Roger Hurst

Roger Hurst
Plant and Food Research · Food Innovation Portfolio

BSc, PGCE, PhD
Applying science to support new product development

About

129
Publications
14,402
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,354
Citations
Introduction
Interest in fruit and vegetable phytochemical compounds and their role in modulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunity to aid cell protection, tissue recovery and repair. Researcher ID: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/B-9460-2014
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
Plant & Food Research Ltd
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Interests in undertaking human health efficacy seeking health benefits from consuming fruit, vegetable and native plant phytochemical foods. Aims are to provide robust and quality science evidence to support and create new/innovative functional foods for New Zealand industries.
January 2020 - present
2Before Performance Nutrition Ltd
Position
  • Consultant
December 2008 - December 2019
Plant & Food Research Ltd
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • Leading a group of scientists undertaking human health efficacy research seeking health benefits from consuming fruit, vegetable and native plant phytochemical foods. Aims are to provide robust and quality science evidence to support and create new/innovative functional foods for New Zealand industries.
Education
January 2004 - January 2006
September 1986 - September 1989
University of Keele
Field of study
  • Hormone signalling in diabetes mellitus
September 1983 - September 1986
University of Wales
Field of study
  • Biomedical Sciences

Publications

Publications (129)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Heterogeneous laborious analytical methodologies for the determination of urinary lactulose and mannitol limit their utility in intestinal permeability testing. Methods: We developed an assay using a Shimadzu HPLC system, an Aminex HPX87C column, and refractive index detection. The test was calibrated using a series of dilutions from...
Article
Air pollution is estimated to cause 7 million annual deaths globally. Our aim was to determine if dietary propolis consumption could prevent the immune and functional damage in a mouse model of acute urban dust exposure. Female C57BL/6J mice were challenged three times with intranasal urban dust over seven days which significantly increased proinfl...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of metabolic abnormalities, which together lead to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as reduced quality of life. Dietary nitrate, betalains and anthocyanins may improve risk factors for MetS and reduce the risk of development of CHD and T2DM. Beetroot is...
Article
Full-text available
Bioactive compounds including anthocyanins and other polyphenols are associated with reduced lung inflammation and improved lung function in asthma and other lung diseases. This study investigated the effects of a Boysenberry and apple juice concentrate, high in cyanidin glycosides, ellagitannins, and chlorogenic acid, on a mouse model of allergic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Blackcurrants have come to be regarded as a superfood because of their high polyphenol content, namely anthocyanins. While many berry types have been studied, blackcurrant-anthocyanins may be the superior berry when it comes to athletic performance. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the effects of blackcurrant supplementation o...
Article
Increased global industrialisation has increased air pollution resulting in 3 million annual deaths globally. Air pollutants could have different health effects, so specific models to identify the different immune effects are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the immune effects and lung function of acute exposure to two different pollu...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We examined the acute effects of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant extract and a placebo on hemodynamics during 120 min of sedentary sitting in healthy males. Additionally, we investigated whether changes in resting hemodynamics altered repeated isometric hand-grip exercise performance and post exercise forearm blood flow (FBF)....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Regular exercise is essential to a healthy lifestyle but evokes an oxidative and inflammatory stress. Depending upon its intensity and duration this can result in either beneficial adaptive changes or underlying tissue damage that impacts upon long-term health and individual sporting training schedules. Functional foods containing plant...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Affective responses experienced during exercise are a significant determinant on exercise adherence. We have previously demonstrated that consumption of New Zealand (NZ) blackcurrants preserves cognition by attenuating the feeling of fatigue. This positive affective response correlated with the ability of blackcurrant polyphenols to su...
Article
Full-text available
Asthma is an allergic lung inflammation characterised by the influx of eosinophils at the infected site recruited by the chemokine, CCL11. During inflammation, the transcription factor Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) initiates a series of pro-inflammatory responses. Natural compounds that could modulate CCL11 levels and/or NF-κB activation have pote...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To evaluate blackcurrant anthocyanin-rich extract (BAE) consumption on time- and dose-dependent plasma anthocyanin bioavailability and conduct a pilot study to explore the potential effect of BAE in promoting recovery from exercise-induced oxidative stress, and maintenance of circulating neutrophil function. Methods: Time- and dose-dependent b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Consumption of a blackcurrant polyphenolic extract in healthy individuals prior to a cognitive challenge improved cognitive performance and mood. Although the underlying causes are unknown, a change in neurotransmitter concentrations involved in motivation was detected. Since motivation is key to the desire and adherence to exercise, we...
Article
Apples and pears from New Zealand commercial varieties and breeding selections were evaluated for their potential to modulate airway inflammation. Allergic asthma is characterised by eosinophil cell infiltration and inflamed airways of the lungs as a result of inhaled allergens. Prevention or delayed entry of eosinophils by targeting the IL-4 pathw...
Article
CCL11, a chemokine, is linked to the early development of airways eosinophilia in allergic asthma. Therefore, CCL11 production is a target for abrogating eosinophilic-driven airway inflammation. Blackcurrants are high in compounds that regulate inflammation, particularly anthocyanins. In this study we investigated the effect of oral blackcurrant su...
Article
Full-text available
Objective There is preclinical evidence that consumption of berryfruit extract may reduce chronic airways inflammation and modify airway remodelling in allergen-induced models of lung inflammation. We investigated the effect of berryfruit extract on the fractional expired nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of eosinophilic airways inflammation, in adu...
Article
Full-text available
Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that is partly sustained by the chemokine eotaxin-3 (CCL26), which extends eosinophil migration into tissues long after allergen exposure. Modulation of CCL26 could represent a means to mitigate airway inflammation. Here we evaluated procyanidin A2 as a means of modulating CCL26 production and investi...
Article
Full-text available
The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures. Cyclists (N = 20) participated in a 75-km cycling time trial (168 ± 26.0 min), with blood and vastus lateralis muscle samp...
Article
Full-text available
Lung fibrosis negatively impacts on lung function in chronic asthma and is linked to the development of pro-fibrotic macrophage phenotypes. Epidemiological studies have found that lung function benefits from increased consumption of fruit high in polyphenols. We investigated the effect of Boysenberry consumption, in both therapeutic and prophylacti...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Populations that consume procyanidin-rich diets are less susceptible to inflammatory disease. Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease perpetuated by a hyperreactive airway epithelium and eosinophil infiltration into the lung. Eotaxin-1 (CCL11) mediates eosinophil migration into tissues and its modulation could represent a means...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Whilst the use of the mannitol/lactulose test for intestinal permeability has been long established it is not known whether the doses of these sugars modify transit time Similarly it is not known whether substances such as aspirin that are known to increase intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol and those such as ascorbic ac...
Data
Study protocol submitted to Massey University Human Ethics Committee. (PDF)
Data
Information sheet given to participants. (PDF)
Data
Instruction sheet and guidelines for use of the Smartpill data logger. (PDF)
Data
SOP for fecal sample collection. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to correlate post-exercise muscle glycogen levels with changes in plasma cytokine, and muscle mRNA cytokine expression and protein content. Methods: Twenty-four male runners (age 36.5 ± 1.8 years, VO2max 60.0 ± 1.5 mL⋅kg(-1) ⋅ min(-1)) ran twice (separated by 4 weeks) on treadmills to exhaustion at 70% V...
Article
Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used in order to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone,...
Chapter
Procyanidins are polyphenolic compounds found in relatively high concentrations in fruits that have come to be known as biologically active in the context of promoting human health. Epidemiological evidence suggests that people who consume diets high in fruits and vegetables are less susceptible to inflammation-related diseases and diseases of mult...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lactulose mannitol ratio tests are clinically useful for assessing disorders characterised by changes in gut permeability and for assessing mixing in the intestinal lumen. Variations between currently used test protocols preclude meaningful comparisons between studies. We determined the optimal sampling period and related this to intesti...
Article
Full-text available
Eosinophil recruitment to the airways is a characteristic feature of allergic asthma. Eotaxins are potent chemokines that regulate the recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation. Of these, CCL26 is linked to persistent eosinophil recruitment in the later phase of an allergic response. We evaluated the effectiveness of 10 different blackcur...
Article
The effect of inflammatory change on the absorption of different sized probes and their permeability ratios are poorly understood. We aimed to determine the effects of a pharmacological agent on permeability of the gut mucosa to saccharidic probes of larger and smaller molecular weight. Permeability was assessed by half-hourly urinary excretion of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Blueberry juice processing starts with frozen berries and proceeds through a number of steps which can be simplified into 'unit operations': thawing, blanching, enzyme treatment, separation of juice from pomace, pasteurisation and bottling. Phytochemical composition of the juice continues to change during processing and storage. Developing a proces...
Article
Full-text available
Asthma is an allergy-mediated inflammatory disease characterised by infiltration of the airway with mast cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The disease is induced by co-ordination of T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of polyphenolic bioactive compounds, which have been...
Article
We explored the temporal dynamics of the lactulose mannitol test and the influence of a single dose of aspirin. Twenty healthy female volunteers each received 600 mg aspirin or placebo in random sequence and were subsequently dosed with 10 g lactulose and 5 g mannitol, their urine collected every half hour for 6h. The lactulose:mannitol ratios (LMR...
Conference Paper
Gut health maybe envisaged as the ability to continue to function i.e. withstand, large fluctuations in lumen conditions. We developed a standardized test to quantitatively assess the response of the gut to a standardized noxious stimulus. Twenty healthy carefully screened female volunteers (9 smokers and 11 non smokers) were recruited. They each r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not cle...
Article
Full-text available
Blueberries were first introduced to New Zealand in the 1950s from North America and by 1970 around 30 cultivars had been imported. Selection for new material better suited to the New Zealand climate then began using F1 seedlings and open pollinated crosses. The Plant & Food Research Ltd blueberry breeding program (led by Dr. Jessica Scalzo) is cur...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies reveal that fruit consumption reduces the prevalence of airway inflammation and childhood asthma. In particular, blackcurrant polyphenolic extracts have been shown to alleviate lung inflammation. Since IL-4-stimulated eotaxin-3 (CCL26) secretion is a major factor in the continuous eosinophil recruitment observed in atopic as...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle damage can result from disease and unaccustomed or excessive exercise. Muscle dysfunction occurs via an increased level of reactive oxygen species and hence there is potential in antioxidants as amelioration strategies. We explored the putative benefit of fruit polyphenolic extracts in reducing the susceptibility of skeletal muscle...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the health promoting attributes of fruits and their compounds the New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd (PFR) is using exercise as a model for oxidative stress and immune depression. Regular exercise has health benefits believed to be derived from adaptive responses to moderate oxidative stress. However, following exhausti...
Article
Full-text available
Prolonged oxidative stress is detrimental to health; however, transient oxidative stress may improve immune capability. We examined whether exercise-induced increases in the plasma oxidative generating capability enhance immune responsiveness to potential pathogens. Twelve individuals underwent a 30-min row and pre and post-exercise bloods were col...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise-induced oxidative stress is instrumental in achieving the health benefits from regular exercise. Therefore, inappropriate use of fruit-derived products (commonly applied as prophalytic antioxidants) may counteract the positive effects of exercise. Using human exercise and cellular models we found that 1) blackcurrant supplementation suppre...
Article
There have been many epidemiological studies linking flavonoid intake to health benefits and many in vitro studies demonstrating various biological effects of flavonoids that should be reflected by health benefits. It has been widely assumed that these observations are linked and dietary flavonoids are readily absorbed into the circulation and infl...
Chapter
Flavonoids, also referred to as bioflavonoids, are polyphenol antioxidants found naturally in plants. They are secondary metabolites, meaning they are organic compounds that have no direct involvement with the growth or development of plants. Flavonoids are plant nutrients that when consumed in the form of fruits and vegetables are non-toxic as wel...
Article
Full-text available
Polyphenolic phytochemicals are ubiquitous in plants, in which they function in various protective roles. A 'recommended' human diet contains significant quantities of polyphenolics, as they have long been assumed to be 'antioxidants' that scavenge excessive, damaging, free radicals arising from normal metabolic processes. There is recent evidence...
Article
Barrier functions across epithelia and endothelia are essential for homeostatic tissue regulation. Astroglia interact with cerebral endothelia to maintain the blood-brain barrier. Whether similar interactions between astrocyte-like enteric glia and epithelia regulate intestinal barrier function is not known. Fluorescent permeability markers were us...