx FPGA family and gives details o...
Book
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Applied Reconfigurable Computing, ARC 2019, held in Darmstadt, Germany, in April 2019. The 20 full papers and 7 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. In addition, the volume contains 1 invited paper. The papers were...
Chapter
There is an increasing demand for high performance image processing platforms based on field programmable gate array (FPGA). The Histogram of Orientated Gradients (HOG) algorithm is a feature descriptor algorithm used in object detection for many security applications. The chapter examines the implementation of this key algorithm using an FPGA-base...
Chapter
Full-text available
As an unsupervised machine-learning algorithm, K-means clustering for images has been widely used in image segmentation. The standard Lloyd’s algorithm iteratively allocates all image pixels to clusters until convergence. The processing requirement can be a problem for high-resolution images and/or real-time systems. In this paper, we present a new...
Chapter
Recent emphasis has been placed on improving the processes in manufacturing by employing early detection or fault prediction within production lines. Whilst companies are increasingly including sensors to record observations and measurements, this brings challenges in interpretation as standard approaches for artificial intelligence (AI) do not hig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
FPGAs can offer high performance with low power and low hardware usage. However, with current software, FPGAs are hard to program, and lengthy re-synthesis times make them unsuitable for the algorithm experimentation which is typical of developing image processing applications. In this paper, we present a system model based on a set of Soft Co-Proc...
Article
Full-text available
Physical layer security key generation exploits unpredictable features from wireless channel to achieve high security, which requires high reciprocity in order to set up symmetric keys between two users. This paper investigates enhancing the channel reciprocity using a loop-back scheme with multiple frequency bands in time-division duplex (TDD) com...
Article
This paper investigates the impact of a uniform circular array (UCA) in the context of wireless security via exposure region (ER)-based beamforming. An improvement is demonstrated for the security metric proposed in our previous work, namely, the spatial secrecy outage probability (SSOP), by optimizing the configuration of the UCA. Our previous wor...
Article
Full-text available
Ever increasing power consumption has created great interest in energy-efficient microserver architectures but they lack the computational, networking and storage power necessary to cope with real-time data analytics. We propose NanoStreams, an integrated architecture comprising an ARM-based microserver, coupled via a novel, low latency network int...
Article
Full-text available
The security of the Internet of Things (IoT) is receiving considerable interest as the low power constraints and complexity features of many IoT devices are limiting the use of conventional cryptographic techniques. This article provides an overview of recent research efforts on alternative approaches for securing IoT wireless communications at the...
Article
Full-text available
With security and surveillance, there is an increasing need to process image data efficiently and effectively either at source or in a large data network. Whilst a Field-Programmable Gate Array has been seen as a key technology for enabling this, the design process has been viewed as problematic in terms of the time and effort needed for implementa...
Chapter
Architectural synthesis of SFG models is a powerful approach to the design of high-throughput custom circuit accelerators for FPGA. This chapter addresses dataflow modeling and synthesis approaches for advanced accelerator architectures which fall into either of two classes. The first is that of multidimensional accelerators: those which operate on...
Chapter
The choice of arithmetic has always been a key aspect for digital signal processing (DSP) implementation. With FPGA platforms, the choice of arithmetic can have a much wider impact on the performance as the system designer can get a much more direct return from any gains in terms of reducing complexity. This chapter covers some basics of computer a...
Article
The prelims comprise: Half Title Title Copyright Dedication Contents Preface List of Abbreviations
Chapter
This chapter gives some insight into the tools and their capabilities from a synthesis point of view and also because they would appear to be closely linked to FPGAs. In particular, there is an interest in how much of the architectural mapping has now been automated. The chapter discusses high-level synthesis (HLS) and describes the problems of usi...
Chapter
Many field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based solutions exist for wireless base station designs, image processing and radar systems. In the early days, FPGAs were seen as glue logic chips used to plug components together to form complex systems. FPGAs then increasingly came to be seen as complete systems in themselves. The increase in complexity...
Chapter
Big Data analytics is the process by which value is created from the data and involves the loading, processing and analysis of large data sets. This chapter gives details on Big Data analytics and various forms of data mining. The acceleration of Big Data analytics is discussed and the concepts of scaling up and scaling out are introduced. A number...
Chapter
This chapter gives some attention to emerging issues and provides some insight into future challenges for FPGAs. Attention is given to the changes in design methods as FPGA architectures have emerged. A topic closely associated with the further adoption of FPGAs in computing applications is the design flow. Whilst progress has been made in increasi...
Chapter
This chapter highlights the variety of different field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technologies used for implementing digital signal processing (DSP) complex systems. These compare in terms of speed, power consumption and, of course, area (although this is a little difficult to ascertain for processor implementations). The chapter gives a brief...
Chapter
This chapter gives the reader an introduction to digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to such a level as to provide grounding for many of the examples. Some of the examples have been the focus of direct implementation using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with the aim of giving enhanced performance in terms of the samples prod...
Chapter
This chapter covers the evolution of reusable design processes, concentrating on FPGA-based IP core generation. It describes IP core integration and covers current FPGA-based IP cores. Dedicated hardware functionality has been included in many FPGA families to support fixed-point addition/subtraction and multiplication and is supported in high-leve...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on QR-based IP core for adaptive beamforming. It first outlines the generic process and shows how it is applied to adaptive beamforming. Next, the chapter discusses how the algorithm is mapped to the architecture and shows how it is applied to the squared Givens rotations for RLS filtering. The efficient architecture design is...
Chapter
The chapter covers some techniques that specifically look at mapping digital signal processing (DSP) systems onto specific field programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. It treats the programmable logic elements in the FPGA and highlights how the LUT and dedicated adder circuitry can be used for implementing logic and DSP functionality. At circuit...
Chapter
This chapter explores the direct mapping of simple digital signal processing (DSP) systems or, more precisely, DSP components such as FIR or IIR filters and adaptive filters, as these will now form part of more complex systems such as beamformers and echo cancelers. The key aim is to investigate how changes applied to SFG representations can impact...
Chapter
This chapter highlights the variety of technologies used for implementing complex digital signal processing (DSP) systems. It starts with some remarks on silicon technology scaling and how Dennard scaling has broken down, leading to the evolution of parallelism into conventional DSP platforms. Then, it outlines some further thoughts on architecture...
Chapter
As power consumption is directly related to increased temperature, improved FPGA implementations have immediate benefits for the design of the power supply to the complete system; this can result in cheaper systems and fewer components, giving a reduction in PCB area and a reduction in thermal management costs. This chapter looks at the various sou...
Article
This letter investigates the secret key capacity of key generation from correlated wireless channels in a source model. We systematically study a practical scenario by taking into account all relevant parameters including sampling delay, eavesdroppers’ location, qualities of legitimate and eavesdropping channels, Doppler spread, and pilot length. O...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a thorough experimental study on key generation principles, i.e. temporal variation, channel reciprocity, and spatial decorrelation, via a testbed constructed by using wireless open-access research platform (WARP). It is the first comprehensive study through (i) carrying out a number of experiments in different multipath environ...
Article
With increasing number of antennae in base stations, there is considerable interest in using beamfomining to improve physical layer security, by creating an `exposure region' that enhances the received signal quality for a legitimate user and reduces the possibility of leaking information to a randomly located passive eavesdropper. The paper formal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Key generation from wireless channels is a promising alternative to public key cryptography for the establishment of cryptographic keys. It is the first paper to experimentally study the channel reciprocity principle of key generation, through investigating and quantifying channel measurements' cross-correlation relationship affected by noise and n...
Article
This paper presents a new encryption scheme implemented at the physical layer of wireless networks employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The new scheme obfuscates the subcarriers by randomly reserving several subcarriers for dummy data and resequences the training symbol by a new secure sequence. Subcarrier obfuscation render...
Article
Full-text available
Key generation from the randomness of wireless channels is a promising technique to establish a secret cryptographic key securely between legitimate users. This paper proposes a new approach to extract keys efficiently from channel responses of individual orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) subcarriers. The efficiency is achieved by (...
Conference Paper
There is demand for an easily programmable, high performance image processing platform based on FPGAs. In previous work, a novel, high performance processor - IPPro was developed and a Histogram of Orientated Gradients (HOG) algorithm study undertaken on a Xilinx Zynq platform. Here, we identify and explore a number of mapping strategies to improve...
Article
Full-text available
Key generation from the randomness of wireless channels is a promising alternative to public key cryptography for the establishment of cryptographic keys between any two users. This paper reviews the current techniques for wireless key generation. The principles, performance metrics and key generation procedure are comprehensively surveyed. Methods...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a key generation system derived from the channel response of individual subcarrier in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Practical aspects of the security were investigated by implementing our key generation scheme on a wireless open-access research platform (WARP), which enables us to obtain channel esti...
Article
We present a novel approach to network security against passive eavesdroppers by employing a configurable beam-forming technique to create tightly defined regions of coverage for targeted users. In contrast to conventional encryption methods, our security scheme is developed at the physical layer by configuring antenna array beam patterns to transm...
Article
In this paper, we examine a novel approach to network security against passive eavesdroppers. By configuring antenna array beam patterns to transmit data to specific regions, it is possible to create defined regions of coverage for targeted users. By adapting the antenna configuration according to the intended user's channel state information, this...
Conference Paper
In physical layer security systems there is a clear need to exploit the radio link characteristics to automatically generate an encryption key between two end points. The success of the key generation depends on the channel reciprocity, which is impacted by the non-simultaneous measurements and the white nature of the noise. In this paper, an OFDM...
Article
Low-power processors and accelerators that were originally designed for the embedded systems market are emerging as building blocks for servers. Power capping has been actively explored as a technique to reduce the energy footprint of high-performance processors. The opportunities and limitations of power capping on the new low-power processor and...
Conference Paper
The ability to exchange keys between users is vital in any wireless based security system. A key generation technique which exploits the randomness of the wireless channel is a promising alternative to existing key distribution techniques, e.g., public key cryptography. In this paper, a secure key generation scheme based on the subcarriers' channel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With security and surveillance, there is an increasing need to be able to process image data efficiently and effectively either at source or in a large data networks. Whilst Field Programmable Gate Arrays have been seen as a key technology for enabling this, they typically use high level and/or hardware description language synthesis approaches; th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents IPPro which is a high performance, scalable soft-core processor targeted for image processing applications. It has been based on the Xilinx DSP48E1 architecture using the ZYNQ Field Programmable Gate Array and is a scalar 16-bit RISC processor that operates at 526MHz, giving 526MIPS of performance. Each IPPro core uses 1 DSP48, 1...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of the commonly used Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) algorithm is explored. The HOG algorithm is employed to extract features for object detection. A key focus has been to explore the use of a new FPGA-based processor which has been targeted at image processing. The paper gives details o...
Book
Innovation is currently a hot topic and is directly related to economic development. The creation of companies resulting from innovative project and processes, is seen as central to the economic development in many countries. Whilst main university management schools have embraced the concept of company creation and innovation, we would argue that...
Conference Paper
Interesting wireless networking scenarios exist wherein network services must be guaranteed in a dynamic fashion for some priority users. For example, in disaster recovery, members need to be able to quickly block other users in order to gain sole use of the radio channel. As it is not always feasible to physically switch off other users, we propos...
Article
Full-text available
A key challenge in defense and security systems is to implement functionality within a power budget. We show how data bandwidth redundancy and the need to change performance is exploited to achieve power efficient, field programmable gate array realizations with improved sampling rates. A unified methodology is given for the implementation of a key...
Article
Full-text available
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are examples of complex programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) platforms and comprise dedicated DSP hardware resources and distributed memory. They are ideal platforms for implementing computationally complex DSP systems in image processing and radar, sonar and signal processing. The chapter describes how decidabl...
Article
Full-text available
There is considerable interest in creating embedded, speech recognition hardware using the weighted finite state transducer (WFST) but there ar