Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi

Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia | UPCH · Paleontología y Evolución de Vertebrados Lab, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía

Ph.D.

About

160
Publications
76,930
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3,689
Citations
Citations since 2017
68 Research Items
2303 Citations
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Introduction
Systematics and paleoecology of crocodylians from the Tertiary of proto-Amazonia. Gavialoid phylogenetics and morphometrics. Crocodylian tactile sense patterns and evolution. Long-snouted crocodylians and the Neogene history of the Humboldt System.
Additional affiliations
May 2016 - August 2016
University of Zurich
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (160)
Article
Full-text available
Gavialoid crocodylians are the archetypal longirostrine archosaurs and, as such, understanding their patterns of evolution is fundamental to recognizing cranial rearrangements and reconstructing adaptive pathways associated with elongation of the rostrum (longirostry). The living Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus is the sole survivor of the group,...
Article
Full-text available
Gavialoidea is a clade of slender- and long-snouted crocodylomorphs with a single living species, the Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus. Because elongated snouts (longirostry) have evolved independently in several crocodylomorph clades, this head shape has been interpreted as an ecological adaptation. How this condition affected patterns of divers...
Article
Full-text available
The highly productive waters of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) host a particular temperate ecosystem within the tropics, whose history is still largely unknown. The Pisco Formation, deposited during Mio-Pliocene times in the Peruvian continental margin has yielded an outstanding collection of coastal-marine fossils, providing an opportunity to u...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of crocodylians as sea dwellers remains obscure because living representatives are basically freshwater inhabitants and fossil evidence lacks crucial aspects about crocodylian occupation of marine ecosystems. New fossils from marine deposits of Peru reveal that croco-dylians were habitual coastal residents of the southeastern Pacific...
Article
Full-text available
Thirteen million years ago in South America, the PebasMega-Wetland System sheltered multi-taxon crocodylian assemblages, with the giant caiman Purussaurus as the top predator. In these Miocene swamps where reptiles and mammals coexisted, evidence of their agonistic interactions is extremely rare. Here, we report a tibia of the mylodontid sloth Pseu...
Article
Full-text available
The Humboldt Current System along the Pacific coast of South America creates one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth. To trace the origin of the water masses in this area, we measured neodymium isotope compositions (ԑNd) in tooth enameloid of two genera of coastal sharks from latest Oligocene to early Pleistocene strata in the Pisco and Saca...
Article
Full-text available
We present a reconstruction of human demography and shell fishing activity in the Sine-Saloum mangrove Delta (Senegal) in the past 6000 years using the summed probability density (SPD) of radiocarbon dates in archaeological shell middens. We explore how this local history relates to the climatic and political history of West Africa. We find that tr...
Article
This research assessed carbon and nutrient burial during the past ~60 years within a Peruvian coastal marsh ecosystem affected by anthropogenic activities, by examining total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) tracers in two dated sediment cores. Significantly higher TOC and TN burial, up to 416.4 ± 65.0 and...
Article
Currently, marsupials (modern members of the Metatheria clade) are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of South America, but poorly represented in the fossil record of these regions. Except for the species-rich fossiliferous localities of La Venta in Colombia, additional Miocene metatherians from tropical, equatorial South America...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, rocks from the East Pisco Basin (EPB), on the Central Peruvian coast (13°-16°S), have yielded an abundant and diverse collection of coastal-marine fossils, which are key for characterizing the onset and evolution of the modern Humboldt Current. Despite its paleontological richness, and after almost 40 years of study, the spat...
Article
Archaebalaenoptera eusebioi is a new late Miocene (Tortonian) balaenopterid species from the Aguada de Lomas locality in the Pisco Formation, Peru. It is dated to 8.85–7.93 Ma and is represented by a nearly complete skull with cervical vertebrae. Its inferred body length and mass are respectively c. 7 m and 7–11 tonnes. Archaebalaenoptera eusebioi...
Presentation
Diversity and distribution of extant crocodylians is, with just over 25 species, quite depleted, with many species being prone to extinction and showing restricted and/or fragmented habitats. Considering the whole of crown-group Crocodylia including the extinct closest relatives of alligators, caimans, crocodiles and gharials, a different, more div...
Article
Full-text available
Miocene deposits of South America have yielded several species-rich assemblages of caviomorph rodents. They are mostly situated at high and mid- latitudes of the continent, except for the exceptional Honda Group of La Venta, Colombia, the faunal composition of which allowed to describe the late middle Miocene Laventan South American Land Mammal Age...
Article
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Lack of constraint on spatial and long-term temporal variability of the El Niño southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its sensitivity to external forcing limit our ability to evaluate climate models and ENSO future projections. Current knowledge of Holocene ENSO variability derived from paleoclimate reconstructions does not separate the role of insolatio...
Article
The Paleogene record of caviomorph rodents has substantially increased over the last decades, and their evolutionary history better understood by the discovery of their earliest representatives, so far recorded in several pre-Deseadan localities in Peruvian Amazonia. We report here the discovery of new caviomorph fossils from the Balsayacu area in...
Article
Since 2012, we have investigated a stratigraphic section encompassing the late Eocene–earliest Oligocene interval at Shapaja (Tarapoto area, Peruvian Amazonia, ca. 7°S), through paleontological and geological fieldwork. The measured sedimentary series (120 m-thick [West] plus 90 m-thick [East]), assigned to the upper member of the Pozo Formation, r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pathologies in skeletal remains have been instrumental to decipher the ecology and life history of extinct taxa, but this distinct fossil evidence was barely documented within marine vertebrate communities of the Cenozoic. Here, we present the first record of pathological bones in marine vertebrates recovered from five localities (9-~4.5 million ye...
Article
Facial compartmentalization in the skull of extant pygmy whales (Kogiidae) is a unique feature among cetaceans that allows for the housing of a wide array of organs responsible for echolocation. Recent fossil findings indicate a remarkable disparity of the facial bone organization in Miocene kogiids, but the significance of such a rearrangement for...
Article
The Peruvian coast experiences the largest interannual variability of sea surface temperature in the world due to the combined influence of the coastal upwelling and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Although biological impacts of El Niño events have been widely reported, their effects on rocky intertidal communities remains largely unknown in P...
Article
The oldest record of a carnivoran mammal in South America corresponds to the extinct procyonid Cyonasua (late Miocene-early Pleistocene). Up to now, this genus was recorded in Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Venezuela. In this contribution, we report the first occurrence of Cyonasua in the Pacific coast of Peru, recovered from the late Miocene mar...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Closed-canopy rainforests are important for climate and ecology, yet identifying this ecosystem in the fossil record is challenging. An existing paradigm for identification of closed-canopy rainforests using fossil mammal carbon isotope data is the presence of highly negative δ ¹³ C diet values (<−31‰) in the herbivore community, as ob...
Article
The Honda Group of La Venta, Colombia, has yielded a wide array of crown platyrrhine primates, documenting the late Middle Miocene epoch (ca. 12-13 Ma, Laventan SALMA). Although exceptional, this record represents only a snapshot of the evolutionary history of New World monkeys since none of the primate taxa recorded at La Venta had so far been fou...
Article
The modern pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (Physeteroidea, Kogiidae) are remnants of a highly diverse group, which flourished in the Miocene oceans. Unlike their modern suction-feeding, deep-diving relatives, the past diversity of this family includes animals with disparate ecological habits. Here, we describe Scaphokogia totajpe, sp. nov., a new spec...
Article
On the 17 extant subfamilies of ants, Dolichoderinae is one of the four major species-rich clades (with Formicinae, Ponerinae, and Myrmicinae), and a cosmopolitan group including some of the world’s most invasive species such as the Argentine ant and white-footed ant. It comprises currently 846 species in 28 extant and 20 extinct genera (Bolton, 20...
Article
During the late Miocene, the Andean–Amazonian region experienced drastic climatic and environmental changes, notably due to a major phase in the Andean uplift. The fossil record is virtually undocumented for this period in the Subandean Zone, where very few palaeoenvironmental and palaeontological investigations have been undertaken. Here, we descr...
Article
Full-text available
Paleogene deposits of Peruvian Amazonia have yielded the oldest caviomorph rodent communities from South America, and the clues that their early diversification had occurred in this area. Here we report fossil dental remains of rodents from two new sections located in the vicinity of Juanjui and Balsayacu (San Martín Department, Peruvian Amazonia)....
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the enamel microstructure of 37 isolated rodent incisors from several late middle Eocene and late Oligocene localities of Contamana (Loreto Department, Peruvian Amazonia), and from the early Oligocene TAR-01 locality (Shapaja, San Martín Department, Peruvian Amazonia). All incisors show an enamel internal portion with multiserial Hun...
Conference Paper
Piscogavialis jugaliperforatus is a marine crocodile species from the late Miocene-early Pliocene (5.8 to 5 million years ago) that lived in a coastal environment. It possessed an elongated gavial-type skull with unsawed thin conical teeth for fish feeding. The first specimen was found in 1998 in the Pisco formation of the sandstone Sacaco basin, P...
Article
Full-text available
The living tree sloths Choloepus and Bradypus are the only remaining members of Folivora, a major xenarthran radiation that occupied a wide range of habitats in many parts of the western hemisphere during the Cenozoic, including both continents and the West Indies. Ancient DNA evidence has played only a minor role in folivoran systematics, as most...
Article
Full-text available
We report here a new record of the giant caviomorph Phoberomys corresponding to a fragmentary mandible from the Monte Salvado area, Peruvian Amazonia (Madre de Dios Department). We describe this specimen and compare it with the material previously attributed to Phoberomys. The mandibular fragment is referred to as Phoberomys sp. Found as float on a...
Article
Cetaceans originated in south Asia more than 50 million years ago (mya), from a small quadrupedal artiodactyl ancestor [1-3]. Amphibious whales gradually dispersed westward along North Africa and arrived in North America before 41.2 mya [4]. However, fossil evidence on when, through which pathway, and under which locomotion abilities these early wh...
Article
This contribution contains the 3D model of the fossil talus of a small-bodied anthropoid primate (Platyrrhini, Cebidae, Cebinae) discovered from lower Miocene deposits of Peruvian Amazonia (MD-61 locality, Upper Madre de Dios Basin). This fossil was described and figured in the following publication: Marivaux et al. (2012), A platyrrhine talus from...
Article
A wide variety of aquatic vertebrates from fluvio-lacustrine facies of northern South America (Colombia and Venezuela) have been used as unequivocal evidence to support hydrographic connections between western Amazonia and the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. By the end of the Miocene, changes in the major hydrographic systems of the region...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Actualmente la paleohistología es usada para efectuar diferentes tipos de inferencias paleobiológicas tales como: el estudio de tasas de crecimiento en los vertebrados, adaptaciones acuáticas de los huesos (ej. paquiostosis), desarrollo y efectos de patologías, etc. En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados sobre la implementación de pr...
Article
Full-text available
In rodents, and other vertebrates in general, the morphology of tarsal bones, especially the astragalus and calcaneus, has been shown to be tightly linked to locomotor movements. As a result, it has been used to infer locomotor behaviors in extinct species. Recent expeditions in Peruvian Amazonia have led to the discovery of the oldest caviomorph r...
Article
The rodent record during the late Eocene‒early Oligocene interval is poorly known in South America. Our team’s recent fieldwork in Peruvian Amazonia allowed for the discovery of five new fossil-bearing localities in a single stratigraphic section at Shapaja (Tarapoto area, San Martín Department), considered as early Oligocene by mammalian biostrati...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon isotopic signatures recorded in vertebrate tissues derive from ingested food and thus reflect ecologies and ecosystems. For almost two decades, most carbon isotope-based ecological interpretations of extant and extinct herbivorous mammals have used a single diet–bioapatite enrichment value (14‰). Assuming this single value applies to all her...
Data
ESM for 'Body mass predicts isotope enrichment in herbivorous mammals' by Julia Tejada et al.
Article
Among the ichthyofaunal remains collected in the Tertiary deposits of Peruvian Amazonia, elasmobranchs show an unexpected richness of rays, consisting primarily of mostly potamotrygonins (river stingrays), but also pristids (sawfishes) and rhinopterids (cownose rays). Among the Potamotrygoninae subfamily and in addition to the middle Eocene Potamot...
Article
This contribution contains the 3D models of the isolated teeth of Canaanimico amazonensis, a new stem platyrrhine primate, described and figured in the following publication: Marivaux et al. (2016), Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: new dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia. Journal of Human...
Article
This contribution contains the 3D models of the isolated teeth attributed to stem representatives of the Cebuella and Cebus lineages (Cebuella sp. and Cebus sp.), described and figured in the following publication: Marivaux et al. (2016), Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: macroevolutionar...
Article
We describe claw fragments of fossil primary freshwater crabs from three areas in the Amazon basin, Tarapoto (Early Oligocene) and Contamana (Middle Eocene to early Late Miocene) in Peru, and Eirunepé (Late Miocene) in Brazil. All these fragments most likely belong to the family Trichodactylidae. We show a continuous presence of primary freshwater...
Article
Although combined molecular and morphological analyses point to a late middle Eocene (38-39 million years ago) origin for the clade Neoceti (Odontoceti, echolocating toothed whales plus Mysticeti, baleen whales, and relatives), the oldest known mysticete fossil dates from the latest Eocene (about 34 million years ago) of Antarctica [1, 2]. Consider...
Article
Full-text available
Caviomorph rodents represent one of the most successful groups of placental mammals from South America. Despite their modern, Neogene and late Paleogene high diversity, their early evolutionary history has long remained obscure. Recent field expeditions in Peruvian Amazonia have yielded among the earliest representatives of that group, in deposits...
Article
Full-text available
A state-of-the-art review of the Cenozoic fossil record from Western Amazonia is provided, based on literature and new data (regarding Paleogene native ungulates). It allows summarizing the evolution and dynamics of middle Eocene–Holocene mammalian guilds, at the level of species, families, and orders. Major gaps in the Western Amazonian mammal rec...
Article
Objectives: Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete bla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vision is an acute perception system in crocodylians but little is known about the role of this sense in the evolution of foraging strategies across living and extinct forms. Through the integration of phylogenetics, morphometrics, and exceptional fossils from proto-Amazonian deposits, I examined ecological associations of the orbital region throug...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Las huellas de pisadas o icnitas constituyen el registro más abundante de dinosaurios en el territorio peruano (e.g., Jaillard et al., 1993; Moreno et al., 2004; Obata et al., 2006; Salas-Gismondi & Chacaltana, 2010; Moreno et al., 2012). A la fecha se han identificado icnitas atribuidas a varios tipos de dinosaurios terópodos de diferentes tamaños...