Roger Hitchin

Roger Hitchin
Building Research Establishment BRE | BRE

About

52
Publications
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482
Citations
Introduction
Roger Hitchin is a self-employed consultant, having previously been a Technical Director at the Building Research Establishment dealing with building energy issues. He works for a range of UK and European organisations. A physicist by initial training but subsequently a building services engineer, before joining BRE he had worked in a variety of areas relating to energy use in buildings: as a building services design consultant; an academic researcher into building energy use; a leader of gas industry research and development teams supporting the marketing and strategic planning functions; and as an energy market analyst. At BRE he initially worked on government energy efficiency programmes, and subsequently on a range of other projects for government and private clients. He has also been

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
Policies to reduce carbon emissions are leading to substantial changes in the demand for electricity and to the structure of electricity supply systems, which will alter the cost structure of electricity supply. This can be expected to result in corresponding changes to the price structure faced by customers. This note is an initial exploration of...
Article
Full-text available
Methods of estimating monthly cooling loads in buildings are usually confined to sensible demands only, with latent loads either ignored or added as an arbitrary proportion of sensible cooling demands. This note describes an extension of an existing monthly method for estimating sensible cooling demands that takes account of latent cooling. It refl...
Article
Full-text available
The related concepts of Primary Energy and Primary Energy Factors (which describe how much Primary energy is contained in each unit of delivered energy) are used for international comparisons of national energy use and have become increasingly important regulatory and statistical metrics, especially in relation to the European Energy Performance of...
Article
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This Technical Note describes a framework for handling the inherent complexities of carbon emission and primary energy factors for networked electricity supply systems within building energy codes and similar policy instruments. The proposed framework reflects the main characteristics of carbon emissions from such networked supplies, while retainin...
Article
Monthly utilisation factors are the basis of many procedures for calculation of monthly heating or cooling requirements for buildings, notably in the procedure described in standard ISO 13790:2008 ‘Energy performance of buildings – Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling’, which is widely used for the implementation of the Energy Pe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study comprises several different elements, each directed at improving DECC’s understanding and characterisation of UK electricity consumption by air conditioning in non-domestic buildings; especially that used to support the cooling function (rather than air handling). These include: analysis of measured consumptions in offices including ann...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper summarises the analysis of information relating to energy use for cooling in UK commercial buildings collected from a number of sources. The primary purpose of the study was to expand the evidence base for policy analysis relating to the future air conditioning energy of buildings in the UK, but the results will be of wider interest. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper summarises newly-collected information that can be used to expand the evidence base for policy analysis relating to the future air conditioning energy of buildings in the UK. In particular, it includes; The recommendations made in a sample of 500 air conditioning inspection reports Technical characteristics of the 500 inspected air condi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper summarises the analysis of information relating to energy use for cooling in UK commercial buildings collected from a number of sources. The primary purpose of the study was to expand the evidence base for policy analysis relating to the future air conditioning energy of buildings in the UK, but the results will be of wider interest. In...
Article
Full-text available
Energy signatures for air conditioning systems can have characteristics which are not seen with heating systems. This paper explains and illustrates some of the characteristics that are specific to air conditioning systems and describes how energy signatures that take account of them can be applied to produce benchmarks, control charts and diagnost...
Article
Full-text available
A new calculation method for monthly cooling energy demand is presented which extends the utilisation factor method of standard EN ISO 13790:2008 to take account of a number of important features of air-conditioning systems that are currently ignored. In all other respects it is compatible with this method, which is the most widely used means of pr...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarises the results of a study to identify and quantify the potential impact of measures and policies to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning in European countries over a 10-year period. The market penetration of air conditioning in Europe has increased steadily over several decades. On a "business as usual" basis, its en...
Article
This paper summarises the results of a study to identify and quantify the potential impact of measures and policies to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning in European countries over a 10-year period. The market penetration of air conditioning in Europe has increased steadily over several decades. On a “business as usual” basis, its e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the final overview report for the Intelligent Energy Europe iSERVcmb Project funded by the European Commission between May 2011 and May 2014
Article
Full-text available
Monthly building thermal energy demand calculation procedures such as the utilisation method described in EN ISO 13790 and the monthly degree-day procedure contain parameters that reflect the variation of heating and cooling demands within a particular month. The frequency distribution of the loads is, however, neither explicit nor visible. This fr...
Article
Full-text available
This paper models the past and future sales, replacement rates and installed stock levels of air conditioning products in Europe. Established market diffusion models have been reformulated to allow their calibration against product sales data, and then used to estimate future and past sales levels, time-dependent product replacement rates and insta...
Article
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The potential environmental impacts of room air-conditioners in Europe are described, based on an analysis for the European Commission in support of the Energy-using Products Directive. About half the current cooling need of buildings in Europe is met by room air-conditioners - the rest being met by central systems. The likely market growth for suc...
Article
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The relationship between electricity demand reduction and the consequent change in carbon emissions is central to greenhouse gas emissions policy. This paper examines this relationship for the power system of England and Wales. Previous analysis showed that the commonly used conversion factor based on the system average emission factor significantl...
Article
Full-text available
Article 9 of the EPBD is named "inspection of air-conditioning systems". It stipulates that "with regard to reducing energy consumption and limiting carbon dioxide emissions, Member States shall lay down the necessary measures to establish a regular inspection of air-conditioning systems of an effective rated output of more than 12 kilowatts". More...
Article
Full-text available
Article 9 of the EPBD is named "inspection of air-conditioning systems". It stipulates that "with regard to reducing energy consumption and limiting carbon dioxide emissions, Member States shall lay down the necessary measures to establish a regular inspection of air- conditioning systems of an effective rated output of more than 12 kilowatts". Mor...
Article
Full-text available
There are a number of different conventions in use, or proposed, for apportioning carbon emissions from CHP between heat and electricity. This paper sets out several criteria that should be met and examines how well a number of possible conventions meet them. Only one convention—that the intensities should be proportional to those of competing supp...
Article
A field monitoring study was carried out to determine the energy efficiency of fan coil and packaged direct expansion (DX) air-conditioning systems in use within UK office buildings. Specifically, the in-use efficiency of three liquid chillers with fan coil systems and a packaged split direct expansion system ws measured between May 2002 and July 2...
Technical Report
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Save study named "Energy Efficiency and Certification of Central Air Conditioners" for the DG TREN regarding central air conditioners. Contains the basis of the Eurovent ESEER and proposed measures to limit the consumption and CO2 emissions of air conditioning.
Article
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While it is relatively easy to describe how a change in electricity demand causes a change in carbon emissions from a system of grid-supplied power, it is by no means easy to quantify this. The following have all been used to determine the carbon emissions from changes in electricity demand: • the system-average carbon intensity (that is, the ratio...
Article
Full-text available
Convective heat transfer coefficients have been measured at the internal surface of a test cell, which was operated over a range of heating conditions, using a novel device. The measurements have been compared with values of heat transfer coefficients published in the CIBSE guide. The measured heat transfer coefficients have also been used to estim...
Article
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Dynamic thermal simulation programs are increasingly used as a research tool and as building services design aids. Their limitations are, however poorly understood; mainly because of the difficulty of obtaining sufficiently robust experimental data. New techniques, developed by British Gas and our contractor, The Energy Monitoring Co. Ltd., have pe...
Article
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This paper extends established methods of estimating the heating energy consumption of buildings. It describes how month-by-month degree-day calculations may be developed to capture effects of building thermal inertia and of day to day variations of incidental gains. It also demonstrates how the part-load efficiency of heating appliances may be inc...
Article
The results of a series of computer simulations show how peak heating load varies with changes of building structure, insulation level and period of heating. It is shown that timber-frame houses have inherently lower total heating requirements but higher peak loads, and that higher plant size ratios are needed in highly insulated houses for a given...
Article
Full-text available
A new method is proposed for the estimation of monthly degree-day values from monthly mean temperatures. This can be used to calculate figures for sites which are distant from the 17 sites in the UK for which published data are available, and to modify published figures to non-standard base temperatures. The new method is simpler than existing proc...
Article
The CIBS Example Weather Year for Kew (1964/65) has been established ¹ , and some reduced data published 2, 3 . The thinking behind the concept of an example weather year was presented by Holmes and Hitchin in 1974 ⁴ , since that time the process of selection has been formalised by a CIBS task group under the auspices of the Computer Applications P...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature records at several sites have been analysed in terms of monthly and annual degree-day values to base temperatures in the range 5 to 20°C. Results for London (Heathrow) are presented in some detail and compared with estimates made with various published procedures. The consistency across Britain of year-to-year variations is examined. Th...
Article
Because the balance between factors influencing the sizing of heating systems is altered in well-insulated houses, it may be necessary to move away from conventional sizing procedures. The cost-effectiveness (in the UK) of modes of operation other than traditional intermittent operation is explored. A possible new form of sizing procedure is put fo...
Article
Weather data from environmental engineering and energy consumption in buildings are presented and the proposals are made for a problem analysis and for comparison between various methods for predicting building and system behavior, and between individual design cases.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air- conditioning in the UK over the last 20 years and potential changes over the next 20 years. If current trends continue, energy use and the consequent carbon emissions associated with air- conditioning could quadruple by 2020. Realistic but assertive regulatory mea...
Article
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SUMMARY Whole-building energy performance calculations are required by the EPBD as part of compliance with minimum standards for new buildings and of the energy performance certification process for existing buildings. These are integrated calculations that include the effects of the building design and of the installed or proposed HVAC and lightin...
Article
Full-text available
The Energy Performance Certification requirements of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive highlight the need to have repeatable, robust but easy to use methods of assessing the annual efficiency of HVAC systems. This is also an important issue for energy-efficient system design in general. System efficiency depends on the efficiency of hea...

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