Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton

Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Psychology

Professor

About

77
Publications
37,880
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4,844
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Introduction
Prejudice Stigma Education Cultural Psychology

Publications

Publications (77)
Preprint
Disclosure—the sharing of personal information—has long been appreciated as a key element of strong, close relationships. But its exploration in educational contexts has been limited. In the present study, we examine whether disclosure in mentoring relationships between a college student and a school-based “adult” is associated with benefits, contr...
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First-generation college students and those from ethnic groups such as African Americans, Latinx, Native Americans, or Indigenous Peoples in the United States are less likely to pursue STEM-related professions. How might we develop conceptual and methodological approaches to understand instructional differences between various undergraduate STEM pr...
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The main objective of this study was to examine the role of social context as a main mechanism to understand how organizational socialization tactics influence job inclusion of employees with disabilities (EWD). Specifically, we analyzed the influence of socialization that employees without disability received by the organization on two indicators...
Preprint
Gender and racial diversity in tech is a persistent issue in the United States. Efforts to increase diversity may not be effective due to moral licensing and viewing underrepresented groups interchangeably. Moral licensing has focused on effects within one identity (displays of feminist beliefs leading to sexist actions). We test whether moral lice...
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In the present article, we use daily diary methodology to investigate how coping influences well-being via the engagement of positive emotions in immigrant farmworkers and university students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. In Study 1, in a sample of Latinx immigrant farmworkers (N = 76), we found that the daily use of adaptive coping strategies p...
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In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of scores on an expanded version of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) consisting of the original six subscales—Assimilation, Miseducation, Self-Hatred, Anti-White, Afrocentricity, and Multiculturalist Inclusive—and a seventh subscale called Race Salience. Participants...
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Research suggests that anti-Black bias among White Americans is persistent, pervasive, and has powerful negative effects on the lives of both Black and White Americans. Research also suggests that intergroup contact in workplaces can reduce bias. We seek to address two limitations in prior research. First, the workplaces reviewed in prior studies m...
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This article memorializes Walter Mischel (1930 -2018). Mischel was a professor at the University of Colorado (1956 -1958), Harvard University (1958 -1962), Stanford University (1962-1983), and Columbia University (1983-2018). During this time, Mischel was recognized as a transformative figure in the field: he received the Distinguished Scientific C...
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This study aimed to understand the contributions of active ADHD symptoms and the diagnostic label of ADHD in yielding negative attitudes and social distance ratings. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (n = 305), respondents were assigned to read a vignette about: (a) a typically developing child, (b) a child with active ADHD symptoms and (c) a child wi...
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Boutwell, Nedelec, Winegard, Shackelford, Beaver, Vaughn, Barnes, & Wright (2017) published an article in this journal that interprets data from the Add Health dataset as showing that only one-quarter of individuals in the United States experience discrimination. In Study 1, we attempted to replicate Boutwell et al.’s findings using a more direct m...
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The advancement of underrepresented minority and women PhD students to elite postdoctoral and faculty positions in the STEM fields continues to lag that of majority males, despite decades of efforts to mitigate bias and increase opportunities for students from diverse backgrounds. In 2015, the National Science Foundation Alliance for Graduate Educa...
Data
California alliance path model data. Note: id = deidentified participant number; courses = whether student completed required graduate courses; quals = whether student completed qualifying exams; masters = whether student completed master’s degree; abd = whether student is considered ‘all but dissertation;’ female = female biological sex; black, la...
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Ambiguity in expectations and evaluations harms progress, say Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton and colleagues. Ambiguity in expectations and evaluations harms progress, say Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton and colleagues.
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Research suggests that interracial mentoring relationships are strained by negative affect and low rapport. As such, it stands to reason that strategies that decrease negative affect and increase rapport should improve these relationships. However, previous research has not tested this possibility. In video-chats (Studies 1 and 2) and face-to-face...
Data
Supplementary materials. This file contains supplementary methods and analyses. (DOCX)
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Two independent surveys of PhD students in STEM fields at the University of California, Berkeley, indicate that underrepresented minorities (URMs) publish at significantly lower rates than non-URM males, placing the former at a significant disadvantage as they compete for postdoctoral and faculty positions. Differences as a function of gender revea...
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In this article, we examined the psychometric properties of scores on a new instrument, the Cross Ethnic-Racial Identity Scale-Adult (CERIS-A) for use across different ethnic and racial groups. The CERIS-A measures seven ethnic-racial identity attitudes—assimilation, miseducation, self-hatred, anti-dominant, ethnocentricity, multiculturalist inclus...
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Previous research suggests that people show increased self-referential processing when they provide criticism to others, and that this self-referential processing can have negative effects on interpersonal perceptions and behavior. The current research hypothesized that adopting a self-distanced perspective (i.e., thinking about a situation from a...
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Rationale: Research suggests that, among Whites, racial bias predicts negative ingroup health outcomes. However, little is known about whether racial bias predicts ingroup health outcomes among minority populations. Objective: The aim of the current research was to understand whether racial bias predicts negative ingroup health outcomes for Blac...
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Perceptions of racial bias have been linked to poorer circulatory health among Blacks compared with Whites. However, little is known about whether Whites’ actual racial bias contributes to this racial disparity in health. We compiled racial-bias data from 1,391,632 Whites and examined whether racial bias in a given county predicted Black-White disp...
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We examined participation in an ethnically based residential program or “theme house” during the first year of college as a predictor of downstream immune system inflammation among undergraduates. Using a 4-year prospective design, we compared markers of inflammation among Latino/Latina students in a residential theme program with a matched sample...
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Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood confers risk for adverse health in adulthood. Accumulating evidence suggests that this may be due, in part, to the association between lower childhood SES and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Drawing from literature showing that low childhood SES predicts exaggerated physiological reactivi...
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This research independently manipulated two potential attenuators of stereotype threat – reappraisal of anxiety and test framing – to explore their independent and combined effects. Female participants took a difficult math exam that was described as gender-biased or gender-fair and were told that anxious arousal could positively impact performance...
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This research independently manipulated two potential attenuators of stereotype threat – reappraisal of anxiety and test framing – to explore their independent and combined effects. Female participants took a difficult math exam that was described as gender-biased or gender-fair and were told that anxious arousal could positively impact performance...
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This article addresses the issue of standardized test performance gaps, and academic achievement gaps more generally, between White and minority students. While many explanatory frameworks can be applied to this issue, this article specifically examines the issue from the perspective of social psychology, which examines how individual psychology is...
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Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be da...
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We examined the interplay of psychosocial risk and protective factors in daily experiences of health. In Study 1, the tendency to anxiously expect rejection from racial outgroup members, termed race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race), was cross-sectionally related to greater stress-symptoms among Black adults who reported fewer cross-race friend...
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We experimentally tested whether negative stereotypes linked to lower socioeconomic status (SES), in addition to impairing academic performance (Croizet & Claire, 1998), instigate inflammation processes that are implicated in numerous disease processes. In Study 1, verbal test performance and activation of inflammation processes (measured by levels...
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Despite the disparities of the life experiences among Asian Americans, the model minority stereotype continues to propagate in the United States. Taking a shared reality theory perspective, we demonstrate that the model minority image of being diligent, high achieving, and submissive is a characteristic representation of Asian Americans that is wid...
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Cluster analyses on racial identity attitudes as assessed with the Cross Racial Identity Scale (Vandiver et al., 2000) provided strong support for six theoretically meaningful clusters. We labeled these Afrocentric, Assimilated, Conflicted, Low Race Salience, Negative Race Salience, and Multiculturalist. We also examined whether individuals in diff...
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Background Subjective social status (captured by the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status) is in many cases a stronger predictor of health outcomes than objective socioeconomic status (SES). Purpose The study aims to test whether implicit beliefs about social class moderate the relationship between subjective social status and inflammation....
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Social class is shaped by an individual's material resources as well as perceptions of rank vis-à-vis others in society, and in this article, we examine how class influences behavior. Diminished resources and lower rank create contexts that constrain social outcomes for lower-class individuals and enhance contextualist tendencies--that is, a focus...
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Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likel...
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A central tenet of social constructivist approaches to personality is that people's social relationships determine the development, structure, and expression of personality. This view has been difficult to reconcile with a widely accepted view among researchers and lay perceivers alike that personality consists of internal, characteristic dispositi...
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This article critically examines the psychological and policy implications of the belief that characteristics of social groups are grounded in biology and thus are unchangeable. We specifically focus on how this immutability mind-set may perpetuate group-based educational achievement gaps and deter treatment seeking for mental/behavioral health con...
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We examined the structural validity, internal consistency (alpha and omega), and test–retest reliability of scores on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; Vandiver et al., 200086. Tajfel , H. 1981. Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. View all references; Worrell, Vandiver,...
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Although the stigma of mental illness has been widely documented, the specific processes through which psychiatric labels evoke prejudice and discrimination are not well understood. We examined how ascribing humanity to an individual labeled with mental illness may influence perceptions of dangerousness and motivations for social rejection. Study 1...
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Can a single, powerful sociopolitical event (government's response to Hurricane Katrina) produce changes in prevalent cultural beliefs such as the Protestant work ethic (PWE)? In a cross-sectional study conducted before, immediately after, and 5 months after Katrina (Study 1: Part a), in a longitudinal study tracking participants immediately after...
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We examined the cognitive processes that might account for the impact of cross-group friendship on novel intergroup situations. Study 1 demonstrated that closeness with outgroup members predicts an association of the outgroup with the self, both in terms of the group itself and the personality traits stereotypically associated with the group. In St...
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Reactions to the O. J. Simpson verdict were analyzed using the Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) model. Content analyses of participants' open-ended reactions to the verdict revealed that differences in the accessibility of cognitive-affective units and their subsequent activation pathways characterized respondents' reactions, but partic...
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The authors applied insights from the group-value theory of procedural justice to investigate minority students' disengagement of self-esteem from academic outcomes. African American college students completed the race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race) questionnaire. The students were asked to write a position essay on a current topic. They wer...
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Previous research has shown that teachers' actions when addressing conflict on school grounds can shape adolescent perceptions regarding how well the school manages victimization. Our objective in this study was to determine how these perceptions influenced the likelihood that adolescent students would react to victimization scenarios by either see...
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The original CAPS formulation focused on the role of the individual's CAPS system in relation to situations, formalizing a person-situation framework. Subsequent research and theorizing on the culturally embedded CAPS system (C-CAPS) began to spell out how culture, context, and group-level processes intersect with both persons and situations. The c...
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The five articles in this special section examine personality and racial/ethnic relations from the perspective of Mischel and Shoda's Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory. In this introductory piece, we first provide a primer on CAPS theory. In particular, we try to highlight the role that context plays in the construction and manif...
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Integrating and extending the literatures on social power and person-environment fit, 4 studies tested the hypothesis that when people's dispositional beliefs about their capacity to influence others fit their assigned role power, they are more likely to engage in self-expression-that is, behave in line with their states and traits-thereby increasi...
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As prejudice becomes more subtle in its manifestations, members of stigmatized groups must often contend with the ambiguity of not knowing whether others are biased against them. In this study, we tested whether explicitly communicated gender prejudice would facilitate women’s performance on a difficult task compared to contexts where such discrimi...
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Jews rule the world by proxy. Or so says the former prime minister of Malaysia, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. In October 2003, in a speech to the 57-nation Islamic Summit in Malaysia, the then-prime minister lashed out at world Jewry. “The Europeans killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million,” stated Mohamad, “but today the Jews rule this world by proxy and g...
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The authors induced cross-group friendship between Latinos/as and Whites to test the effects of cross-group friendship on anxiety in intergroup contexts. Cross-group friendship led to decreases in cortisol reactivity (a hormonal correlate of stress; W. R. Lovallo & T. L. Thomas, 2000) over 3 friendship meetings among participants high in race-based...
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Past research has demonstrated the negative impact of race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race) on institutional belonging and satisfaction among minority-group students in predominantly White universities. Given research documenting the benefits of cross-group friendship for intergroup attitudes, we tested whether friendships with majority-group...
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We examined the interactive effects of ethnic identification (EI) and race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race) on institutional outcomes among African American college students. We distinguished between effects on institutional identification on the one hand and academic goal pursuit (e.g., staying in school, grade point average [GPA]) on the oth...
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We examined whether anxious expectations of discrimination among Asian Americans can help explain this group's elevated levels of internalizing symptomatology, such as lower self-esteem (Twenge & Crocker, 2002) and higher depressive symptoms (Okazaki, 1997, 2002) relative to European Americans. Study 1 reports on the development and validation of a...
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Prior research has demonstrated that stereotypes affect negatively stereotyped groups in part through the implied immutability of group members’ abilities. Accordingly, a belief that ability is malleable through effort and hard work has been shown to boost the performance of negatively stereotyped groups. We predicted, however, that among favorably...
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Recent research suggests that social perceivers’ dispositional inferences are influenced by information about the ways others’ behavior varies stably across situations. We extend this research to stereotypes. Specifically, we examined peoples’ preconceptions about the situation–behavior profiles that social groups are likely to display, as well as...
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We compared how evaluations by out-group members and evaluations by in-group members affected participants' stress responses--their neuroendocrine reactivity, cognitive appraisals, and observed anxiety--and how participants' implicit racial bias moderated these responses. Specifically, White participants completed measures of racial bias prior to t...
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In this article, we bring advances in the fields of social cognition, personality, and culture to bear on the topic of intergroup relations. Specifically, principles of knowledge activation (Higgins, 1996), and of the architecture of knowledge networks (Cervone, 2005; Mischel & Shoda, 1995) are applied to understanding how cultural groups develop d...
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The Protestant work ethic (PWE), the belief that hard work leads to success, is a quintessentially American belief. The present research addresses a critical gap in psychological research on PWE: can a single, large-scale sociopolitical event (government's response to Hurricane Katrina) produce changes in PWE? We review evidence showing that the sa...
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Three studies investigated conditions in which perceivers view dispositions and situations as interactive, rather than independent, causal forces when making judgments about another's personality. Study 1 showed that perceivers associated 5 common trait terms (e.g., friendly and shy) with characteristic if...then... (if situation a, then the person...
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A mission of public schools is to produce students who are intellectually competent and prepared for postsecondary education and the increasingly competitive workforce. An urgent concern among education takeholders today is the underrepresentation of African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans among high-achieving students. Despite increased...
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The authors proposed a process model whereby experiences of rejection based on membership in a devalued group can lead people to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to status-based rejection. To test the model, the authors focused on race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race) among African Americans. Following the development an...
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Traditional approaches have long considered situations as “noise” or “error” that obscures the consistency of personality and its invariance. Therefore, it has been customary to average the individual's behavior on any given dimension (e.g., conscientiousness) across different situations. Contradicting this assumption and practice, recent studies h...
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Although Person X Situation (P X S) interactionism is central in current social-cognitive conceptions of personality organization, its implications for the encoding of the self remain unexplored. Two studies examined the causal role of P X S interactionism in self-encoding on affect regulation and discriminative social perception. Following failure...
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Although Person × Situation (P × S) interactionism is central in current social-cognitive conceptions of personality organization, its implications for the encoding of the self remain unexplored. Two studies examined the causal role of P × S interactionism in self-encoding on affect regulation and discriminative social perception. Following failure...
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People high in rejection sensitivity (RS) anxiously expect rejection and are at risk for interpersonal and personal distress. Two studies examined the role of self-regulation through strategic attention deployment in moderating the link between RS and maladaptive outcomes. Self-regulation was assessed by the delay of gratification (DG) paradigm in...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Columbia University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 54-64). Department: Psychology. Microfilm.