Roger White

Roger White
Whittier College · Economics

PhD, International Economics

About

143
Publications
16,966
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Introduction
My research largely focuses on topics relating to cross-societal cultural differences, the immigrant-trade link, immigration policy/history, public opinion towards economic globalization, and the consequences of increased international trade for domestic labor. I have worked on additional topics related to international trade (e.g., determinants of exporting behavior and the distance puzzle) and development-related topics such as multidimensional poverty and microfinance. My primary objective is to contribute empirical studies that foster a greater understanding of economic phenomena (generally) and, specifically, of international economic interactions.
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - present
Whittier College
Position
  • Professor
June 2014 - present
Whittier College
Position
  • Chair
September 2012 - August 2016
Whittier College
Position
  • Professor
Education
August 1999 - June 2004
University of California, Santa Cruz
Field of study
  • International Economics
September 1992 - December 1998
San Francisco State University
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (143)
Chapter
We examine the degree to which implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) reduced the incidence and intensity of multidimensional poverty in America. Expansion of Medicaid eligibility under the ACA was intended to be national and in January 2014 a majority of states did expand eligibility; however, by the end of 2018, 19 states had not done so...
Chapter
To provide a foundation for our discussion of policy implications, we begin by summarizing the work that is presented in earlier chapters. This includes discussion of the structure of the book and details regarding the content of each chapter, including general discussion of the related findings. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to a discuss...
Chapter
We estimate the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), headcount ratio, and average deprivation intensity values for a variety of socio-demographic cohorts. More specifically, through an examination of data from the 2008–2018 American Community Surveys, we detail multidimensional poverty incidence and intensity for several categories that identify i...
Chapter
Although the literature on multidimensional poverty is quite vast, only a small number of studies have focused on developed countries and a still smaller number of works have examined multidimensional poverty in the U.S. To facilitate greater understanding of multidimensional poverty while simultaneously demonstrating the flexibility and usefulness...
Chapter
We document variation over the life cycle in terms of the incidence, intensity, and forms of deprivation that are experienced by residents of the U.S. Examining data from the 2008–2018 American Community Surveys, we calculate the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), headcount ratio, and average deprivation intensity values for each age cohort (i.e...
Chapter
We detail the construction of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in general terms and we present information from the 2019 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index to provide context for our measurement of multidimensional poverty in the U.S. This information includes discussions and examples of deprivation measurement (i.e., the MPI, headcount...
Chapter
Applying the Alkire-Foster method to data from the 2008–2018 American Community Surveys, we calculate the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the U.S. as the product of the incidence and intensity of deprivation. Incidence is represented by the headcount ratio (i.e., the proportion of the population that is classified as multidimensionally poo...
Chapter
We present findings from a series of counterfactual exercises that assume certain deprivation-related antecedents are realized. Using data from the 2018 American Community Survey to produce baseline values for comparison, we consider the following scenarios: (1) the implementation of a universal health care system; (2) the adoption of a universal b...
Chapter
We offer a general discussion of deprivation and poverty, emphasizing their similar natures to demonstrate the multidimensionality of poverty. This is followed by the introduction of three measures of poverty/deprivation—the United States’ Official Poverty Measure (OPM), its Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM), and the Multidimensional Poverty Index...
Chapter
We explore possible variation in the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and its associated dimensions and indicators across a number of sub-national geographic units (i.e., regions, divisions, and states). Examination of American Community Survey data for the 2008–2018 period reveals considerable variation across geographic units in terms of MPI...
Chapter
With the goal of identifying the statistical determinants of multidimensional poverty, we present the results obtained from a series of estimations in which three dependent variable measures, each of which represents the incidence or intensity of multidimensional poverty, are regressed on a number of individual- and household-specific explanatory v...
Chapter
We offer a detailed descriptive portrait of multidimensional poverty among native- and foreign-born residents of the U.S. Examining data from the American Community Surveys for the 2008–2018 period, we consider variation in the determinants of multidimensional poverty across native- and foreign-born cohorts. We find that, even after controlling for...
Book
This book investigates and documents multidimensional poverty in the United States and identifies patterns and relationships that contribute to the development of a more complete understanding of the incidence and intensity of deprivation. The first part introduces multidimensional poverty and provides a rationale for viewing poverty through a lens...
Article
Using data on the levels of economic integration agreements (EIAs) among 172 countries (35 OECD members and 137 non-members) that span the years 1995–2009, we examine the effects of immigrants and EIA levels on bilateral trade costs between immigrants’ host and home countries and whether the influence of immigrants on trade costs varies across type...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) This book presents an exploration of sorts. We begin with a seemingly reasonable assumption: The cultural evolution of the United States has been intricately tied to its immigration history (i.e., the volume and timing of immigrant arrivals and their source countries/regions); and this history has been influenced by the countr...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) Our review of the history of U.S. immigration, and of related legislative acts, begins only a few decades after the founding of the Jamestown Colony (1607), the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. Throughout the Colonial Era, the large majority of immigrant arrivals to North America were from Europe. During thi...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) The second portion of U.S. immigration history that we discuss begins with the passage of the Page Act in 1875. The act is largely considered to be the first federal law limiting immigration to the U.S.1 It was followed, over the next several decades, by additional pieces of legislation that restricted immigration in one manne...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) At the end of World War I, policy makers in many nations, including the United States, placed considerable emphasis on economic self-sufficiency. As a result, many countries implemented isolationist policies. Although World War I had severely curtailed immigration to the United States, once the war ended, immigration quickly i...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) While there have been a number of watershed moments in the history of U.S. immigration policy, the most recent and perhaps most influential involves the enactment of the Hart-Celler Act (i.e., the Immigration Act of 1965) on July 1, 1968. The act abolished the National Origins Quota System that had been in effect since the 192...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) A simple premise was stated at the beginning of this work: Changes in U.S. immigration policy—as represented by the enactment of laws that have governed immigration—have had pronounced influences on the composition of the country’s foreign-born population and, thus, on the demographics of the nation and its culture. To conside...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) In Chapter 6, we presented results obtained from the estimation of a series of variants of the gravity model of international migration. One conclusion drawn from the analysis is that there is significant inertia in annual immigrant inflows. This is interesting as it implies that past immigration leads to current immigration,...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) The review of immigration history that we have presented in Chapters 2 through 5 and the empirical analyses that are discussed in Chapters 6 and 7 indicate that changes in U.S. immigration policy have influenced the levels of annual immigrant arrivals to the country and have shaped the composition of annual inflows, thus influ...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) The information that is presented in Chapter 8, taken in conjunction with the empirical findings discussed in Chapters 6 and 7, provides evidence that past U.S. immigration policies led American culture to develop such that, by the late 1960s, it had become more similar to the culture of the typical member of the traditional i...
Chapter
(Beginning paragraph) We close the book by summarizing the work that has been presented thus far and by offering a discussion of potential related opportunities for public policy. Specifically, we begin by revisiting the relationships and the corresponding questions that form the basis for this project. We then provide an accounting of the work—wha...
Book
The author examines the relationships between immigration policy, observed immigration patterns, and cultural differences between the United States and immigrants’ source countries. The entirety of US immigration history (1607-present) is reviewed through a recounting of related legislative acts and by examining data on immigrant inflows and cross-...
Article
Using a modified gravity model and three measures of cultural distance, we employ the zero-inflated negative binomial estimation technique to examine the impact of cultural distance on international migration flows. We confirm the finding of prior studies that there exists a negative relationship between composite measures of cultural distance and...
Article
This book examines survey data to consider the extent to which public support for immigration, international trade, and foreign direct investment exists in a cohort of 38 heterogeneous countries. With economic globalization shaping daily life, understanding the determinants of public opinion is crucial for policy makers. This timely volume uses sur...
Book
This book examines survey data to consider the extent to which public support for immigration, international trade, and foreign direct investment exists in a cohort of 38 heterogeneous countries. With economic globalization shaping daily life, understanding the determinants of public opinion is crucial for policy makers. This timely volume uses sur...
Chapter
We examine data from the 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year Public Use Microdata Sample files (U.S. Census, American Community Survey, 2010–2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 2016) and employ the methodology of Alkire and Foster (Counting and Multidimensional Poverty Measurement. Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initia...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the topic of multidimensional poverty, focusing on its emergence as a metric to gauge deprivation and on the shortcomings of income- and consumption-based measures. Having established a basis for examination of deprivation as a multidimensional phenomenon, we close the chapter with a “road map” for the remainder of the volum...
Book
This edited collection provides a comprehensive examination of multidimensional poverty for a wide variety of economies and societies, with a general focus on multidimensional poverty in developed countries, where poverty is often overlooked. Arguing that income- and consumption-based poverty measures cannot provide a full picture of the presence a...
Chapter
We begin the presentation of our empirical analysis of the potential influences of cultural differences on public opinion of various facets of globalization. Specifically, we employ the empirical specification and estimation strategy that are presented in Chap. 5 to consider how cultural differences between survey respondents’ countries of residenc...
Chapter
We present the empirical framework that we employ when conducting our principle analysis. Specifically, we present a baseline econometric model and a series of closely-related regression specifications. Discussion of the choice of explanatory variables is coupled with the presentation of the empirical model, the included variables, and the estimati...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduce the Specific Factors model to provide theoretical intuition for the analysis that follows in later chapters while also contextualizing the information provided in our first two chapters. Moreover, by focusing our attention on the anticipated welfare effects, our presentation of the model and related theoretical framewo...
Chapter
We examine data from the 2014 US-Germany Trade Survey data, employing regression analysis to identify the determinants of individuals’ opinions of international trade while paying particular attention to the potential influence that cross-societal cultural differences may have on public opinion. We also provide a descriptive analysis in addition to...
Chapter
Having stated a working definition of culture as the representation of a society’s shared habits, traditions, and collective learned beliefs, we introduce four direct/composite measures of culture, discuss their constructions, and present their respective component dimensions. Although definitions of culture vary, and while it likely is the case th...
Chapter
We make the case that cultural differences are an important determinant of public opinion on economic globalization. As such, there are clear general implications for policy makers who seek to devise and implement policies that will enhance international economic integration—namely, that a more complete understanding of why some individuals hold ne...
Chapter
We address international trade as the second part of our empirical analysis of public opinion. We begin by considering whether survey respondents view trade as, on balance, a good thing or a bad thing. More specifically, as we are interested in the potential influence of cultural differences on public opinion, we examine whether opinions of trade a...
Chapter
We summarize the key findings from the preceding chapters. We begin this chapter with an accounting of what has been done in this work, how we have proceeded to address our research topic, what key relationships have been examined, and what were the expected findings. This is followed by a summary of the findings from our empirical analyses.
Chapter
We examine the influence of cultural distance on public opinion toward foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Our data set includes survey responses from individuals in 38 countries. The survey data allow us to examine opinions of both “brownfield” and “greenfield” FDI inflows. We consider variation in the influences of the cultural distance betw...
Chapter
We introduce our topic and identify our primary research questions. We also show that, since the 1970s, there has been a general shift toward greater globalization. A part of this increased globalization has been increased international economic integration and, thus, greater inter-connectedness among developed and developing countries. This places...
Article
Full-text available
Using annual data for China and 88 trading partners that span the period 1995–2011, we estimate whether cross-societal cultural differences influence China’s external trade flows. Our results, obtained from the estimation of a series of multi-level mixed effect random intercepts and coefficients models, indicate that China’s aggregate exports and i...
Article
Using annual data for China and 88 trading partners that span the period 1995–2011, we estimate whether cross-societal cultural differences influence China’s external trade flows. Our results, obtained from the estimation of a series of multi-level mixed effect random intercepts and coefficients models, indicate that China’s aggregate exports and i...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the effects of immigrants and cross-societal cultural differences on bilateral trade costs using two alternative measures of cultural differences (i.e. cultural distance and genetic distance). We find that bilateral trade costs generally increase with a rise in the cultural distance between trading partners but fall with a rise in the st...
Chapter
Full-text available
We examine U.S. immigration history both by recounting the related legislative history and by examining data on immigrant inflows and inflow shares during the period from 1820 through 2013. A descriptive analysis of the cultural differences between the U.S. and several cohorts of countries suggests that U.S. culture has been shaped by the pattern o...
Book
Economic globalization is the process of increased integration among nations, characterized and fostered by the three processes of international trade in goods and services, international capital flows, and international migration. In recent decades, international economic integration has increased both in depth (i.e., more pronounced bilateral con...
Article
Full-text available
We highlight that an increase in the stock of immigrants corresponds with greater numbers of U.S. firms that engage in exporting to foreign markets. Our results are obtained from the estimation of a multi-level mixed effects model. Overall, the effect of immigrants is relatively larger among small- and medium-sized enterprises and is smaller among...
Article
Full-text available
Calibrating a stylized version of the Dornbusch-Fischer-Samuelson model, this paper finds that relative to a cohort of 97 trading partners, the US capital stock, labor force, and nominal GDP per capita decreased, while the level of technology embodied in its output increased. These observed dynamics suggest a shift in comparative advantage that, co...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from 85 NAICS 4 digit-level industry classifications that span the years 2004-2008, we evaluate whether productivity differentials, which have been shown to determine the decision of firms to export, affect the extensive margins of trade at the industry-level (i.e., the number of firms within an industry that engage in exporting). We use...
Article
Full-text available
In the International Handbook of the Economics of Migration, Amelie Constant (Temple University, USA and IZA, the Institute for the Study of Labor) and Klaus Zimmermann (Bonn University, Germany and IZA) have assembled an impressive collection of articles offering broad coverage of an important and timely topic. As the first comprehensive collectio...
Article
Full-text available
We use the first comprehensive estimates of bilateral trade costs to test the extensively stated, but rarely evaluated, hypothesis that immigrants reduce trade-related transaction costs. Our results provide robust and direct evidence supporting this often-posited hypothesis. We examine the period from 1995 through 2010 using data that represent 174...
Article
Full-text available
We propose the use of a balanced panel data set and Poisson regression as a solution to the distance puzzle. Employing annual data for the period 1972–2010, we confirm the existence of the puzzle by applying OLS regression to both an unbalanced panel data set and a narrowly defined balanced panel. We find that Poisson regression remedies the distan...
Book
Opinion polls indicate that a considerable portion of the U.S. public holds negative views of international trade. The extent of anti-trade sentiment exhibited by the American public is largely out of step with public opinion elsewhere in the world. In fact, the U.S. may be one of the most trade-wary societies. Worries that trade, particularly incr...
Article
Full-text available
Examining data for 79 immigrant source countries and six OECD member destination countries during the years 1975-2000, we find that source-destination cultural differences inhibit international migration. We also report that existing immigrant stocks act to offset, at least in part, the migration-inhibiting effects of cultural differences. Employin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Much has been made of the rise of China’s economy and its emergence as a global trading power. Standard trade theory holds that comparative advantage is the basis for mutually beneficial exchange and, as such, it is the basis for international trade. In this chapter, we employ data that span the period from 1968 through 2008 to calibrate the Dornbu...
Chapter
In the examinations undertaken thus far, we have not differentiated between types of trade flows. Ricardian models of international trade are largely based on a notion of inter-industry trade. The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem, for example, predicts that capital-abundant countries will specialize in the production of capital-intensive products and then e...
Chapter
As was discussed in the initial chapter, public opinion polls indicate that a considerable portion of the US public expresses negative opinions when asked about varying facets of international trade. This opposition to trade is persistent and not at all insignificant. Additionally, the extent of anti-trade sentiment exhibited by the American public...
Chapter
Almost two hundred years have passed since the publication of David Ricardo’s On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. Ricardo instructs us to devote our limited resources toward the production of what we do best, as defined by our opportunity cost of production, and to then trade the resulting output for what we are relatively less cap...
Chapter
David Ricardo’s (1817) example of comparative advantage illustrates the basis for mutually beneficial exchange. The Ricardian framework is intuitive when we consider how we conduct our daily lives. We do not produce the large majority of items that we consume. Instead, our productive efforts are, quite often, specific to a particular product. Often...
Chapter
We build on the analysis presented thus far by shifting our focus from the potential influence of international trade on industry-level employment and wages to whether trade correlates with a heightened probability that a worker experiences job displacement. Using worker-level data, we first estimate displacement probabilities for 32 worker types,...
Chapter
More than five million workers have been certified as trade displaced by the Department of Labor since the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 created the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) program. The Trade Promotion Authority Act of 2002 reauthorized TAA, merged the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)-Transitional Adjustment Assistance program wi...
Chapter
We see that a considerable portion of the US public expresses negative opinions when asked about varying facets of international trade. As has been discussed, this anti-trade senti-ment is persistent over time and not at all insignificant. Public opinion poll results indicate that, typically, about 30 percent to 50 percent of Americans hold negativ...
Chapter
When examining the labor market consequences of international trade, we repeatedly find effects that are so minor that they appear unlikely justification for the degree to which anti-trade sentiment is observed in US public opinion polls. Given the lack of a pronounced negative influence of trade on either wages or employment, in chapter 9 we consi...
Chapter
The analysis presented in chapter 7 indicates that the likelihood a worker will experience job displacement is positively related to the level of import competition faced by the industry in which she/he is employed and is negatively related to the level of the industry’s exports. The net effect of trade on the probability of job displacement is, ho...
Chapter
The examination of trade-induced industry-level employment effects presented in chapter 4 reveals modest wage and employment effects. Exports and imports were found to be positively and negatively related, respectively, to the employment of production workers and nonproduction workers and to average industry-level wages of production workers. In th...
Chapter
Our earlier analyses have provided empirical evidence in support of the notion that increases in the levels of exports and import competition are positively and negatively related, respectively, to both production worker employment and wages and to the wages of nonproduction workers. Further, we reported considerable variation in the effects of tra...
Chapter
The calibration exercise presented in chapter 3 illustrates that the United States has lost comparative advantage in the production of a number of goods during the period from 1968 through 2008. In other words, some of the goods that were produced in the United States in years past are now being produced elsewhere in the world. This may appear to b...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between physical distances, a proxy for interpersonal networks, and peer evaluation scores is examined using data collected from undergraduate student presentations in econometrics courses during the spring 2010 and spring 2011 semesters at Franklin & Marshall College. Employing the Tobit regression technique and decomposing result...
Article
Full-text available
Employing data on the immigrant stocks of 43 African home nations who reside in 110 host nations and trade flows between these countries during the year 2005, we examine whether African immigrants exert positive effects on their home nations’ trade with the typical host nation. Estimation of Tobit regression models indicates a one percent increase...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the relationship between source-destination country cultural differences and international migration flows using data for three immigrant destination countries (i.e., Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands) and a cohort of 66 heterogeneous immigrant source countries during the years 1997-2002. Results obtained from the estimation of our e...
Article
Full-text available
Employing data for 34,255 loans made by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) to 12,455 repeat borrowers during the 2002–6 period, this article examines the relationship between borrowers' asset holdings and microloan repayment. Estimating a series of binomial probit specifications, it finds a positive relationship between land ownershi...
Article
Full-text available
That immigrants affect trade in goods between their home and host countries is well established in the literature. Little evidence exists, however, as to whether immigrants also affect trade in services. Using data on international tourist arrivals from 86 countries to the United States during the years 1995–2004, we provide the first empirical evi...
Article
Full-text available
Using data representing the 6-digit NAICS-classified industries that comprise the United States manufacturing sector during the years 1989 to 2005, we test the validity of the Smooth Adjustment Hypothesis (SAH). To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the SAH for the US. The results of our empirical analysis are consistent with the confi...
Article
Full-text available
A voluminous literature examines the immigrant-trade link. Available studies evaluate the link largely from the host country perspective and generally indicate that immigrants exert positive influences on trade between their host and home countries. Few studies, however, explore the effects of emigrants on trade. Using data representing the stocks...
Book
This essential volume examines the influence of immigrants on the process of international economic integration – specifically, their influences on bilateral and multilateral trade flows. It extends beyond the identification and explanation of the immigrant–trade link and offers a more expansive treatment of the subject matter, making it the most c...

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