Roger A Fielding

Roger A Fielding
Tufts University | Tufts · Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Ph.D.

About

450
Publications
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31,865
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Publications

Publications (450)
Article
Full-text available
Senescence is a cell fate that contributes to multiple aging-related pathologies. Despite profound age-associated changes in skeletal muscle (SkM), whether its constituent cells are prone to senesce has not been methodically examined. Herein, using single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing and complementary imaging methods on SkM of young and old mice, w...
Article
Importance: Observational evidence suggests that higher physical activity is associated with slower kidney function decline; however, to our knowledge, no large trial has evaluated whether activity and exercise can ameliorate kidney function decline in older adults. Objective: To evaluate whether a moderate-intensity exercise intervention can af...
Article
In the Men’s Lifestyle Validation Study (2011-2013), we examined the validity and relative validity of a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), web-based 24-hour recalls (ACT24) and accelerometers by multiple comparison methods. Over one year, 609 men completed two PAQs, two 7-day accelerometer measures, one doubly labeled water (DLW)-physical acti...
Article
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Sarcopenia and frailty represent two burdensome conditions, contributing to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) Task Force met virtually in September 2021 to discuss the challenges in the development of drugs for sarcopenia and frailty. Lifestyle interventions are the current...
Article
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Appetite loss/anorexia of aging is a highly prevalent and burdensome geriatric syndrome that strongly impairs the quality of life of older adults. Loss of appetite is associated with several clinical conditions, including comorbidities and other geriatric syndromes, such as frailty. Despite its importance, appetite loss has been under-evaluated and...
Article
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Background The aim of this study is to investigate whether combined cognitive and physical training provides additional benefits to fall prevention when compared with physical training alone in older adults. Methods This is a prespecified secondary analysis of a single-blind, randomized controlled trial involving community-dwelling men and women a...
Article
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The primary objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergy between low doses of L-carnitine tartrate and creatine monohydrate to induce muscle protein synthesis and anabolic pathway activation in primary human myoblasts. In addition, the effects of Lipid multi-particulates (LMP) formulation on creatine stability and bioavailabilit...
Article
Older adults are encouraged to engage in multicomponent physical activity, which includes aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities. The current work is an extension of the Vitality, Independence, and Vigor in the Elderly 2 (VIVE2) study – a 6-month multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of physical activity and nutritional supplementa...
Article
Our laboratory has discovered that dysregulation in microRNA (miRNA) that target anabolic signaling between younger and older adults is a potential molecular mechanism resulting in age-associated decreases in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). Whether differences in miRNA expression profiles account for inter-individual variability in...
Article
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Background Executive functions underlie self-regulation and are thus important for physical activity and adaptation to new situations. The aim was to investigate, if yearlong physical and cognitive training (PTCT) had greater effects on physical activity among older adults than physical training (PT) alone, and if executive functions predicted phys...
Article
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The human ageing process is universal, ubiquitous and inevitable. Every physiological function is being continuously diminished. There is a range between two distinct phenotypes of ageing, shaped by patterns of living - experiences and behaviours, and in particular by the presence or absence of physical activity (PA) and structured exercise (i.e.,...
Article
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Gait speed is a measure of health and functioning. Physical and cognitive determinants of gait are amenable to interventions, but best practices remain unclear. We investigated the effects of a 12‐month physical and cognitive training (PTCT) on gait speed, dual‐task cost in gait speed, and executive functions (EFs) compared to physical training (PT...
Article
Background Cut-points to define slow walking speed have largely been derived from expert opinion. Methods Study participants (13,589 men and 5,043 women aged ≥65years) had walking speed (m/s) measured over 4-6 meters (mean ± SD: 1.20 ± 0.27 m/s in men and 0.94 ± 0.24 m/s in women.) Mobility limitation was defined as self-reported any difficulty wi...
Article
The amount of time spent in poor health at the end of life is increasing. This narrative review summarizes consistent evidence indicating that healthy dietary patterns and maintenance of a healthy weight in the years leading to old age are associated with broad prevention of all the archetypal diseases and impairments associated with aging includin...
Article
Background Elevated Interleukine-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with aging-related reductions in physical function, but little is known about their independent and combined relationships with major mobility disability (MMD), defined as the self-reported inability to walk a quarter-mile. Methods We estimated the absolute and r...
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Dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA)‐derived appendicular lean mass/height2 (ALM/ht2) is the most commonly used estimate of muscle mass in the assessment of sarcopenia, but its predictive value for fracture is substantially attenuated by femoral neck (fn) bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated predictive value of 11 sarcopenia definitions fo...
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We investigated how baseline values and rates of decline in components of sarcopenia and other body composition parameters relate to adverse clinical outcomes using the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. 2689 participants aged 70–79 years were studied. Appendicular lean mass, whole body fat mass, and total hip BMD were ascertained using DXA...
Article
Interactions among physiological pathways associated with osteoporosis and sarcopenia are thought to contribute to the onset of frailty. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force thus met in March 2020 to explore how emerging interventions to manage fracture and osteoporosis in older adults may reduce frailty, disab...
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Background In 2016, an expert working group was convened under the auspices of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and formulated consensus recommendations for the conduct of clinical trials for drugs to prevent or treat sarcopenia.AimsThe objective of the current paper is to provide a 2...
Article
The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force met in March 2020, in the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, to discuss strategies for advancing the interdisciplinary field of geroscience. Geroscience explores biological mechanisms of aging as targets for intervention that may delay the physiological consequences of aging,...
Article
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Background: Older adults living in rural areas suffer from health inequities compared to their urban counterparts. These include comorbidity burden, poor diet, and physical inactivity, which are also risk factors for sarcopenia, for which muscle weakness and slow gait speed are domains. To date, no study has examined urban-rural differences in the...
Article
From the beginning of 2020, the world has been fighting the SARS-Cov-2 outbreak. The life of each one of us has profoundly changed. Unavoidably, our clinical routine has drastically modified in its priorities and methodologies (1). The COVID-19 pandemic has also raised significant issues in the field of research. The investigators’ responsibility h...
Conference Paper
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The motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR) is a recently described pre-dementia syndrome in older adults characterized by slow gait coupled with subjective cognitive complaints. While previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of exercise on cerebral hemodynamics in healthy older adults, to date, no study has characterized the effects of exerci...
Article
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Background: Older adults living in rural areas experience health inequities compared to their urban counterparts. These include comorbidities, poor diet and physical inactivity; known risk factors for sarcopenia. No studies examining urban-rural differences in the prevalence of sarcopenia and slow gait speed among older adults in the United States...
Article
The authors apologize for a typing error that occurred in the September 2020 article that changes the meaning of a sentence.
Article
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Background: Physical activity is crucial to maintain older adults' health and functioning, but the health benefits of particular activity intensities remain unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to peruse the distribution of physical activity, and to investigate the associations of particular physical activity intensities with body co...
Article
Background Lower antioxidant serum concentrations have been linked to declines in lean mass and physical function in older adults. Yet population data on the effect of dietary antioxidants on loss of muscle strength and physical function are lacking. Objective We sought to determine the association of antioxidant intake [vitamin C, vitamin E, and...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to suggest practical frailty screening and management strategies in primary care settings.
Article
BACKGROUND The Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) is a collaborative initiative seeking to develop and evaluate cut‐points for low muscle strength and lean mass that predict an increased risk for slowness (usual walking speed <.8 m/s) among older adults. OBJECTIVES The goal of the present study was to provide clinicians and rese...
Article
BACKGROUND The Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) sought to identify cut points for muscle strength and body composition measures derived from dual‐energy x‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) that discriminate older adults with slow walking speed. This article presents the core analyses used to guide the SDOC position statements. DESIGN C...
Article
Background/objectives: The extent to which the prevalence of muscle weakness in the US population varies by different putative grip strength constructs developed by the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) has not been described. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Two nationally representative cohorts-2010 and 2012 wav...
Article
OBJECTIVES Analyses performed by the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) identified cut‐points in several metrics of grip strength for consideration in a definition of sarcopenia. We describe the associations between the SDOC‐identified metrics of low grip strength (absolute or standardized to body size/composition); low dual‐ener...
Article
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Musculoskeletal disorders are common among older people. Preventive strategies require understanding of age-related changes in strength, function and body composition, including how they interrelate. We have described, and examined associations between, 9-year changes in these parameters among 2917 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study participa...
Article
Previous studies have found an inverse relation between serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and physical performance in seniors, however this was limited to higher functioning older adults with low to moderate levels of inflammation. We explored the consistency of this association in a cohort of mobility limited older adults with chronic low...
Article
Background Persons with HIV may experience greater mobility limitations than uninfected populations. Accurate tools are needed to identify persons at greatest risk of decline. We evaluated the performance of novel muscle weakness metrics (grip, grip/body mass index [BMI], grip/weight, grip/total body fat, grip/arm lean mass) and association with sl...
Article
Background Sarcopenia is often conceptualized as a precursor to loss of mobility, but its effect on recovery of mobility after a hip fracture is unknown. We determined the prevalence of low muscle strength (weakness) after hip fracture using putative sarcopenia metrics (absolute grip strength, and grip strength normalized to body mass index, total...
Article
Objectives: To develop an evidence-based definition of sarcopenia that can facilitate identification of older adults at risk for clinically relevant outcomes (eg, self-reported mobility limitation, falls, fractures, and mortality), the Sarcopenia Definition and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) crafted a set of position statements informed by a literatur...
Article
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Background: Walking independently is basic to human functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) studies were developed to assess whether initiating physical activity could prevent major mobility disability (MMD) in sedentary older adults. Methods: We review the development and selected findings of the LIFE studies...
Article
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Biomarkers of frailty and sarcopenia are essential to advance the understanding of these conditions of aging and develop new diagnostic tools and effective treatments. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) Task Force - a group of academic and industry scientists from around the world -- met in February 2019 to disc...
Article
Objectives: Our aim was to examine the impacts of baseline fatigue on the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) intervention to prevent major mobility disability (MMD) and persistent major mobility disability (PMMD) in participants from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. Design: Prospective cohort of indivi...
Article
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Background: Human aging is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammation suspected to contribute to reductions in skeletal muscle size, strength, and function. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), may play a role in the reduced skeletal muscle adaptive response seen in older individuals. Objectives: To investigate relations...
Article
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The co-existence of impaired bone health (osteopenia/osteoporosis), reduced muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), and increased adiposity (obesity) in middle-aged and older people has been identified in recent studies, leading to a proposal for the existence of “osteosarcopenic obesity” as a distinct entity. Evidence for the pathophysiological ove...
Article
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in one of the co-author's name. The co-author Cyrus Cooper's degree “FMedSci” was incorrectly tagged as family name. This has been corrected with this erratum.
Article
Sarcopenia the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is coupled with declines in physical functioning leading to subsequent higher rates of disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality. Aging and obesity independently contribute to muscle atrophy that is assumed to be a result of the activation of mutual physiological pathways. U...
Article
Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may protect against aging-related decline. This study directly compared ACEis and ARBs on associations with risk of mobility disability in older adults when combined with a physical activity intervention. Methods This was a secondary analysis of the...
Article
The International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research was held in Miami, Florida, in February of 2019 (1). The 9th edition of this conference had the highest attendance rate since its debut and is now a major venue that attracts the best key opinion leaders in the field of sarcopenia and frailty. Approximately 400- 500 delegates from arou...
Article
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It is well recognized that poor muscle function and poor physical performance are strong predictors of clinically relevant adverse events in older people. Given the large number of approaches to measure muscle function and physical performance, clinicians often struggle to choose a tool that is appropriate and validated for the population of older...
Article
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Objective: Examine whether pre-intervention physical activity (PA) level is associated with achieving a positive treatment response of pain and/or function improvement after a 12-week exercise intervention in participants with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized, single-blind comparative effective...
Article
Background Lack of consensus on how to diagnose sarcopenia has limited the ability to diagnose this condition and hindered drug development. The Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) was formed to develop evidence-based diagnostic cut-points for lean mass and/or muscle strength that identify people at increased risk of mobility disa...
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Objectives Skeletal muscle weakness and an increase in fatigability independently contribute to age-related functional decline. The objective of this study was to examine the combined contribution of these deficiencies (i.e., torque capacity) to physical function, and then to assess the functional implications of progressive resistance training (PR...
Article
Background The movement profile of older adults with compromised function is unknown, as is the relationship between these profiles and the development of major mobility disability (MMD)—a critical clinical outcome. We first describe the dimensions of movement in older adults with compromised function and then examine whether these dimensions predi...
Article
BACKGROUND Low-grade chronic inflammation, characterized by elevations in plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6), is an independent risk factor of impaired mobility in older persons. Angiotensin receptor blockers and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) may reduce IL-6 and may potentially improve physical function. To assess the main effects of the angio...
Article
Objectives Sarcopenia, defined as an age-associated loss of skeletal muscle function and muscle mass, occurs in approximately 6 - 22 % of older adults. This paper presents evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia from the task force of the International Conference on Sarcopenia and Frailty Re...
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Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and absence of depressive symptoms are of great importance for older people, which may be achieved through lifestyle interventions, e.g., exercise and nutrition interventions. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program in combination with protein suppleme...
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Over the last few decades, considerable evidence shows that greater levels of aerobic exercise and cardiovascular fitness benefit cognitive performance. However, the degree to which free-living activity in community settings is related to cognitive performance remains unclear, particularly in older adults vulnerable to disability. Also, it is unkno...
Article
Growing evidence has highlighted low-grade inflammation as a risk factor for lower walking speed, reduced mobility, and disability with advancing age. In response to an RFA from NIA and to address gaps in evidence, the randomized pilot trial ENRGISE (ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors) was conducted to test anti-inflammatory in...
Article
Low-grade inflammation increases with aging and is associated with reduced walking speed, poor mobility, and disability. The ENRGISE (ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors) Pilot study was designed to gather preliminary data on whether anti-inflammatory interventions improve or preserve walking ability in older adults with mobilit...
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We previously demonstrated that progressive resistance training (PRT) improves lower-extremity skeletal muscle fatigability in mobility-limited older adults. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between lower-extremity fatigability and physical function, and assess the downstream functional implications of PRT-mediated fatiga...
Article
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of hospitalizations on patterns of sedentary and physical activity time in mobility‐limited older adults randomized to structured physical activity or health education. DESIGN Secondary analysis of investigator‐blinded, parallel‐group, randomized trial conducted at 8 U.S. centers between February 2010 and December...
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Background Whether physical activity can reduce cognitive frailty—a relatively new “compound” phenotype proposed in 2013—and whether the effect of physical activity differs based on levels of inflammation are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical activity on cognitive frailty and whether baseline interleukin-6 (IL-...
Article
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Declines in walking speed are associated with a variety of poor health outcomes including disability, comorbidity, and mortality. While genetic factors are putative contributors to variability in walking, few genetic loci have been identified for this trait. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation on walking speed by sequencing the...