Roger Valentine Short

Roger Valentine Short
University of Melbourne | MSD · Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

ScD Cantab PhD Cantab FRS

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361
Publications
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Publications

Publications (361)
Article
Human–elephant conflict (HEC) and poaching are the foremost threats to the survival of elephants (African, Loxodonta africana; Asian, Elephas maximus) in their natural environments. Reducing HEC has the potential to save hundreds of elephant and human lives annually across Asia and Africa. Lone adult male elephants are the principal crop raiders; t...
Article
Disturbances in circadian rhythms of bodily performance and function, as may occur for example in transfer of work patterns from day to night-shift, or rapid crossing of several time zones in an aircraft ("jet lag") are treated by administration of melatonin. Alleviation or prevention of ill effects associated with disturbance of circadian rhythms...
Article
Abstract The mechanisms responsible for twinning and disorders of twin gestations have been the subject of considerable interest by physicians and scientists, and cases of atypical twinning have called for a reexamination of the fundamental theories invoked to explain twin gestations. This article presents a review of the literature focusing on twi...
Article
Colin Russell Austin, English by birth, initially graduated in Veterinary Science from the University of Sydney in 1936. The Second World War limited his career options, but he was fortunate to be employed by the CSIR Division of Animal Health in Sydney. In 1954 he was invited to join the staff of the Medical Research Council's laboratory in Mill H...
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Full-text available
Background: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are key reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from which transmission to the general population fuels epidemics. STIs amplify HIV infectiousness and susceptibility. We determined the status of HIV and STIs among brothel-based FSWs in Jos as part of an...
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A study on historical range and movement patterns of the African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) in Ethiopia was made from December 2004 to November 2008. Babile Elephant Sanctuary is one of the strongholds of elephants in the country, where it now supports approximately 27% of the elephant population in Ethiopia. Elephant movement...
Article
Abrupt alterations in the 24-h light : dark cycle, such as those resulting from transmeridian air travel, disrupt circadian biological rhythms in humans with detrimental consequences on cognitive and physical performance. In the present study, a jetlag-simulated phase shift in photoperiod temporally impaired circadian peaks of peripheral clock gene...
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Evidence from studies of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossils and humans points to fascinating hypotheses concerning the types of interbreeding that occurred between these two species. Humans and Neanderthals share a small percentage of nuclear DNA. However, humans and Neanderthals do not possess the same mito­chondrial...
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Full-text available
Evidence from studies of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossils and humans points to fascinating hypotheses concerning the types of interbreeding that occurred between these two species. Humans and Neanderthals share a small percentage of nuclear DNA. However, humans and Neanderthals do not possess the same mitochondrial D...
Article
Our ancestors were unique in having the lowest rate of reproduction of any living mammal. This was achieved by the postponement of puberty until well into the second decade of life, a maximal probability of conception of only about 25% per menstrual cycle even when ovulation had commenced, a 4-year birth interval as a result of the contraceptive ef...
Article
A captive female African elephant, known to be 27 years old, died as a result of trauma. Her growth rate was similar to that of other captive African elephants, and slightly greater than that of wild animals. The 5th molar was in full wear, and the 6th was just coming into wear. There was extensive dental caries of the labial, lingual and occlusal...
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Vaginal douche products have been associated with cervical cancer. We examined female sex workers (FSWs) in Nigeria who douche with lemon or lime juice and compared the findings with that of nonusers. We obtained Pap smears and performed colposcopy of the vulva, vagina and cervix. A total of 374 FSWs comprising 81 Lemon users (LUs) and 293 non lemo...
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When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the wo...
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The platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, is surely one of the most amazing animals in the world, and it still has so much to tell us about the whole of mammalian evolution. It is therefore particularly appropriate on the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin in 1809 to recall his first encounter with a platypus during the voyage of the Be...
Article
There is growing evidence to suggest that the presence of a single gene on the Y chromosome, which also codes for the expression of the H-Y antigen, causes the primordial gonad to develop structurally as a testis: in the absence of this gene, an ovary is formed. Whether the gonad subsequently becomes capable of producing viable gametes depends on t...
Data
ERα (top panel) and ERβ (bottom panel) RT-PCR. 1, negative control with template omitted. 2, MCF7 cDNA template (used as a positive control for amplification). 3, inner foreskin sample #1. 4, outer foreskin sample #1. 5, inner foreskin sample #2. 6, outer foreskin sample #2. ERα amplification was performed on all samples; ERβ was performed on sampl...
Data
Randomly selected representative images of the stained contact smears in the pre-treatment, treatment and post treatment periods for the two individuals. Keratin stains bright pink. The amount of desquamated keratin increased markedly within 24 hours of beginning the treatment and remained significantly higher than the control period for up to 5 da...
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With the growing incidence of HIV, there is a desperate need to develop simple, cheap and effective new ways of preventing HIV infection. Male circumcision reduces the risk of infection by about 60%, probably because of the removal of the Langerhans cells which are abundant in the inner foreskin and are the primary route by which HIV enters the pen...
Chapter
The MareThe CowThe SheepThe GoatThe PigSummary and Conclusions AcknowledgementsReferencesDiscussion
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Specific ConsiderationsConclusions SummaryReferencesDiscussionReferences
Article
SummaryA female elephant was observed throughout most of oestrus, and was then shot. The cow was mated by many different bulls during the course of oestrus. Initially, there seemed to be little competition between bulls for the cow, but as oestrus wore on, fighting broke out amongst the bulls and one eventually appeared to establish mastery, drivin...
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The rates of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including HIV, are high among female sex workers (FSW) in Nigeria and the use of various local vaginal cleansing agents to prevent infection is a common practice. The present study was aimed at determining whether any association exists between current lime or lemon douching and the prevalence o...
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Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedur...
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To study the distribution of HIV-1 receptors and degree of keratinization in the human penis. Formalin-fixed penises were obtained from nine uncircumcised cadavers. Foreskins were obtained from 21 healthy adult men undergoing elective circumcision for social reasons. Uncircumcised penises were obtained within 24 h of death from eight men. All tissu...
Article
HIV infection is the greatest health crisis in human history. It continues to spread unchecked among the poor in the developing world because we have failed to design simple preventative methods that are available and affordable to those living on under Dollars 2 a day. Five new methods are discussed. (i) A natural microbicide. Intravaginal lime or...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the sperm-immobilizing properties of lemon juice to determine if they are consistent with its traditional contraceptive use. It was found that lemon juice supernatant (LJS) has high osmolality (550-60 mOsm) and low pH (2.2-2.6) and that addition of LJS to semen to give a final concentration of 20% v/v reduced t...
Article
The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by A...
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To describe the use of lemon/lime juice for douching by female sex workers (FSWs) and family planning clients (FPCs) in Jos, Nigeria. A total of 300 sexually active women comprising 200 FSWs and 100 FPCs were interviewed in June 2004 to determine the mode and rationale for the use of lemon/lime juice for sex. Majority of the women 167/300 (55.7%, 9...
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How HIV enters the human penis S G McCoombe1, P U Cameron2, R V Short1 1The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Westmead Millenium Institute, Sydney, Australia Background Recent evidence suggests that circumcised men are 8 times less likely to become infected by HIV than uncircumcised men. Immunocompetent cells expressing specifi...
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The health benefits of male circumcision are wide ranging.
Article
Nelson Mandela has recently said that HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis in human history. At the end of 2001, UNAIDS estimated that there were 40 million people living with the infection, with 5 million new cases, and 3 million deaths per year. About half the infected individuals are men, and heterosexual intercourse is the commonest route of...
Article
Direct cooling of the testis results in the depletion of most germ cells in vivo. Germ cell-depleted testes are now commonly used to investigate spermatogenic regeneration and can serve as recipients for germ cell transplantation. The present study explored the effects of cooling rat testes on the depletion of endogenous germ cells, spermatogenic r...
Article
Nelson Mandela has recently said that HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis in human history. At the end of 2001, UNAIDS estimated that there were 40 million people living with the infection, with 5 million new cases, and 3 million deaths per year. About half the infected individuals are men, and heterosexual intercourse is the commonest route of...
Article
The adult elephant is unique among mammals in that the pleural membranes are thickened and the pleural cavity is obliterated by connective tissue. It has been suggested that this peculiar anatomy developed because the animal can snorkel at depth, and this behavior subjects the microvessels in the parietal pleura to a very large transmural pressure....
Article
The lumen of the seminiferous tubules has hitherto been regarded as an immunologically privileged site. We report here the birth of young following transplantation of stem spermatogonia from Long-Evans rats to the seminiferous tubules of Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin. Follicle-stimulating hormone w...
Article
Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they...
Article
Worldwide, 18.5 million women are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). At least 80% of these HIV infections have occurred as a result of sexual intercourse with an infected male partner. This review focuses on how HIV-1 enters the human female reproductive tract, and how oestrogen or progesterone, by altering the cervicovaginal e...
Conference Paper
The distribution of HIV-1 target cells and keratin in the human penis S G McCoombe1, P U Cameron2, R V Short3 1Dept. of Zoology / Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 2Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 3Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Th...
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The strict orthology of mitochondrial (mt) coding sequences has promoted their use in phylogenetic analyses at different levels. Here we present the results of a mitogenomic study (i.e., analysis based on the set of protein-coding genes from complete mt genomes) of 60 mammalian species. This number includes 11 new mt genomes. The sampling comprises...
Article
This letter is a reply to the comment of Ronald Gray et al.(AIDS 2000 14:2371-2381) concerning male circumcision and HIV acquisition and transmission. The authors argue that the cohort studies conducted in Rakai concluded that the protective effect of circumcision may be lower or negligible among certain sub-populations such as non-Muslims adolesce...
Article
Non-lethal management techniques are needed for overabundant captive and wild populations of macropodid marsupials for which lethal techniques are considered inappropriate and may be hazardous. The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, was used as a model species to investigate the effect of s.c. levonorgestrel implants on reproduction during breeding...
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Full-text available
Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist and inhibitor of prolactin secretion, was investigated as a potential fertility control agent in the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes). Sixty silver fox vixens were selected randomly and artificially inseminated. Cabergoline was fed to groups of 12 vixens in a minced beef ration either as a single dose of 25, 50 or 100...
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Article
The camelid family comprises the Old World camelids (or dromedary and Bactrian camels) and the New World camelids (namely the llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas). Although the species within each group can hybridize among themselves to produce fertile offspring, it is only recently that a hybrid between New and Old World camelids has been report...
Article
This article is a transcript of my closing talk to the participants of the Havemeyer Foundation Symposium ‘From Elephants to AIDS’ held in Port Douglas in June 2001. In it, I thought I would speak about events that changed my life, in a slightly lighthearted vein, but with method in my madness, in the hope that they might also change my listeners’...
Article
The world's population, currently just over 6 billion, is projected to increase to 9-10 billion by the year 2050. Most of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia, where there is an enormous unmet demand for contraception, while an increasing number of developed countries will have declining populations. The human immunodeficiency...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of men who are HIV positive have been infected through the penis. There is conclusive epidemiological evidence to show that uncircumcised men are at a much greater risk of becoming infected with HIV than circumcised men. The inner surface of the foreskin contains Langerhans' cells with HIV receptors; these cells are likely to be the pr...
Article
Australian women are missing out in terms of their reproductive health, when compared to women in other developed countries. Now seems an appropriate moment in time to spell out the nature of their disadvantages, and suggest ways in which they could be overcome.
Article
William Harvey spent a lifetime searching for the earliest moments of life.
Article
The effect of subcutaneous levonorgestrel implants on reproduction in female tammar wallabies was investigated during the breeding and non-breeding season. Female tammars were given either a control or a levonorgestrel implant and their pouch young were removed to terminate embryonic diapause. Both the control and the levonorgestrel-implant animals...
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Un groupe de neuf femelles et un mâle guanacos a été maintenu au sein d'un important troupeau de dromadaires au Centre de reproduction camelin à Dubaï. Les ovaires des femelles guanacos et dromadaires étaient scannés régulièrement et quand ils présentaient un follicule dominant de 0,7-0,9 cm de diamètre chez le guanaco ou de 1,3-1,8 cm chez le drom...
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The early embryology of the elephant has never been studied before. We have obtained a rare series of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) embryos and fetuses ranging in weight from 0.04 to 18.5 g, estimated gestational ages 58-166 days (duration of gestation is approximately 660 days). Nephrostomes, a feature of aquatic vertebrates, were found in...
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Thirty female dromedary camels were inseminated on a total of 50 occasions with 2-4 ml of fresh guanaco semen diluted with an equal volume of commercially available camel semen extender. Similarly, nine female guanacos were inseminated on 34 occasions with 4-6 ml of fresh, diluted camel semen. Only two of the dromedary females conceived; one aborte...
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The surge of LH that induces ovulation in mammals showing spontaneous ovulation is precipitated by the positive feedback of increasing oestrogens from the developing follicles in the ovary. In eutherians, exogenous oestrogens can mimic this effect by eliciting an LH surge in females, but not usually in males. The absence of a positive LH response t...
Article
To teach safe sex practices to adolescents in school, before they start to become sexually active, using peer group education. To send young medical students back to their old schools to do the teaching, and to get them to make videos suitable for showing to teenage audiences that can be widely circulated to all schools. The program has been runnin...
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Full-text available
The effects of the prolactin inhibiting drug, cabergoline, on pregnant and lactating marsupials were investigated in four species from three diverse families: the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, and the fat-tailed dunnart, Sminthopsis crassicaudata. In tammar wallabies,...
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Germ cells are unique, since their surviving descendants can undergo meiosis and differentiate into gametes, which transmit genetic material from one generation to another. We now know that male germ cells, whether they be primordial germ cells in gonadal ridges, gonocytes, or stem spermatogonia, are transplantable. The donor cells can be transferr...
Article
We have previously demonstrated that both donor primordial germ cells (PGCs) and gonocytes are capable of establishing spermatogenesis in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of an adult host following transplantation in rats. Here we show that the PGCs, either in crude suspensions or after purification, undergo spermatogenesis only in the intralu...
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Full-text available
There is widespread concern about a possible decline in human fertility in recent decades. The spontaneous dizygotic twinning rate provides a way of measuring a combination of male plus female fertility as it reflects the frequency of double ovulation, the probability of fertilization, and the survival of the zygote. There was a decline in dizygoti...

Projects

Project (1)
Project
Our recently published paper in Wildlife Society Bulletin on "The use of audio playback to deter crop-raiding Asian elephants" says it all. Studies in Sri Lanka have shown that the vocalizations of a matriarchal female will deter the adolescent young males from raiding farmer's crops, and this should prevent farmers killing the crop raiders by using "Hakka-patas" - small pressure mines concealed in fruits or vegetables which blow off the lower jaw.