Rodrick Wallace

Rodrick Wallace
New York State Psychiatric Institute

About

378
Publications
20,595
Reads
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5,071
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1992 - December 1994
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Postdoctoral fellowship in the epidemiology of mental disorders.
November 1988 - present
New York State Psychiatric Institute
Position
  • Researcher
Education
August 1970 - May 1977
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (378)
Article
Full-text available
Controlling many infectious diseases, including SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), requires surveillance followed by isolation, contact-tracing and quarantining. These interventions often begin by identifying symptomatic individuals. However, actively removing pathogen strains causing symptomatic infections may inadvertently select for strains less l...
Preprint
Little attention has been paid to governance’s impacts on the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. To evaluate such impacts on the evolution of vaccine resistance, we analyzed a stochastic compartmental model to quantify the risk a mutant strain capable of evading immunity emerges post-vaccine rollout. We calibrated the model wi...
Chapter
The original version of this book was inadvertently published with incorrect captions for Fig. 1.1 of Chapter 1 and Fig. 2.1 and Fig. 2.2 of Chapter 2. It also had an incorrect Fig. 3.1 in Chapter 3.
Chapter
We examine the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic’s explosion in the New York Metropolitan Region from the perspective of both historical trajectory and Holling (Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23, 1973) ideas of ‘ecosystem resilience’ transitions, akin to the eutrophication of a pristine lake by sewage runoff. Without significant alteration in ‘upstream’...
Chapter
Methods developed to analyze spread of the 1980–1990 AIDS syndemic within the New York Metropolitan Region (NYMR) are updated and applied to the rate of COVID-19 deaths in the early months of the pandemic, and to premature mortality, across that conurbation. For COVID deaths, 21 of the 24 NYMR counties are strongly linked through diffusion mechanis...
Chapter
This chapter examines the geography of COVID markers and premature mortality in the four central boroughs of New York City (NYC): Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, and Queens. Manhattan and the Bronx being similar in population are compared and Brooklyn is to Queens. The poverty belt of Brooklyn hosted high rates of COVID deaths and premature mortality r...
Chapter
We first examine pandemic control from upstream, finding analogies with firefighting and fire prevention. While firefighting is necessary, it is not sufficient: preventing fires is preferable to controlling and containing them. Pandemic prevention cannot be disentangled from matters of neoliberal land use and agricultural policies and practices. Sp...
Chapter
New York City (NYC), in the early stages of the pandemic, had the highest number and incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in US cities. The foundation of this public health catastrophe lies in the overall public health and socioeconomic (SE) structure of the city. Premature (below age 65) mortality rate indicates background public health. In year...
Book
This book is the first social epidemiological study of COVID-19 spread in New York City (NYC), the primary epicenter of the United States. New York City spread COVID-19 throughout the United States. The context of epicenter formation determined the rapid, extreme rise of NYC case and mortality rates. Decades of public policies destructive of poor n...
Article
Main Streets are civic/commercial centers of neighborhoods. They are also nodes in regional networks of streets, which together create a net of connection referred to here as the ‘tangle.’ This tangle serves as a physical substrate for community interconnection and its expression as collective efficacy. We examine two regions hit by disaster. We po...
Article
Statistical models based on the asymptotic limit theorems of control and information theories allow formal examination of the essential differences between short-time “tactical” confrontations and a long-term “strategic” conflict dominated by evolutionary process. The world of extended coevolutionary conflict is not the world of sequential “muddlin...
Article
WHO tuberculosis researchers recently published a mathematical model to predict TB incidence decline with fulfillment of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) subtargets [1]. This model omitted the subtargets of land rights and basic services and of reduction in deaths from climatic disaster, likely highly influential factors, and retained only social...
Article
Real-time conflict takes place on Clausewitz landscapes most notably marked by fog-of-war and frictional limits, uncertainties, and misperceptions. Imposition of such factors on an opponent is, in fact, a standard tactic of confrontation, from courts of law to commerce, from political campaigns to the battlefield. Time-constrained optimization mode...
Chapter
Current marketing hype surrounding autonomous vehicles runs something like this: “Since more than 90% of highway deaths are related to driver error, automating out the driver will reduce loss of life by more than 90%”.
Chapter
Amoozadeh M, Raghuramu A, Dhuah C, Ghosal D, Xhang HMZ, Rowe J, Levitt K (2015) Security vulnerabilites of connected vehicle streams and their impact on cooperative driving. IEEE Commun Mag 53:126–132.
Chapter
To reiterate a central point, unlike aircraft, that can be constructed to be inherently stable in linear flight by placing the aerodynamic center of pressure sufficiently behind the mechanical center of gravity, the complex nature of road geometry and the local dynamics of vehicular traffic ensure that V2V/V2I systems will be inherently unstable, r...
Chapter
The RDT asks how much a signal can be compressed and have average distortion, according to an appropriate measure, less than some predetermined limit D.
Chapter
A long line of work summarized by Cassidy et al. (2011) attempts to extend the idea of a fundamental diagram for a single road to a full transport network.
Article
The Stanley Miller experiment suggests that amino acid-based life is ubiquitous in our universe, although its varieties will not have followed the particular, highly contingent and path-dependent, evolutionary trajectory found on Earth. Are many alien organisms likely to be individually conscious in ways we would recognize? Almost certainly. Will a...
Article
Cognition in living entities -- and their social groupings or institutional artifacts -- is necessarily as complicated as their embedding environments, which, for humans, includes a particularly rich cultural milieu. The asymptotic limit theorems of information and control theories permit construction of a new class of empirical 'regression-like' s...
Chapter
Morse theory examines relations between analytic behavior of a function – the location and character of its critical points – and the underlying topology of the manifold on which the function is defined. We are interested in a number of such functions, for example, information source uncertainty on a parameter space and “second-order” iterations in...
Chapter
As Mandal et al. (2011) review, there is a rough hierarchy of models for vector-borne disease, focusing on malaria. These range from Ross (1911) through Macdonald (1957) to Anderson and May (1991), who present, respectively, two-, three-, and four-dimensional models. Macdonald and Anderson-May extend the Ross model to include latent periods in both...
Chapter
The epidemiological fates of novel and long-circulating diseases depend on their context, a causality found in the field as much as in the object (Dobson and Carper 1996; Wolfe et al. 2007; Wallace 2016a, b; Jones et al. 2017).
Chapter
The Brazilian strain of Zika virus (ZIKV-BR) is one of several recently emergent or reemergent vector-borne human infections, pathogens transmitted by the bite of an infected arthropod species (Dick et al. 1952; Kindhauser et al. 2016; Wilder-Smith et al. 2017). The new Zika strain is transmitted, as are other major arboviruses, by Aedes spp. mosqu...
Chapter
In the context of the modern nation state, the ecology of infectious diseases cannot be described by interacting populations alone, as much of the modeling literature implicitly presumes (Wallace and Wallace 2016). Modern states incorporate elaborate public health bureaucracies tasked with either containing or eliminating pathogen outbreaks. States...
Book
This book discusses the socioeconomic effects of Right-to-Work (RTW) laws on state populations. RTW laws forbid requiring union membership even at union-represented worksites. The core of the 22 long-term RTW states was the Confederacy, cultural descendants of rigidly hierarchical agrarian feudal England. RTW laws buttress hierarchy and power imbal...
Chapter
We examine how inadequate crosstalk between ‘tactical’ and ‘strategic’ levels of organization will lead to another version of the John Boyd mechanism of command failure: the rules of the game change faster than executive systems can respond. Adequate levels of crosstalk take work.
Chapter
We apply the theory to passenger crowding on vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) public transit systems in which buses or subways become so crowded that they are ordered by a central control to begin a degraded ‘skip-stop’ service. Application of the Data Rate Theorem shows there is no coding or other strategy that can compensate for inadequate service...
Chapter
The powerful asymptotic limit theorems of control and information theories illuminate target discrimination failures afflicting autonomous weapon, man/machine centaur or cockpit, and more traditional structures under increasing fog-of-war and friction burdens. Degradation in targeting precision by high level cognitive entities under escalating unce...
Chapter
Straightforward arguments from control and information theories imply that emergence of the AI revolution from games of Chess and Go into the real world will fatally encounter the central matters of Carl von Clausewitz’ analysis of Zweikampf warfare. Promises of graceful degradation under stress for large numbers of driverless vehicles on intellige...
Chapter
We examine real-time critical processes through an evolutionary lens, finding that protracted conflict between cognitive entities can trigger a self-referential, coevolutionary bootstrap dynamic, virtually a ‘language that speaks itself’. Such phenomena do not permit simple command-loop interventions in John Boyd’s sense and are very hard to contai...
Chapter
It is possible to extend the model to nonergodic cognitive systems, a parallel to the nonparametric extension of more familiar statistical models. Cognition of any nature involves choice that reduces uncertainty. Reduction of uncertainty implies the existence of an information source dual to the cognitive process under study. Information source unc...
Article
The asymptotic limit theorems of control and information theories make it possible to explore the dynamics of collapse likely to afflict large-scale systems of autonomous ground vehicles that communicate with each other and with an embedding intelligent roadway. Any vehicle/road system is inherently unstable in the control theory sense as a consequ...
Book
The vector-borne Zika virus joins avian influenza, Ebola, and yellow fever as recent public health crises threatening pandemicity. By a combination of stochastic modeling and economic geography, this book proposes two key causes together explain the explosive spread of the worst of the vector-borne outbreaks. Ecosystems in which such pathogens are...
Article
Punctuated equilibrium, in the sense of Eldredge and Gould in 1972, and path dependence (Gould in 2002), dominate evolutionary processes, many of whose dynamics can be expressed in terms of interacting information sources (Wallace in 2010). Argument based on Feynman's (in 2000) characterization of information as a form of free energy leads to a clo...
Article
Cognition most singularly involves choice that reduces uncertainty. Reduction of uncertainty implies the existence of an information source 'dual' to the cognitive process under study. However, information source uncertainty for path-dependent nonergodic systems cannot be described as a conventional Shannon 'entropy' since time averages are not ens...
Chapter
The current forms of American Apartheid express longstanding and persistent dynamics of segregation and serial forced displacement that have successfully adapted to challenge over several centuries. Segregation confines non-white people to closely specified areas while serial forced displacement moves them repeatedly from one place to another. Both...
Chapter
The principal environment of humans, their machines, man/machine composites, and institutions, is other entities of the same sort, creating an inherent positive feedback for the environmental insults triggering developmental and cognitive dysfunctions at different scales and levels of organization. We bookend the evolutionary discussion of the open...
Chapter
Evolutionary process has selected for inherently unstable systems in higher animals that can react swiftly to changing patterns of threat or opportunity, for example, blood pressure, the immune response, and gene expression. However, these require continual strict regulation: uncontrolled blood pressure is fatal, immune cells can attack “self” tiss...
Chapter
The cross-sectional decontextualization afflicting contemporary neuroscience—attributing to “the brain” what is the province of the whole individual—is mirrored by an evolutionary decontextualization exceptionalizing consciousness. The living state is characterized by cognitive processes at all scales and levels of organization. Many can be associa...
Chapter
Following Weinstein (1996) closely, a groupoid, G, is defined by a base set A upon which some mapping—a morphism—can be defined. Note that not all possible pairs of states (a j , a k ) in the base set A can be connected by such a morphism. Those that can define the groupoid element, a morphism g = (a j , a k ) having the natural inverse g −1 = (a k...
Chapter
Adopting Maturan a’s and Varela’s perspective on the necessity of cognition—or Rosen’s view of “anticipation”—at every scale and level of organization of the living state it is possible to extend Yeung’s relation between information inequalities and finite group structure to a fundamental duality between an information-theoretic characterization of...
Chapter
We extend a cognitive paradigm for gene expression based on the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to the epigenetic epidemiology of complex developmental disorders in humans. In particular, we recognize the fundamental role culture plays in human biology, another heritage mechanism parallel to, and interacting with, the more familiar...
Chapter
Powerful asymptotic limit theorems of control and information theories illuminate the dynamics of autonomous weapons and man/machine “centaur” or “cockpit” systems under increasing fog-of-war burdens. Adapting tools from previous chapters, a relatively simple analysis shows there will not be graceful degradation in targeting precision, but sudden,...
Chapter
We apply the perspectives of computational psychiatry to autonomous ground vehicles under intelligent traffic control in which swarms of interacting, self-driving devices are inherently unstable as a consequence of the basic irregularities of traffic interactions and the road network. It appears that such systems will experience large-scale failure...
Chapter
Chemical exposures, pre- and neonatal infections, psychosocial stress, and the cross-generational cultural and epigenetic impacts of these and other toxicants become an integrated, sometimes synergistic, signal that can overwhelm essential neurodevelopmental regulation. We characterize that dynamic through statistical models based on the asymptotic...
Chapter
Institutions, commercial enterprises, communities, political entities, and the social milieus in which they are enmeshed must engage in cognitive process to address day-to-day contingencies and incorporate the learning needed to successfully adapt to larger evolutionary selection pressures. Failure of cognition, we show using control and informatio...
Chapter
The Data Rate Theorem that establishes a formal linkage between control theory and information theory carries deep implications for the study of embodied cognition and its dysfunctions across human, machine, and composite man–machine cockpit entities. The stabilization of such cognition is a dynamic process deeply intertwined with it, constituting,...
Chapter
The stabilization of human cognition via feedback from embedding social and cultural contexts is a dynamic process deeply intertwined with it, constituting, in a sense, the riverbanks directing the flow of a stream of generalized consciousness at different scales: cultural norms and social interaction are synergistic with individual and group cogni...
Book
This book explores mental disorders from a uniquely evolutionary perspective. Although there have been many attempts to mathematically model neural processes and, to some extent, their dysfunction, there is very little literature that models mental function within a sociocultural, socioeconomic, and environmental context. Addressing this gap in th...
Chapter
Let U be an information source representing a systematic embedding environmental “program” interacting with the process of cognitive gene expression, here defined as a complicated set of information sources having source joint uncertainty H(Z 1, …, Z n ) that guides the system into a particular equivalence class of desired developmental behaviors a...
Chapter
“Racial” disparities among cancer rates and virulence, particularly of the breast and prostate, are something of a mystery. For the USA, in the face of slavery and its sequelae, centuries of interbreeding have greatly leavened genetic differences between African-Americans and other population sectors, but marked contrasts in disease prevalence and...
Chapter
Mental disorders are not like bacterial infections, complex as these may be, and as intertwined with socioeconomic trajectory as these may become. For the most part, there will never be “magic bullets” for the sick mind. The stabilization of human cognition requires feedback from embedding social and cultural contexts and is a dynamic process deepl...
Chapter
Here, following Wallace et al. (2003b), we apply the analysis of the previous chapters to a neighborhood geographic level that is intermediate between individual and simple aggregate scales, and where multiple factors may synergistically interact in a kind of ecosystem “mesoscale resonance” analogous to that described in Wallace and Wallace (2008b)...
Chapter
Beginning in the 1980s, multi-year increases in incidence and prevalence of violence, obesity, and diabetes occurred at all scales—nationally, within most US municipalities, and within poor neighborhoods (see Fig. 18.1 for homicides and Chap. 7 for obesity and diabetes). Obesity/diabetes also increased globally in nearly all societies (WHO website)...
Chapter
In the 1990s, the origin of “racial,” class, and ethnic disparities in health became the center of some debate in the USA, with remedies proposed by mainstream authorities characteristically and predictably focused on individual-oriented “prevention” by altered lifestyle or related medical magic bullet interventions. See Link and Phelan (2000) for...
Chapter
Incorporating the influence of embedding contexts—epigenetic effects—on development is most elegantly done by invoking the Joint Asymptotic Equipartition Theorem (JAEPT) (Cover and Thomas 2006). For example, given an embedding contextual information source, say Z, that affects development, then the dual cognitive source uncertainty \(H_{D_{i}}\) is...
Chapter
We have, in this approach, hidden the kind of massive calculations made explicit in Ciliberti et al. (2007a,b), burying them as “fitting regression-model analogs to data,” possibly at a second order epigenetic hierarchical level. In the real world such calculations would be quite difficult, particularly given the introduction of punctuated transiti...
Chapter
Right-to-Work (RTW) laws impede union organizing and maintenance because they forbid requiring individual workers to join a union even if the work site is represented by a union and if the workers all receive the benefits of the union contract. Twenty-two states had RTW laws as of January 2011; 28 states did not. In 2010, RTW states had an average...
Chapter
Messages from a source, seen as symbols x j from some alphabet, each having probabilities P j associated with a random variable X, are “encoded” into the language of a “transmission channel,” a random variable Y with symbols y k , having probabilities P k , possibly with error. Someone receiving the symbol y k then retranslates it (without error) i...
Chapter
Ciliberti et al. (2007a,b), culminating a long series of papers, apply the spinglass model from statistical physics to organismal development in an evolutionary context. We summarize their results and look at some of the less obvious topological implications—in particular the mapping of disjoint directed homotopy classes of phenotype paths into int...
Chapter
Obesity is epidemic in the USA, has been so for more than two decades, and continues to increase. The condition is rapidly becoming pandemic worldwide (e.g., Egger and Swinburn 1997; Kimm and Obarzanek 2002; Roth et al. 2004). Current rates of overweight in the USA are 69 and 33 % in adults and children, respectively. Obesity in adults has nearly d...
Chapter
Recall the argument of Sect. 2. 1 where the system of interest begins in some prescribed initial state S 0 and converges to some final state S ∞ . We assume the context leading to Eqs. (2.2) and (2.3).
Chapter
Here we present the work of a team associated with the Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies (CUES) at the New York Academy of Medicine . The principal author was Deborah Wallace, working with Dr. SandroGalea, at the time, Deputy Director of CUES, and Jennifer Ahern, also then at CUES, who should be regarded as coauthors of the chapter. It focuses...
Chapter
Manhattan’s Chinatown contains two major communities: Fujianese and Cantonese . Recent immigrants dominate the Fujianese community; and longtime residents and their American-born offspring, the Cantonese (Guest. God in Chinatown: Religion and Survival in New York’s Evolving Immigrant Community. NYU Press, New York, 2003). The NYS Strategic Plan for...
Chapter
Low-weight births have long occupied the American health disparities research agenda because African-American mothers have a much higher risk of a low-weight baby than do white mothers. Struening et al. (Bull N Y Acad Med 66:463–478, 1990) examined the effect of 1970–1980 change in number of housing units on frequency distribution of low weight bir...
Chapter
In sum, we have presented an epigenetic catalysis model of development that can, in a natural manner, account for individual or simple group aggregate scale phenomena. The ideas fit well to observed data on the US obesity pandemic, its correlates of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, and possibly to some cancers and autoimmune diso...
Chapter
Growing horror over the possible relation between the rapid spread of mosquito-borne Zika virus and increased rates of microcephaly among children born to women infected during pregnancy (Hayden, Nature 532:16, 2016, Garcez et al. https:// peerj. com/ preprints/ 1817v3, 2016) sharply focuses attention on how environmental exposures, in a large sens...
Chapter
Autoimmune disorders represent the misidentification of self as other by the cognitive immune response (Atlan and Cohen 1998). They range across a spectrum of tissues and organs, from bronchia to brain, muscles, skin, eyes, and so on. The distinguishing characteristic is inflammation that can cause redness, heat, swelling, and pain. Multiple tissue...
Chapter
Evolutionary process has selected for inherently unstable systems in higher animals that can react swiftly to changing patterns of threat or opportunity, for example blood pressure, the immune response, and gene expression. However, these require continual strict regulation: uncontrolled blood pressure is fatal, immune cells can attack ‘self’ tissu...
Article
Chemical exposures, pre- and neonatal infections, psychosocial stress, and the cross-generational cultural and epigenetic impacts of these and other toxicants become an integrated, sometimes synergistic, signal that can overwhelm essential neurodevelopmental regulation. We characterize that dynamic through statistical models based on the asymptotic...
Book
The book is a unique exploration of a spectrum of unexpected analogs to psychopathologies likely to afflict real-time critical systems, written by a specialist in the epidemiology of mental disorders. The purpose of this book is to develop a set of information-theoretic statistical tools for analyzing the instabilities of real-time cognitive system...
Chapter
Commodity agriculture represents an expanding sink for a growing array of zoonotic pathogens. The emergence of novel strains of Ebola by way of economically driven shifts in husbandry and horticulture appears one such transition. Following up experimental studies of Ebola transmission, the agroeconomic origins of the Zaire ebolavirus outbreak in We...
Chapter
A spectrum of RNA viruses is undergoing rapid evolution in large-scale animal monoculture facilities. It is widely expected that one of multiple novel variants will emerge out of such food production, spreading across human populations worldwide and overwhelming even the best health system responses. A parsimonious mathematical model suggests such...
Chapter
We examine the recent West African Ebola outbreak from a Structural One Health perspective. We incorporate historical trajectories of economic exploitation and structural violence into the ecology of the disease, proposing globalization-led shifts in regional oil palm production served as a conduit through which a forest viral variant spilled over...
Chapter
Patterns of land use and the allocation of public health resources are matters of state policy and economic practice. The diseases that arise from such shifts in land use and resource allocation, including out of and along global circuits of capital, are outcomes of quintessentially cognitive processes operating at multiple levels of institutional...
Chapter
A recent study introduced a vaccine that controls Ebola Makona, the Zaire ebolavirus variant that has infected 28,000 in West Africa. Here we propose even such successful advances are insufficient for many emergent diseases. We review work hypothesizing Makona, phenotypically similar to much smaller outbreaks, emerged out of shifts in land use brou...
Article
Evolutionary process has selected for inherently unstable systems in higher animals that can react swiftly to changing patterns of threat or opportunity, for example blood pressure, the immune response, and gene expression. However, these require continual strict regulation: uncontrolled blood pressure is fatal, immune cells can attack 'self' tissu...
Article
The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis reg...
Article
Full-text available
Formal argument suggests that command, communication and control systems can remain stable in the sense of the Data Rate Theorem that mandates the minimum rate of control information required to stabilize inherently unstable 'plants', but may nonetheless, under fog-of-war demands, collapse into dysfunctional modes at variance with their fundamental...
Article
Full-text available
Formal argument suggests that command, communication and control systems can remain stable in the sense of the Data Rate Theorem that mandates the minimum rate of control information required to stabilize inherently unstable 'plants', but may nonetheless, under fog-of-war demands, collapse into dysfunctional modes at variance with their fundamental...
Article
Full-text available
We explore environmentally-induced tumors in the context of the ongoing conflict between long-evolved cancer control mechanisms and the central flaw of multicellularity, using a number of convergent necessary conditions statistical models based on the Data Rate Theorem linking control and information theories. Multicellular cancer suppression is an...
Article
Full-text available
We explore environmentally-induced tumors in the context of the ongoing conflict between long-evolved cancer control mechanisms and the central flaw of multicellularity, using a number of convergent necessary conditions statistical models based on the Data Rate Theorem linking control and information theories. Multicellular cancer suppression is an...