Roderick Ian Nicolson

Roderick Ian Nicolson
Edge Hill University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

150
Publications
60,139
Reads
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7,407
Citations
Citations since 2016
16 Research Items
2485 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (150)
Preprint
Creativity is fast becoming recognised as a key skill for employability and for business success. Scientific research and practice-led initiatives for developing creativity require reliable and valid methods of its measurement, particularly in designs for which a large participant sample needs to be tested quickly. The Widening, Connecting, and Reo...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to find out if subtypes of empathy, sensation seeking and callous and unemotional traits predicted physically aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviours in a student sample and also if there were any gender differences. An online survey on Qualtrics was administered to 428 university volunteers aged 18-25 years, w...
Article
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Forty adolescents at risk of school failure, including 18 with a diagnosis of dyslexia, were assessed on measures of physical, cognitive and affective well-being. Overall both groups of participants showed marked signs of anxiety together with at risk performance on a range of cognitive and physical measures, with the dyslexic participants signific...
Article
Full-text available
There is pervasive evidence that problems in sensory processing occur across a range of developmental disorders, but their aetiology and clinical significance remain unclear. The present study investigated the relation between sensory processing and literacy skills in children with and without a background of special educational needs (SEN). Twenty...
Article
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‘Emotional reactivity’ (ER) is an important construct in the analysis of individual temperamental differences, and has accounted for significant variance in studies with respect to its definition. Between 1920 and 2015, the meaning of ER has varied from physiology of emotional reactions, to stress, depression, and as a subtype of empathy. This pape...
Article
It is becoming clear that in the 21st century, a focus on skill development in education is necessary to complement the curriculum, particularly with regards to creative problem solving. The emerging Pedagogy of Play seems to provide a framework to facilitate this but is not easily applicable in the mainstream UK due to difficulties in empowering t...
Article
Full-text available
It is now evident that explanations of many developmental disorders need to include a network perspective. In earlier work, we proposed that developmental dyslexia (DD) is well-characterized in terms of impaired procedural learning within the language networks, with the cerebellum being the key structure involved. Here, we deepen the analysis to in...
Chapter
In this chapter we address the underlying causes of dyslexia, the developmental learning disability, rather than reading disability. In our breakthrough research over 25 years ago we demonstrated that the process of skill automatization of skill was a problem for dyslexic children not only in reading-related skills but also in a range of other skil...
Poster
Full-text available
It is established that sensory difficulties are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including ASD, ADHD, and DCD (e.g. see references 1-3). However, despite some promising studies (see ref. 4-6) the evidence has not being well-established for SpLD. Sensory processing is central to adaptive behaviour and for general development. Knowing th...
Article
Introducción: En esta revisión exponemos, en líneas generales, el razonamiento y la evidencia que respalda nuestra hipótesis que los problemas sufridos por los disléxicos pueden atribuirse a un deficit cerebelar.Método: Primero, ofrecemos una perspectiva general de la evidencia reciente que propone un papel importante del cerebelo en las habilidade...
Article
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There is converging evidence that maintenance of function in the multiple connectivity networks involving the cerebellum is a key requirement for healthy aging. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a home-based, internet-administered “cerebellar challenge” intervention designed to create progressive challenges to vestibular function, mu...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster presents the main results of the 1st study.
Article
Background: The attitude of the general population towards people with intellectual disability (ID) provides important background for policy development. Furthermore, because of changes in attitudes across cultures, it is vital to ground policy development for each country in data from that country. Aims: This paper aimed to undertake a cross-cu...
Article
This qualitative study with 37 older workers from 10 employing organizations in 2 countries (United Kingdom and Bulgaria) and 2 industrial sectors (healthcare and ICT) identifies key themes around workers’ conceptualizations of being an older worker and aging at work, and the types of organizational support they considered most beneficial in late c...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB) to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empa...
Article
Full-text available
Personal qualities have been shown to affect students’ exam results. We studied the effect of experience, and level, of public performance in music, drama, dance, sport, and debate at the time of admission to medical school as a predictor of student achievement in their first objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A single medical school...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Antisocial behaviour is often classified into physically aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour with respect to the aetiology, correlates and development trajectories (e.g. Burt, 2012; Maughan et. al., 2000). However, every research uses different terminologies for certain types of antisocial behaviour. For instance, one research (Fassnacht, 2010)...
Article
There is uncertainty as to whether the deficits in developmental dyslexia extend beyond the language domain. In the present study, the time course of procedural learning of a motor sequence skill was followed over a 24 hour period. 13 dyslexic adults and 12 control adults matched for age and intelligence were asked to repeat a sequence of finger mo...
Article
Full-text available
In less than three decades, the concept "cerebellar neurocognition" has evolved from a mere afterthought to an entirely new and multifaceted area of neuroscientific research. A close interplay between three main strands of contemporary neuroscience induced a substantial modification of the traditional view of the cerebellum as a mere coordinator of...
Article
In an exploration of factors underlying the developmental increase in the speed of simple reaction to an auditory stimulus, two experiments were undertaken, with subjects aged 4, 10, and 20. The first experiment demonstrated that provision of visual feedback caused improvement for younger subjects but not for adults, whereas neither practice nor va...
Article
This paper describes the rationale behind the Dyslexia Early Screening Test for identifying children at risk for dyslexia before they fail to learn to read. The DEST comprises 11 simple subtests – speed, phonological skill, motor skill, cerebellar function and knowledge – which together provide an overall ‘at risk’ judgement, together with an abili...
Article
Full-text available
Consecutive sounds of similar structure that are close in frequency or pitch are more likely to be perceived as part of the same sequence than those at greater frequency separations. The principle of grouping into such perceptual sequences, or auditory streams, is known as frequency proximity. However, the metric by which one frequency difference i...
Article
A model of paired-associate learning is produced, based on stimulus sampling theory. The model provides an excellent fit for data from both a two-alternative and a three-alternative experiment, and resolves several problems that beset Markov models of the process.
Article
Coherent motion perception was tested in nine adolescents with dyslexia and 10 control participants matched for age and IQ using low contrast stimuli with three levels of coherence (10%, 25% and 40%). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioural performance data were obtained. No significant between-group differences were found in performance ac...
Article
The introduction of microcomputers into schools has created a new generation of unskilled keyboard users whose needs are quite different from those of the skilled typist. In particular, their interaction with the keyboard is likely to be the keying in of a single word or a single letter in response to a prompt from a computer-aided learning program...
Article
Aims. To develop and evaluate an intervention strategy for children at risk of reading failure in their first year at school.Samples. Classes in four UK infant schools with different demographic characteristics were screened to identify children most at risk of reading failure (62 in total, mean initial age 6.0 years). Control children, matched ove...
Article
Balance difficulties are an enduring feature of dyslexia research, however results have been inconsistent. We propose that between-study heterogeneity may be attributable to variability in balance tasks, balance measurement, participant age, and inclusion of comorbid disorders such as ADHD. This study attempted to clarify these issues, employing qu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work applies a viseme-driven talking head in a pronunciation training system. The aim is to create a pronunciation assistant to complement traditional methods and to assist the work of a human language tutor. Visual speech can be valuable in speech tutoring applications because vision benefits human speech perception, for three reasons as sugg...
Article
Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces a three-dimensional virtual head for use in speech tutoring applications. The system achieves audiovisual speech synthesis using viseme-driven animation and a coarticulation model, to automatically generate speech from text. The talking head was evaluated using a modified rhyme test for intelligibility. The audiovisual speech...
Article
The study reports neurophysiological and behavioural correlates of lexical decision processes in English speaking dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers. Nine dyslexic adolescents (ages 15.6-17.8) and 9 control (ages 15.4-19.3) adolescents were tested, and the event related potentials (ERPs) to words and pseudowords were recorded simultaneously with beh...
Article
There is confusion over classification in the developmental disorders. Not only is there marked heterogeneity within any given disorder but there is also substantial overlap ('comorbidity') between the characteristic symptoms of several disorders. Confusion is particularly marked for dyslexia (defined in terms of poor reading) and dysgraphia (defin...
Article
Developmental dyslexia is associated with problems in a range of linguistic and non-linguistic skills. Some of those problems have been attributed to dysfunction of the cerebellum and its associated neural systems. Two studies of cerebellar structure were undertaken by our group. In Study 1, white and grey matter volumes in the cerebellum were inve...
Article
Abstract  The successful integration of computers into British schools provides one of the major educational challenges of the century. The plan for CAL outlined here is a ‘survival scheme’, concentrating on the progress needed if we are to remedy the current problems within the next 5 years. The objective is the introduction of ‘fourth generation’...
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief overview of the major theories of the underlying causes of developmental dyslexia. First, it presents three cognitive level explanations: the phonological deficit hypothesis, the double-deficit hypothesis, and the automatization deficit hypothesis. It then discusses three brain-level explanatory frameworks, which inclu...
Chapter
This chapter investigates the neural systems level—a level intermediate between brain and cognition. It also discusses the specific procedural learning difficulties (SPLD) framework, which interprets dyslexia as a specific deficit in the procedural learning system as opposed to the declarative memory system.
Article
Abstract The SelfSpell programs provide a multi-media environment for dyslexic children which uses synthesised speech to augment the written text. In earlier research we established that by encouraging users to enter a rule to help them remember how to spell each word, SelfSpell was very effective in improving spelling ability. The evaluation study...
Chapter
What has the Cerebellum Done for Us?The Cerebellar Deficit HypothesisChanges Since 2001: Evidence from Other Research GroupsCriticisms of the Cerebellar Deficit HypothesisContributions of the Cerebellar Deficit HypothesisThe Way ForwardReferences
Chapter
OverviewIntroductionA Digression to Cognitive Analyses of ReadingModels of Learning to ReadGoswami and Bryant's Causal ModelSkilled ReadingThe Varied forms of LearningDangers Afflicting Approaches to ReadingTowards a Science of Reading InstructionPhonics and DyslexiaThe Path ForwardAcknowledgmentReferences
Article
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Dyslexia research has made dramatic progress since the mid-1980s. Once discounted as a “middle-class myth,” dyslexia is now the subject of a complex—and confusing—body of theoretical and empirical research. This book provides a uniquely broad and coherent analysis of dyslexia theory. Unlike most dyslexia research, which addresses the question “what...
Article
Rack, Snowling, Hulme and Gibbs (Dyslexia, 2007) provide a polemical critique of Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007). We present further statistical analyses, as suggested. The further analyses confirm the findings reported. We also present a brief critique of the applicability of the clinical trials methodology to education. Copyright © 2007 Jo...
Article
This study reports the results of a long-term follow-up of an exercise-based approach to dyslexia-related disorders (Reynolds, Nicolson, & Hambly, Dyslexia, 2003; 9(1): 48-71). In the initial study, children at risk of dyslexia were identified in 3 years of a junior school. One half then undertook a 6 month, home-based exercise programme. Evaluatio...
Article
The explosion in neuroscientific knowledge has profound implications for education, and we advocate the establishment of the new discipline of 'pedagogical neuroscience' designed to combine psychological, medical, and educational perspectives. We propose that specific learning disabilities provide the crucible in which the discipline may be forged,...
Article
During the past 30 years, research into developmental disorders has fragmented, emphasizing differences rather than commonalities. We propose that reunification might be achieved by using a "neural-systems" approach. Deficits in dyslexia are attributed to an intact declarative learning system combined with an impaired procedural learning system--a...
Article
To investigate whether attentional difficulties are a "core" feature of developmental Dyslexia. Behavioural indices and event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 10 dyslexic participants (ages 15.5-17.4) and 10 control participants (ages 14.4-18.3) in the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), an established test of attentional performance. Pa...
Article
Prism adaptation, in which the participant adapts to prismatic glasses that deflect vision laterally, is a specific test of cerebellar function. Fourteen dyslexic children (mean age 13.5 years); 14 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): 6 of whom had comorbid dyslexia; and 12 control children matched for age and IQ underwent prism...
Article
The article summarises the results of a five year research programme aimed at the creation and development of a prototype ‘intelligent authoring system’(IAS)—that is. a system for authoring software that stimulates the skills and knowledge of a conventional Computer Assisted Learning authoring team, thus allowing a computer-naive author to create a...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies are reported in which a group of adolescent dyslexic children and a group of normal children matched for age and IQ undertook long-term training on a keyboard spatial task and a choice reaction task respectively. It was concluded that, following extended training, the dyslexic children had normal 'strength' of automatisation (as assesse...
Article
Balance ability in dyslexia is an issue of considerable theoretical and applied significance, but the literature currently lacks consensus. This study applied objective measures to established balance tasks. 17 dyslexic adults and 20 controls matched for age and IQ undertook the heel-to-toe balance test for 1 minute. Further “dual task” tests were...
Article
Developmental dyslexia may affect as much as 15% of the population, but the aetiology of the disorder is still being debated. The cerebellar theory of dyslexia proposes that cerebellar dysfunction could lead to the myriad of symptoms seen in dyslexic individuals, both in literacy and non-literacy domains. The cerebellum is crucial to the fluent per...
Article
Following an analysis of the stages in software production this paper argues that team production remains the only satisfactory method of providing high quality software but that the key to a higher quantity of reasonable quality computer-assisted learning production lies in the development of support technology adequate to permit individual teache...
Article
Full-text available
Children with developmental dyslexia struggle to learn to read and spell despite adequate intelligence and educational opportunity. Several lines of research are attempting to establish the neurobiological basis of dyslexia, and low-level sensory and motor deficits have been found in dyslexic populations; furthermore, behavioural and imaging data p...
Article
September's Channel 4 Dispatches programme 'The myth of dyslexia', which was trailed as indicating that dyslexia is primarily an emotional construct, has certainly led to an ongoing outpouring of emotion and criticism in the media and on websites. But since the programme, surprisingly little has been heard from appropriately qualified psychologists...
Article
Theoretical frameworks for dyslexia must explain how the well-established phonological deficits and the literacy deficits arise. Our longstanding research programme has led to a distinctive 'twin level' framework that proposes, first, that the core deficits are well described in terms of poor skill automaticity. Second, these 'cognitive level' symp...
Article
There is a dearth of information about the everyday performance difficulties of adult dyslexic people. This study investigates the empirical support for anecdotal reports of increased vulnerability to distraction in dyslexia, using the self-report Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). Two groups of university students, a dyslexic group and a non-...
Article
Full-text available
There is long-standing evidence for verbal working memory impairments in both children and adults with dyslexia. By contrast, spatial memory appears largely to be unimpaired. In an attempt to distinguish between phonological and central executive accounts of the impairments in working memory, a set of phonological and spatial working memory tasks w...
Article
The commentaries on our evaluation of the DDAT exercise treatment raise several common themes and several individual themes. We rebut criticisms in terms of research design, consider the comments made, and conclude that our evidence is indeed solid. We conclude by advocating ‘science, sense and synergy’ as the key to making further progress. Copyri...
Article
Both attentional difficulties and rapid processing deficits have recently been linked with dyslexia. We report two studies comparing the performance of dyslexic and control teenagers on attentional tasks. The two studies were based on two different conceptions of attention. Study 1 employed a design that allowed three key components of attention –...
Article
Over the last few decades, a growing amount of research has suggested that dyslexics have particular difficulties with skills involving accurate or rapid timing, including musical timing skills. It has been hypothesised that music training may be able to remediate such timing difficulties, and have a positive effect on fundamental perceptual skills...
Article
An evaluation is reported of an exercise-based approach to remediation of dyslexia-related disorders. Pupils in three years of a Warwickshire junior school were screened for risk of literacy difficulty using the Dyslexia Screening Test (DST). The 35 children scoring 0.4 or over on the DST were divided randomly into two groups matched for age and DS...
Article
Recent studies (Fawcett et al, 1999; Nicolson et al, 1999) have demonstrated that 6 and 8 year old children found to be at risk of reading failure can be provided with very cost-effective support using traditional teaching methods. Nonetheless, a significant minority of children failed to make sufficient progress. The present studies undertook a re...
Article
There is widespread concern over literacy standards in UK schools and growing evidence that problems become increasingly intractable as children grow older. Computer-based reading instruction may provide a ‘fresh start’ that helps a child to rediscover the path to literacy. Recent controlled studies demonstrated that infant and junior school childr...
Article
In addition to their well-established problems in phonological processing, children with dyslexia show reduced speed of articulation. Two groups of children with dyslexia, mean ages 13 and 16 years, participated together with two groups of normally achieving children matched for age and IQ, with 33 participants in total. Participants were asked to...
Article
Recent behavioural evidence has indicated that cerebellar impairment may be strongly associated with dyslexia. Previous neuroanatomical research has shown the presence of anomalies within the cerebral cortex of brains of dyslexic people. This paper reports equivalent analyses on the cerebella of the same brain specimens. Cross sectional areas and c...
Article
It is all too easy, in everyday interactions in dyslexia, to see the interactions in a semi-adversarial fashion--parents competing to get more support for children, researchers competing to get more support for their theories, schools trying to get more money for their programmes. Such a set of analyses may be described as 'zero-sum'. If one party...
Article
There is increasing evidence that cerebellar deficit may be a causal factor in dyslexia. The cerebellum is considered to be the major structure involved in classical conditioning of the eyeblink response. In a direct test of cerebellar function in learning, 13 dyslexic participants (mean age 19.5 years) and 13 control participants matched for age a...
Article
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Article
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Surprisingly, the problems faced by many dyslexic children are by no means confined to reading and spelling. There appears to be a general impairment in the ability to perform skills automatically, an ability thought to be dependent upon the cerebellum. Specific behavioural and neuroimaging tests reviewed here indicate that dyslexia is indeed assoc...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention strategy for children at risk of reading failure in their third year at school. Classes in five UK junior schools were screened to identify children most at risk of reading failure (36 in total, mean initial age 7.6 years). Comparison children, matched overall for age and reading performance, we...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention strategy for children at risk of reading failure in their third year at school. Classes in five UK junior schools were screened to identify children most at risk of reading failure (36 in total, mean initial age 7.6 years). Comparison children, matched overall for age and reading performance, we...
Article
A comprehensive test battery, including phonological, speed, motor and cerebellar tasks, was administered to the entire cohort of two schools for children with learning disabilities. Testing was undertaken blind without accessing the psychometric data on the children. Children were then allocated to a discrepancy group on the basis of their IQ, wit...
Article
There is now extensive evidence that the learning processes of dyslexic children show some abnormalities, generally consistent with failure to completely automatise skills. Two studies are reported in which a group of adolescent dyslexic children and a group of normal children matched for age and IQ undertook long-term training on a keyboard spatia...