Robin Laney

Robin Laney
The Open University (UK) · Centre for Research in Computing (CRC)

PhD, King's College, London

About

100
Publications
19,902
Reads
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1,798
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
579 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
October 2000 - present
The Open University (UK)
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of a purposely built Digital Tabletop Musical Instruments (DTMI) in helping novices and casual users to explore music composition. Our participants explored how melodic similarity and contrast can convey narrative through musical structure in sessions involving one participant and one tutor to guide...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces the approach to teaching problem-solving and text-based programming that has been adopted in a large, post-18, undergraduate, key introductory module (L4 FHEQ) on Computing and Information Technology at the Open University (UK). We describe how students are equipped with programming, but foremost problem-solving skills. Key in...
Article
Full-text available
The research described in this paper is undertaken under the banner of the smart city, a concept that captures the way urban spaces are re-made by the incursion of new technology. Much of smart is centred on converting everyday activities into data, and using this data to generate knowledge mediated by technology. Ordinary citizens, those that may...
Article
A hybrid wind instrument generates self-sustained sounds via a real-time interaction between a computed excitation model (such as the physical model of human lips interacting with a mouthpiece) and a real acoustic resonator. Attempts to produce a hybrid instrument have so far fallen short, in terms of both the accuracy and the variation in the soun...
Article
A hybrid wind instrument is constructed by putting a theoretical excitation model (such as a real-time computed physical model of a clarinet embouchure) in interaction with a real wind instrument resonator. In previous work, the successful construction of a hybrid wind instrument has been demonstrated, with the interaction facilitated by a loudspea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A hybrid wind instrument is constructed by putting a theoretical excitation model (such as a real-time computed physical model of a clarinet embouchure) in interaction with a real wind instrument resonator. In previous work, the successful construction of a hybrid wind instrument has been demonstrated, with the interaction facilitated by a loudspea...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a video-based field study of the Reactable, a tabletop tangible user interface (TUI) for music performance, in a hands-on science centre. The goal was to investigate visitors’ social interactions in a public setting. We describe liminality and cross-group interaction, both synchronous with fluid transitions and overlaps in use...
Article
Full-text available
Tonal affinity is the perceived goodness of fit of successive tones. It is important because a preference for certain intervals over others would likely influence preferences for, and prevalences of, “higher-order” musical structures such as scales and chord progressions. We hypothesize that two psychoacoustic (spectral) factors—harmonicity and spe...
Article
This article discusses the design and evaluation of an artificial agent for collaborative musical free improvisation. The agent provides a means to investigate the underpinnings of improvisational interaction. In connection with this general goal, the system is also used here to explore the implementation of a collaborative musical agent using a sp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A hybrid wind instrument is constructed by connecting a theoretical excitation model (such as a real-time computed physical model of a single-reed mouthpiece) to a loudspeaker and a microphone which are placed at the entrance of a wind instrument resonator (a clarinet-like tube in our case). The successful construction of a hybrid wind instrument,...
Conference Paper
We present a preliminary study of using the information theoretic concept of cross entropy to measure musical contrast in a symbolic context, with a focus on melody. We measure cross entropy using the Information Dynamics Of Music (IDyOM) framework. Whilst our long term aim is to understand the use of contrast in sonata form, in this paper we take...
Article
Stylistic composition is a creative musical activity, in which students as well as renowned composers write according to the style of another composer or period. We describe and evaluate two computational models of stylistic composition, called Racchman-Oct2010 (random constrained chain of Markovian nodes, October 2010) and Racchmaninof-Oct2010 (Ra...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce a small family of novel bottom-up (sensory) models of the Krumhansl and Kessler (1982) probe tone data. The models are based on the spectral pitch class similarities between all twelve pitch classes and the tonic degree and tonic triad. Cross-validation tests of a wide selection of models show ours to have amongst the hi...
Article
Despite an emerging interest in the application of dynamic computer music systems to computer games, currently there are no commonly accepted approaches to empirically evaluating game music systems. In this paper we pose four questions that researchers could assess in order to evaluate different aspects of a game music system. They focus on the mus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many successful tabletop applications for music making have been developed, and the technology has been investigated from different perspectives. Yet, to date, despite optimistic claims regarding their potential as learning tools, their role in helping people to explore, acquire, and reason about musical concepts has been sparsely researched. We ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A hybrid wind instrument generates self-sustained sounds via a real-time interaction between a computed physical model of an exciter (such as human lips interacting with a mouthpiece) and a real acoustic resonator. Successful implementation of a hybrid wind instrument will not only open up new musical possibilities but will also provide a valuable...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Co-located tabletop tangible user interfaces (TUIs) for music performance are known for promoting multi-player collaboration with a shared interface, yet it is still unclear how to best support the awareness of the workspace in terms of understanding individual actions and the other group members actions, in parallel. In this paper, we investigate...
Article
Current game music systems typically involve the playback of prerecorded audio tracks which are crossfaded in response to game events such as level changes. However, crossfading can limit the expressive power of musical transitions, and can make fine grained structural variations difficult to achieve. We therefore describe an alternative approach i...
Article
Full-text available
There has been little research on how interactions with tabletop and Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) by groups of users change over time. In this article, we investigate the challenges and opportunities of a tabletop tangible interface based on constructive building blocks. We describe a long-term lab study of groups of expert musicians improvising...
Article
Full-text available
The principle of Separation of Concerns encourages developers to divide complex problems into simpler ones and solve them individually. Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) languages provide mechanisms to modularise concerns that affect several software components, by means of joinpoints, advice and aspect weaving. In a software system with multiple a...
Conference Paper
The iPad is typically perceived as a personal device, evoking the image of its owner tapping away - silently submerged in their private digital bubble. Here we portray iPads in a different light: Face-to-face play in groups, using connected and shared surfaces. Applying the bubble metaphor to multi-user cases, we ask the following questions: (a) Ho...
Conference Paper
UniPad is a face-to-face, digital simulation for use in classroom settings that runs on shared tablets and a wall display. The goal is to encourage students to talk, collaborate and make decisions together in real-time, by switching between working on shared 'small group' devices and a 'whole classroom' public display - instead of working by themse...
Article
Development of several computing and communication technologies is enabling the widespread availability of pervasive systems. In smart home applications, household appliances-such as security alarms, heating systems, doors and windows-are connected to home digital networks. These applications offer features that are typically developed by disparate...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is little evaluation of musical tabletops for music performance, and current approaches tend to have little consideration of social interaction. However, in collaborative settings, social aspects such as coordination, communication, or musical engagement between collaborators are fundamental for a successful performance. After an overview of...
Article
This paper presents some of the historical and theoretical foundations for a new cognitive architecture for human-computer interactive musical free improvisation. The architecture is parsimonious in that it has no access to musical knowledge and no domain-general subsystems, such as memory or representational abilities. The paper first describes so...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This position paper summarises some themes encountered when analysing video data in the context of music performance with interactive tabletops. It presents methodological approaches and coding schemes used for a set of experiments on musical tabletops and collaboration. Finally, it outlines an initial taxonomy based on the outcomes of the projects...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the development of sound recording technologies, the palette of sound timbres available for music creation was extended way beyond traditional musical instruments. The organization and categorization of timbre has been a common endeavor. The availability of large databases of sound clips provides an opportunity for obtaining datadriven timbre...
Conference Paper
A new approach to building modelling software, to support the iterative design of energy efficient buildings, is proposed. The proposal is for the combination of two, previously separate, software types - building design modelling and building performance simulation, along with the development of a third component - a design advisor, into one softw...
Article
Full-text available
There is much potential for supporting collaborative learning with interactive computer simulations in formal education and professional training. A number have been developed for single user and remote interaction. In contrast, our research is concerned with how such learning activities can be designed to fit into co-located large group settings,...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new Dynamic Tonality MIDI sequencer, Hex, that aims to make sequencing music in and across a large variety of novel tunings as straightforward as sequencing in twelve-tone equal temperament. In order to enable the intuitive visualization and dynamic manipulation of tuning, it replaces the piano roll used in conventional MIDI sequencers...
Article
How do people compose music? Can computers, with statistics, create a mazurka that cannot be distinguished from a Chopin original?Tom Collins, Robin Laney, Alistair Willis and Paul H. Garthwaite make music with Markov models.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the advent of tabletop interaction, collaborative activities are better supported than they are on single-user PCs because there exists a physical shareable space, and interaction with digital data is more embodied and social. In sound and music computing, collaborative music making has traditionally been done using interconnected networks, bu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we give an analysis of the literature on a set of problems that can arise when undertaking the interaction design of multi-touch applications for collaborative real-time music activities, which are designed for multi-touch technologies (e.g. smartphones, tablets, interactive tabletops, among others). Each problem is described, and a c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a playable musical interface for tablets and multi-touch tables. The interface is a generalized keyboard, inspired by the Thummer, and consists of an array of virtual buttons. On a generalized keyboard, any given interval always has the same shape (and therefore fingering); furthermore, the fingering is consistent over a...
Poster
Full-text available
Hex Player poster. See associated paper for more details.
Article
Full-text available
Models of the perceived distance between pairs of pitch collections are a core component of broader models of music cognition. Numerous distance measures have been proposed, including voice-leading, psychoacoustic, and pitch and interval class distances; but, so far, there has been no attempt to bind these different measures into a single mathemati...
Article
This study relates various quantifiable characteristics of a musical pattern to subjective assessments of a pattern's salience. Via score analysis and listening, twelve music undergraduates examined excerpts taken from Chopin's mazurkas. They were instructed to rate already-discovered patterns, giving high ratings to patterns that they thought were...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When electronic musicians compose collaboratively, they typically use their own single-user musical controllers. It may, therefore, be useful to develop novel controllers that support collaborative workflows and democratic principles. After describing the design principles for developing such controllers, we present TOUCHtr4ck, a prototype multi-to...
Article
The need to reduce radically the energy used by buildings is leading to new design practices. Current design and simulation software are used in very different ways, with energy simulation generally employed to check energy code compliance after the design stages are mostly finished. This linear approach to working practices, the modelling methods...
Article
There is great potential to design digital simulation games as part of professional training settings. However, there is little research on how a large group in a classroom or seminar can all play at the same time. In this paper we describe the design and first in-the-wild deployment of the 4Decades game, which involves up to 30 players simultaneou...
Article
Full-text available
Designing service-oriented interactions requires addressing concerns of many stakeholders across enterprise boundaries. To ensure that stakeholders’ concerns are well-understood and properly addressed, we modularize them into four viewpoints that cover representations ranging from business goals to service messaging protocol. We propose a framework...
Poster
Full-text available
We present an experiment designed to test the effectiveness of spectral pitch distance at modeling the degree of “affinity” or “fit” of pairs of successively played tones or chords (spectral pitch distance is the cosine distance between salience-weighted, Gaussian-smoothed, pitch domain embeddings of spectral pitches—typically the first eight to te...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Models of the perceived distance between pairs of pitch collections are a core component of broader models of the perception of tonality as a whole. Numerous different distance measures have been proposed, including voice-leading, psychoacoustic, and pitch and interval class distances; but, so far, there has been no attempt to bind these different...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A range of systems exist for collaborative music making on multi-touch surfaces. Some of them have been highly successful, but currently there is no systematic way of designing them, to maximise collaboration for a particular user group. We are particularly interested in systems that will engage novices and experts. We designed a simple application...
Article
Full-text available
Buildings account for significant carbon dioxide emissions, both in construction and operation. Governments around the world are setting targets and legislating to reduce the carbon emissions related to the built environment. Challenges presented by increasingly rigorous standards for construction projects will mean a paradigm shift in how new buil...
Chapter
Full-text available
Addressing the challenges of developing secure software systems remains an active research area in software engineering. Current research efforts have resulted in the documentation of recurring security problems as security patterns. Security patterns provide encapsulated solutions to specific security problems and can be used to build secure syste...
Article
A metric for evaluating the creativity of a music-generating system is presented, the objective being to generate mazurka-style music that inherits salient patterns from an original excerpt by Frédéric Chopin. The metric acts as a filter within our overall system, causing rejection of generated passages that do not inherit salient patterns, until a...
Article
We consider the problem of intra-opus pattern discovery, that is, the task of discovering patterns of a specified type within a piece of music. A music analyst undertook this task for works by Domenico Scarlattti and Johann Sebastian Bach, forming a benchmark of 'target' patterns. The performance of two existing algorithms and one of our own creati...
Article
Software development is increasingly concerned with maintaining and extending existing software systems to meet the evolving user requirements. Many of these systems are feature-rich and are developed incrementally. As structures of existing software systems - in addition to the user requirements - influence the specifications, specifying these sys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on our experience of investigat- ing the role of software systems in the power black- out that affected parts of the United States and Canada on 14 August 2003. Based on a detailed study of the official report on the blackout, our investigation has aimed to bring out requirements engineering lessons that can inform development pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Choreography is emerging as a standard for specifying multiparticipant interactions. However, conventional choreography descriptions provide only a partial view of the interaction. They do not capture critical business-domain knowledge including: goals motivating participants to interact, organizational dependencies that enable the interaction, and...
Conference Paper
[Context and motivation] The principle of “divide and conquer” suggests that complex software problems should be decomposed into simpler problems, and those problems should be solved before considering how they can be composed. The eventual composition may fail if solutions to simpler problems interact in unexpected ways. [Question/problem] Given d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In response to changingrequirements and other environ- mental influences, software systems are increasingly devel- oped incrementally. Successful implementation of new fea- tures in existing software is often difficult, whilst many soft- ware systems simply 'break' when features are introduced. Size and complexity of modern software, poor software...
Article
Full-text available
Evolving business needs call for customizing choreographed interactions. However, conventional choreography description languages provide only a partial view of the interaction. Business goals of each participant and organizational dependencies motivating the interaction are not captured in the specification of messaging. Absence of this critical b...
Article
We argue that the feature interaction problem arises primarily from sharing of context and hence features should be structured and analysed through a notation that makes context explicit. We support this argument with three sets of evidence. Firstly, we express feature interaction through Zave and Jackson’s entailment relation. With the entailment...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evolving business needs call for customizable choreographed interactions. However, choreography descriptions do not capture the problem-domain knowledge required to perform the customization effectively. Hence, we propose performing the customization to models of organizational requirements motivating the interaction. To facilitate the derivation o...
Conference Paper
We propose an approach to runtime feature composition and conflict resolution that combines arbitration and contingencies. By arbitration we mean the resolution of conflicts between features using priorities. Contingency means having several specifications per feature, satisfying the same requirement, depending on the current state of the shared re...
Article
Full-text available
Finding specification of pervasive systems is difficult because it requires making certain environmental assumptions ex-plicit at design-time, and describing the software in a way that facilitates runtime composition. This paper describes how a systematic refinement of specifications from descrip-tions of the system's environment and requirements c...
Article
Full-text available
In response to changing requirements and other environ-mental influences, software systems are increasingly devel-oped incrementally. Successful implementation of new fea-tures in existing software is often difficult, whilst many soft-ware systems simply 'break' when features are introduced. Size and complexity of modern software, poor software de-...
Article
Full-text available
Central to the problem frames approach is the distinction of three different descriptions: requirements R, domain assumptions W and specifications S, tied together with the so-called 'frame concern', a proof obligation that has to hold between them if a problem diagram is to be correct: S, W |- R. The form this proof should take is not fixed a prio...
Article
Full-text available
Security engineering is about protecting assets from harm. The feature interaction problem occurs when the composition of features leads to undesirable system behaviours. Usually, this problem manifests itself as conflicting actions of features on a shared context. Security requirements may be violated by feature interactions creating security vuln...
Chapter
This chapter presents a process for security requirements elicitation and analysis, based around the construction of a satisfaction argument for the security of a system. The process starts with the enumeration of security goals based on assets in the system, then uses these goals to derive security requirements in the form of constraints. Next, a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces Aspect Oriented Music Representation (AOMR), and its application to create tools offering new kinds of flexibility to musicians. Psychologists have demonstrated the diversity of composers’ approaches, but existing computer-based tools support this diversity poorly. Current tools generally require musicians to work with pre-est...
Article
This paper presents a framework for security requirements elicitation and analysis, based upon the construction of a context for the system, representation of security requirements as constraints, and satisfaction arguments for the requirements in the system context. The system context is described using a problem-centered notation, then is validat...
Chapter
Intellectual property rights (IP) are established through the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement (part of the Uruguay Round Agreements creating the WTO) as global and uniform. This absolute IP may provide such opportunities for rent-seeking that misallocations may occur, resulting in a perception of IP as ethica...
Article
Full-text available
One approach to system development is to decompose the requirements into features and specify the individual features before composing them. A major limitation of deferring feature composition is that inconsistency between the solutions to individual features may not be uncovered early in the development, leading to unwanted feature interactions. S...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces the Trust Obstacle Mitigation Model (TOMM), which uses the concept of trust assumptions to derive security obstacles, and the concept of misuse cases to model obstacles. The TOMM allows a development team to anticipate malicious behaviour with respect to the operational database application and to document a priori how this ma...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a framework for security requirements elicitation and analysis, based upon the construction of a context for the system and satisfaction arguments for the security of the system. One starts with enumeration of security goals based on assets in the system. These goals are used to derive security requirements in the form of constr...