# Rodney Van MeterKeio University | Keidai · Faculty of Environment and Information Studies

Rodney Van Meter

PhD

## About

145

Publications

32,871

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

3,836

Citations

Introduction

Quantum computation, quantum networking, quantum computer architecture.
Distributed systems, storage, networking, network measurement, Internet & Society Lab, computer architecture.

Additional affiliations

April 2007 - present

## Publications

Publications (145)

In second or foreign language (SFL) education, oral corrective feedback (OCF) is widely used to individually correct students' erroneous utterances during classroom hours. However, students cannot have sufficient opportunities for oral production and personalized feedback during classroom hours if a class is large-scale with many students. This pap...

As the scale of quantum programs grows to match that of classical software, the nascent field of quantum software engineering must mature and tools such as debuggers will become increasingly important. However, developing a quantum debugger is challenging due to the nature of a quantum computer; sneaking a peek at the value of a quantum state will...

We propose an algorithm using a modified variant of amplitude amplification to solve combinatorial optimization problems via the use of a subdivided phase oracle. Instead of dividing input states into two groups and shifting the phase equally for all states within the same group, the subdivided phase oracle changes the phase of each input state uni...

In the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era, the idea of quantum multiprogramming, running multiple quantum circuits (QCs) simultaneously on the same hardware, helps to improve the throughput of quantum computation. However, the crosstalk, unwanted interference between qubits on NISQ processors, may cause performance degradation when using m...

The discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is the basis for several cryptographic primitives. Since Shor’s work, it has been known that the DLP can be solved by combining a polynomial-size quantum circuit and a polynomial-time classical postprocessing algorithm. The theoretical result corresponds the situation where a quantum device working with a medium...

Control modular addition is a core arithmetic function, and we must consider the computational cost for actual quantum computers to realize efficient implementation. To achieve a low computational cost in a control modular adder, we focus on minimizing KQ, defined by the product of the number of qubits and the depth of the circuit. In this paper, w...

The discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is the basis for several cryptographic primitives. Since Shor's work, it has been known that the DLP can be solved by combining a polynomial-size quantum circuit and a polynomial-time classical post-processing algorithm. Evaluating and predicting the instance size that quantum devices can solve is an emerging re...

The main service provided by the coming Quantum Internet will be creating entanglement between any two quantum nodes. We discuss and classify attacks on quantum repeaters, which will serve roles similar to those of classical Internet routers. We have modeled the components for and structure of quantum repeater network nodes. With this model, we poi...

Control modular addition is a core arithmetic function, and we must consider the computational cost for actual quantum computers to realize efficient implementation. To achieve a low computational cost in a control modular adder, we focus on minimizing KQ, defined by the product of the number of qubits and the depth of the circuit. In this paper, w...

Algorithms for triangle-finding, the smallest nontrivial instance of the k-clique problem, have been proposed for quantum computers. Still, those algorithms assume the use of fixed access time quantum RAM (QRAM). We present a practical gate-based approach to both the triangle-finding problem and its NP-hard k-clique generalization. We examine both...

NISQ (Noisy, Intermediate-Scale Quantum) computing requires error mitigation to achieve meaningful computation. Our compilation tool development focuses on the fact that the error rates of individual qubits are not equal, with a goal of maximizing the success probability of real-world subroutines such as an adder circuit. We begin by establishing a...

The main service provided by the coming Quantum Internet will be creating entanglement between any two quantum nodes. We discuss and classify attacks on quantum repeaters, which will serve roles similar to those of classical Internet routers. We have modeled the components for and structure of quantum repeater network nodes. With this model, we poi...

Quantum network coding has been proposed to improve resource utilization to support distributed computation but has not yet been put into practice. We investigate a particular implementation of quantum network coding using measurement-based quantum computation on IBM Q processors. We compare the performance of quantum network coding with entangleme...

Quantum Teleportation is the key communication functionality of the Quantum Internet, allowing the “transmission” of qubits without the physical transfer of the particle storing the qubit. Quantum teleportation is facilitated by the
action of quantum entanglement, a somewhat counter-intuitive physical phenomenon with no direct counterpart in the cl...

Because noisy, intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) machines accumulate errors quickly, we need new approaches to designing NISQ-aware algorithms and assessing their performance. Algorithms with characteristics that appear less desirable under ideal circumstances, such as lower success probability, may in fact outperform their ideal counterparts on ex...

Because noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) machines accumulate errors quickly, we need new approaches to designing NISQ-aware algorithms and assessing their performance. Algorithms with characteristics that appear less desirable under ideal circumstances, such as lower success probability, may in fact outperform their ideal counterparts on exi...

Algorithms for triangle finding, the smallest nontrivial instance of the
$k$
-clique problem, have been proposed for quantum computers. Still, those algorithms assume the use of fixed access time quantum RAM. In this article, we present a practical gate-based approach to both the triangle-finding problem and its NP-hard
$k$
-clique generalizati...

Establishing end-to-end quantum connections requires quantified link characteristics, and operations need to coordinate decision making between nodes across a network. We introduce the RuleSet-based communication protocol for supporting quantum operations over distant nodes to minimize classical packet transmissions for guaranteeing synchronicity....

Quantum network coding has been proposed to improve resource utilization to support distributed computation but has not yet been put in to practice. We implement quantum network coding on an IBMQ processor, building two crossing Bell pairs from a single 6-qubit cluster state. We compare quantum network coding to entanglement swapping and a simple l...

Quantum Teleportation is the key communication functionality of the Quantum Internet, allowing the ``transmission'' of qubits without either the physical transfer of the particle storing the qubit or the violation of the quantum mechanical principles. Quantum teleportation is facilitated by the action of quantum entanglement, a somewhat counter-int...

Quantum Teleportation is the key communication functionality of the Quantum Internet, allowing the "transmission" of qubits without either the physical transfer of the particle storing the qubit or the violation of the quantum mechanical principles. Quantum teleportation is facilitated by the action of quantum entanglement, a somewhat counter-intui...

Establishing end-to-end quantum connections requires quantified link characteristics, and operations need to coordinate decision-making between nodes across a network. We introduce the RuleSet-based communication protocol for supporting quantum operations over distant nodes to minimize classical packet transmissions for guaranteeing synchronicity....

NISQ (Noisy, Intermediate-Scale Quantum) computing requires error mitigation to achieve meaningful computation. Our compilation tool development focuses on the fact that the error rates of individual qubits are not equal, with a goal of maximizing the success probability of real-world subroutines such as an adder circuit. We begin by establishing a...

Quantum network coding is an effective solution for alleviating bottlenecks in quantum networks. We introduce a measurement-based quantum network coding scheme for quantum repeater networks (MQNC), and analyze its behavior based on results acquired from Monte-Carlo simulation that includes various error sources over a butterfly network. By exploiti...

The yield of physical qubits fabricated in the laboratory is much lower than that of classical transistors in production semiconductor fabrication. Actual implementations of quantum computers will be susceptible to loss in the form of physically faulty qubits. Though these physical faults must negatively affect the computation, we can deal with the...

Optimizing a connection through a quantum repeater network requires careful attention to the photon propagation direction of the individual links, the arrangement of those links into a path, the error management mechanism chosen, and the application's pattern of consuming the Bell pairs generated. We analyze combinations of these parameters, concen...

Quantum aided Byzantine agreement (QBA) is an important distributed quantum algorithm with unique features in comparison to classical deterministic and randomized algorithms, requiring only a constant expected number of rounds in addition to giving higher level of security. In this paper, we analyze details of the high level multi-party algorithm,...

In quantum networking, repeater hijacking menaces the security and utility of quantum applications. To deal with this problem, it is important to take a measure of the impact of quantum repeater hijacking. First, we quantify the workload of each quantum repeater with regards to each quantum communication. Based on this, we show the costs for repeat...

Researchers are fabricating quantum processors powerful enough to execute small instances of quantum algorithms. Scalability concerns are motivating distributed-memory multicomputer architectures, and experimental efforts have demonstrated some of the building blocks for such a design. Numberous systems are emerging with the goal of enabling local...

The Quantum Internet (QI) will be a worldwide network of quantum repeater networks [1, 2], enabling quantum information services including entanglement-based cryptographic functions such as quantum key distribution [3], secure distributed quantum computation [4], and high-precision sensors [5]. The individual networks composing the Quantum Internet...

Resource consumption of the conventional surface code is expensive, in part due to the need to separate the defects that create the logical qubit far apart on the physical qubit lattice. We propose that instantiating the deformation-based surface code using superstabilizers makes it possible to detect short error chains connecting the superstabiliz...

Experimental groups are now fabricating quantum processors powerful enough to execute small instances of quantum algorithms and definitively demonstrate quantum error correction that extends the lifetime of quantum data, adding urgency to architectural investigations. Although other options continue to be explored, effort is coalescing around topol...

The optimal design of a fault-tolerant quantum computer involves finding an
appropriate balance between the burden of large-scale integration of noisy
components and the load of improving the reliability of hardware technology.
This balance can be evaluated by quantitatively modeling the execution of
quantum logic operations on a realistic quantum...

The future of quantum repeater networking will require interoperability
between various error correcting codes. A few specific code conversions and
even a generalized method are known, however, no detailed analysis of these
techniques in the context of quantum networking has been performed. In this
paper, we analyze a generalized procedure to creat...

Quantum repeater networks have attracted attention for the implementation of
long-distance and large-scale sharing of quantum states. Recently, researchers
extended classical network coding, which is a technique for throughput
enhancement, into quantum information. The utility of quantum network coding
(QNC) has been shown under ideal conditions, b...

Datacenter TCP (DCTCP) achieves low latencies for short flows while maintaining high throughputs for concurrent bulk transfers, but requires changes to both end-points, which presents a deployment challenge. This paper presents extensions to DCTCP that enables one-sided deployment when peers implement standard TCP/ECN func-tionality. This makes DCT...

Datacenter TCP (DCTCP) achieves low latencies for short flows while maintaining high throughputs for concurrent bulk transfers, but requires changes to both end-points, which presents a deployment challenge. This paper presents extensions to DCTCP that enables one-sided deployment when peers implement standard TCP/ECN func-tionality. This makes DCT...

Datacenter TCP (DCTCP) achieves low latencies for short flows while maintaining high throughputs for concurrent bulk transfers, but requires changes to both end-points, which presents a deployment challenge. This paper presents extensions to DCTCP that enables one-sided deployment when peers implement standard TCP/ECN func-tionality. This makes DCT...

Quantum communication will improve the security of cryptographic systems and
decision-making algorithms, support secure client-server computation, and
improve the sensitivity of scientific instruments. As these applications
consume quantum entanglement, a method for replenishing networked entanglement
is essential. Direct transmission of quantum si...

With cloud service becoming more popular, low-latency communication is required between servers in a data center. Low-latency node-to-node or application-to-application notification can be achieved in a NUMA [1] (Non-Uniform Memory Access) system, but requires dedicated, special-purpose network infrastructure. However, IP networks are commonly used...

We introduce a design a design for a quantum memory stick that uses active quantum error correction to store a qubit of encoded information for months/years.

This chapter covers the most important, commercial application of quantum communication technology, quantum key distribution (QKD). QKD creates shared, secret random numbers between two parties. These numbers are typically used as cryptographic session keys to support secure communication across insecure networks. The chapter briefly presents the c...

In a complex network of heterogeneous links, selection of a path between the two communicating nodes is an important problem. This chapter examines a form of Dijkstra's algorithm adapted for repeater networks. It investigates critical problems in the use of purify-and swap repeater networks. The focus has been on the path selection and the need for...

This chapter presents architecture for a true quantum Internet, as it might be deployed in the real world, growing and evolving over time and involving many participants and technologies. The concept of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture (QRNA), developed from the emerging classical concept of recursive networks, extending recursive mechanism...

This chapter begins by asking why the most obvious technique fails: why can't we simply send our qubit via hop-by-hop teleportation, just as we would send an IP packet over the Internet? It covers the original proposal of Dür and Briegel, with a few more modern extensions. The chapter emphasizes the protocol state machine approach, and discusses th...

An important advance in repeater design has been the introduction of error correction-based connection architectures. The two principal ideas are the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code-based approach [JIA 09] and the surface code-based approach [FOW 10]. This chapter gives a very brief introduction to quantum error correction (QEC) and then look at...

In order to understand the operation and importance of quantum networks, one must learn about the general principles upon which quantum computers are founded. This chapter reviews the basic concepts needed to understand quantum computing and communication, with emphasis on manipulating qubits and grasping the key idea of entanglement through the ex...

This chapter describes a work of quantum networks, and presents applications of long-distance entanglement for more efficient distributed digital computation. The protocols presented in the chapter are building blocks rather than applications themselves. The chapter assesses several distributed quantum algorithms for real-world applicability, theor...

This chapter examines the applicability of several known multiplexing disciplines to purify-and-swap quantum repeater networks: straightforward circuit switching, time division multiplexing (TDM), statistical multiplexing, and a buffer memory allocation and sharing mechanism. The different multiplexing schemes are studied in order to recommend a me...

Much of quantum networking depends on teleportation. This chapter describes teleportation and its procedure, and then briefly introduces experimental demonstrations, classical state machine and communication necessary to support teleportation in a simple fashion. Teleportation between two atoms can be achieved although the original Bell pair can be...

This chapter introduces a few of the many proposed and experimental approaches, while minimizing the need to understand complex physics. It focuses on a qualitative understanding of the physical process, including what factors limit the probability of success and the fidelity represented in the output density matrix. The chapter reviews the common...

The resource demands are very high for maintaining the full end-to-end encoded state, and the issue of low entanglement success rate Pb is only partially resolved. This chapter examines two approaches: Quasi-asynchronous and Memoryless, that attempt to finesse some of these constraints. It then evaluates the timing and resulting consumption of thre...

Purification gives us an interim tool for improving the fidelity of quantum states. This chapter discusses purification from the practical point of view of the procedures themselves, with an eye toward actual implementations in software with the accompanying classical communication protocols. A complete purification protocol can be described in ter...

This chapter gives a brief introduction to key networking problems. The special challenges posed by internet-scale networks and internetworks are covered. The focus in the chapter is on laying the groundwork to adapt internet design principles to the development of quantum repeater networks. The chapter first discusses some key network concepts, th...

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can be viewed as a form of sensor network: the goal of the underlying quantum operation is the physical detection of eavesdropping on the quantum channel. This can be achieved either using unentangled or entangled states; this chapter looks at sensor uses of entangled states. Much of the work involves the use of a qua...

We propose a new scripting model for rapid and easier development of packet processing using shell scripts. In this paper we present EtherPIPE, a character network I/O device, that allows the programmer to access network traffic data as a file through UNIX commands. By setting a UNIX pipe ??|?? from or to EtherPIPE's output or input with UNIX comma...

We are going to need a quantum Internet, and to build it, we need quantum internetworking technology. This book is my contribution to both the technical and social work of getting there. It is based on my experiences during 15 years of work on classical computing systems and networks, followed by a decade of research on quantum computing systems an...

Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum
computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of
classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been
demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of
calculating numeric results or simulating physical system...

Quantum computer architecture holds the key to building commercially viable systems.

Quantum networks generate distributed entangled state or relocate quantum state, uniquely ensuring eavesdropper detection or reaching agreement more quickly than their classical counterparts. These capabilities rely on the composition of link and multihop mechanisms into a coherent system, with particular attention to managing errors in and loss of...

Reversible logic has applications in low-power computing and quantum
computing. However, there are few existing designs for reversible
floating-point adders and none suitable for quantum computation. In this paper
we propose a space-efficient reversible floating-point adder, suitable for
binary quantum computation, improving the design of Nachtigal...

Blind quantum computation is an appealing use of quantum information
technology because it can conceal both the client's data and the algorithm
itself from the server. However, problems need to be solved in the practical
use of blind quantum computation and fault-tolerance is a major challenge. On
an example circuit, the computational cost measured...

The Solovay-Kitaev algorithm is the standard method used for approximating arbitrary single-qubit gates for fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this paper we introduce a technique called search space expansion, which modifies the initial stage of the Solovay-Kitaev algorithm, increasing the length of the possible approximating sequences but with...

In recent years, surface codes have become a leading method for quantum error
correction in theoretical large scale computational and communications
architecture designs. Their comparatively high fault-tolerant thresholds and
their natural 2-dimensional nearest neighbour (2DNN) structure make them an
obvious choice for large scale designs in experi...

Quantum computers can in principle simulate quantum physics exponentially faster than their classical counterparts, but some technical hurdles remain. We propose methods which substantially improve the performance of a particular form of simulation, ab initio quantum chemistry, on fault-tolerant quantum computers; these methods generalize readily t...

Quantum algorithms can be written down in several forms, one of the most common is the quantum circuit representation using discrete gates. The challenge in assessing the computational cost then becomes counting those gates, with realistic costs assigned to each gate. Moreover, interacting pairs of qubits inside most quantum computers will require...

We propose the Floating Ground Architecture (FGA) for network mobility and ad hoc network convergence. Various factors, including excessive dependence on intelligence in the fixed network, result in the Internet having a de facto logical boundary one hop from the fixed network. To reduce these dependencies, FGA introduces a new logical layer, calle...

The Solovay-Kitaev algorithm is the standard method used for
approximating arbitrary single-qubit gates for fault-tolerant quantum
computation. In this paper we introduce a technique called "search space
expansion", which modifies the initial stage of the Solovay-Kitaev
algorithm, increasing the length of the possible approximating sequences
but wi...

In this work, we propose an adder for the 2-Dimensional Nearest-Neighbor, Two-Qubit gate, Concurrent (2D NTC) architecture, designed to match the architectural constraints of many quantum computing technologies. The chosen architecture allows the layout of logical qubits in two dimensions with &sqrt;n columns where each column has &sqrt;n qubits an...

Quantum networks build on entanglement and quantum measurement to bring new capabilities to communication systems. Quantum physical effects can be used to detect eavesdropping, to improve the shared sensitivity of separated astronomical instruments, or to create distributed states that will enable numerical quantum computation over a distance using...

Quantum networks will support long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD)
and distributed quantum computation, and are an active area of both
experimental and theoretical research. Here, we present an analysis of
topologically complex networks of quantum repeaters composed of heterogeneous
links. Quantum networks have fundamental behavioral differ...

Bittorrent is one of the most popular and successful applications in the
current Internet. However, we still have little knowledge about the
topology of real Bittorrent swarms, how dynamic the topology is, and how
it affects overall behavior. This paper describes an experimental study
of the overlay topologies of real-world Bittorrent networks, foc...

In a large-scale quantum computer, the cost of communications will dominate the performance and resource requirements, place many severe demands on the technology, and constrain the architecture. Unfortunately, fault-tolerant computers based entirely on photons with probabilistic gates, though equipped with "built-in" communication, have very large...