Robin Holding Kay

Robin Holding Kay
Ontario Tech University | UOIT · Faculty of Education

Dean and Professor - Ontario Tech University

About

186
Publications
207,907
Reads
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4,543
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Robin Kay is currently a Full Professor and the Dean in the Faculty of Education at Ontario Tech University in Oshawa, Canada. He has published over 160 articles, chapters and conference papers in the area of technology in education.
Additional affiliations
July 2020 - present
Ontario Tech University
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Description
  • Responsible for supervising and coordinating 4 program directors, 18+ full-time faculty, 45+ sessional instructors, 7 staff members, and over 900 part-time, full time and elective students in the Faculty of Education for 4 programs.
April 2019 - June 2020
Ontario Tech University
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Description
  • Responsible for supervising and coordinating 4 program directors, 18+ full-time faculty, 45+ sessional instructors, 7 staff members, and over 900 part-time, full time and elective students in the Faculty of Education for 4 programs.
January 2019 - May 2019
Ontario Tech University
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
September 1990 - June 1996
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Educational Psychology
September 1986 - June 1988
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Computer Applications in Education
September 1979 - June 1984
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Psychology & Computer Science

Publications

Publications (186)
Book
Full-text available
Thriving online: A guide for busy educators focuses on helping educators (secondary school and higher education level) succeed and thrive in blended and online learning settings. Grounded in evidence-based practices and principles, we share diverse and extensive insights on starting out, differentiated learning, learning activities, feedback and as...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a review of the literature from 2009 to 2014 on student use of technology in early childhood education. Previous efforts to synthesize the literature are somewhat dated, non-specific about age range, and focus almost exclusively on literacy. Thirty peer-reviewed articles from 11 countries, selected from a comprehensive search of...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare community college students’ learning experiences and performance for lecture-based, active learning, and flipped classroom teaching approaches. Participants were second-semester computer programming students (n = 103) at a mid-sized college of applied arts and technology. Garrison’s (2011) Community of Inqui...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of research on video podcasts from 2002 to 2011 in order to guide future studies and educational practice. Fifty-three, peer-reviewed articles were selected from an extensive search of the literature. Key topics included the history and growth of video podcasts, types of podcasts, pr...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the following study was to develop a comprehensive, theory-based framework for creating instructional video podcasts designed to present worked examples. Sixteen design characteristics, organized according to four categories (establishing context, providing effective explanations, minimizing cognitive load, and engaging students), we...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical care pathways may be useful tools to improve the quality of healthcare by facilitating the translation of evidence into practice. Our study is situated within a larger project, whereby end-users co-developed a care pathway for the management of shoulder pain. In this study, we explored end-user perceptions of the usefulness and...
Article
Full-text available
The use of video feedback in face-to-face, blended, and online learning classes has increased markedly since 2014. However, the use of this form of feedback is not well understood. In this study, we conducted a systematic literature review of how higher education instructors perceive video-based feedback. We analyzed 39 peer-reviewed articles from...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of research on the quality of student feedback from post-secondary institutions using online course evaluations versus traditional paper-pencil methods. Nineteen peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2020 were examined for changes to course evaluations following a transition...
Chapter
Full-text available
Thriving online: A guide for busy educators focuses on helping educators (secondary school and higher education level) succeed and thrive in blended and online learning settings. Grounded in evidence-based practices and principles, we share diverse and extensive insights on starting out, differentiated learning, learning activities, feedback and as...
Chapter
Full-text available
We maintain that strong social, cognitive and teaching presence are critical to the success of an online course (Garrison, 2011). We also assert that deep learning, focusing on citizenship, character, collaboration, communication, creativity and critical thinking is essential for optimal online teaching and learning experience (Fullan, 2013). Howev...
Chapter
Full-text available
In today’s online and blended classrooms, video use is essential for student and teacher success (Heilesen, 2010; Kay, 2012, 2014a). Using video has been proven to increase student engagement (Lowenthal et al., 2020), enhance instructor visibility (Martin & Bollinger, 2018), and improve student learning in online contexts (Hsin & Cigas, 2013). Usin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Thriving online: A guide for busy educators focuses on helping educators (secondary school and higher education level) succeed and thrive in blended and online learning settings. Grounded in evidence-based practices and principles, we share diverse and extensive insights on starting out, differentiated learning, learning activities, feedback and as...
Chapter
Full-text available
I have read many books and articles on online learning, and few explicitly address guidelines to help instructors new to teaching in this medium (Boettcher & Conrad, 2016). When I first started teaching online in 2009, even though I had over ten years of teaching experience, I felt like a first-year teacher: anxious, vulnerable, and a bit lost. I r...
Chapter
Full-text available
Thriving online: A guide for busy educators focuses on helping educators (secondary school and higher education level) succeed and thrive in blended and online learning settings. Grounded in evidence-based practices and principles, we share diverse and extensive insights on starting out, differentiated learning, learning activities, feedback and as...
Chapter
Full-text available
Thriving online: A guide for busy educators focuses on helping educators (secondary school and higher education level) succeed and thrive in blended and online learning settings. Grounded in evidence-based practices and principles, we share diverse and extensive insights on starting out, differentiated learning, learning activities, feedback and as...
Chapter
Full-text available
Effective feedback provides more than information on whether a student is right or wrong; it gives them clear directions about how their performance or knowledge aligns with assignment expectations (Feldman, 2019). Good feedback will also provide students with information on adjusting or changing their work to achieve success (Talbert, 2015). For l...
Chapter
Full-text available
I believe that the heart and soul of online teaching and learning rest in selecting high-quality, engaging synchronous activities. A poorly organized activity or the passive presentation of knowledge can quickly derail focus and success in a virtual classroom. On the other hand, a carefully crafted, collaborative, focused set of activities can tran...
Chapter
Full-text available
Thriving online: A guide for busy educators focuses on helping educators (secondary school and higher education level) succeed and thrive in blended and online learning settings. Grounded in evidence-based practices and principles, we share diverse and extensive insights on starting out, differentiated learning, learning activities, feedback and as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peer-assessment is an active form of socially mediated learning that can enhance student metacognitive abilities. Previous research has confirmed the value of peer-assessment in education; however, comprehensive reviews for peer-assessment in online higher education environments are limited. The purpose of the paper, then, was to conduct a systemat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Blended learning approaches, including the flipped classroom, have been increasingly implemented in higher education. Previous studies examining the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in health sciences programs have reported mixed findings. We conducted this systematic review to investigate the effect of implementing flipped classroom on acade...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers have focused broadly on self-assessment, but not in online higher education environments. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on the use of self-assessment in online learning for higher education. We systematically reviewed 34 peer-reviewed articles published between 2011 and 2021 using the PRI...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The impact of emotions on learning with technology has been largely overlooked, with the exception of anxiety ([1],[2],[3]). The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship among a broader range of emotions (happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness), strategies for learning new technology, and nine technology skills. Two hundred twen...
Article
Full-text available
Background End-user involvement in developing evidence-based tools for clinical practice may result in increased uptake and improved patient outcomes. Understanding end-user experiences and perceptions about the co-production of knowledge is useful to further the science of integrated knowledge translation (iKT) – a strategy for accelerating the up...
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary, we look at digital technology use in teacher education and practice, theoretical foundations, definitions, and digital competence frameworks in an educational context. With rapid changes in the domain of technology classroom teaching, teachers need to learn and adapt quickly. We argue that a more comprehensive approach to unders...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable technologies such as smartwatches, smart clothing, smart glasses, fitness trackers, and brain senor headbands are wireless body sensors designed to record physiological and physical data. Since 2015, their use has increased in K-12 classrooms, but a comprehensive investigation of student impact has yet to be conducted. A coherent, big pict...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides a systematic review of the research on higher education students' perceptions of the benefits and challenges of video-based feedback. Fifty-eight peer-reviewed articles from 2009-2019 were selected using the PRISMA framework and analyzed employing a constant comparative method. Overall, students preferred video-based over text-b...
Article
Full-text available
Colleges and universities are grappling with supporting underprepared students in mathematics. While research examines the demographics of students and the effects of changing the number of preparatory courses, few studies examine the impact of pedagogical practices on student outcomes. This study investigated the effect of an alternative pedagogy,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past five years, the use of wearable technologies has increased markedly in K-12 classrooms. While clear benefits of using wearable technologies have been observed for both students and teachers, a number of practical issues have also been noted that ultimately might undermine their use. In this literature review, we conducted a systematic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feedback is essential for learning and identifies perceived gaps between students’ observed performance and desired outcomes. In higher education, feedback is often text-based, despite significant advances in the ease of recording and distributing video in digital learning environments. While recent studies have investigated student and instructor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feedback is an integral component of learning and attempts to provide students with information about a perceived gap between their performance and desired outcomes. The standard format, particularly in higher education, is text-based feedback, despite significant advances in the ease of recording and distributing video-based feedback in digital le...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since 2015, wearable technologies have increasingly been used in K-12 classrooms, however, the impact on students has not been examined in detail. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of using wearable technologies for K-12 students using a systematic review of the literature. Using the PRISMA approach in conjunction with a thematic narr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Most K-12 teachers have a solid grasp of effective pedagogy and the teaching and learning strategies needed to succeed in the classroom. Translating those strategies into a blended or online format can be challenging, especially in the beginning. With a focus on pedagogy first, this chapter provides practical suggestions and resources to help teach...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on 11 key areas of teaching and learning online for Higher Education instructors. The intent is to provide effective strategies to shift to and thrive in online learning environments. The areas covered include a description of the learning framework, video creation tips, learning outcomes and assessment, pre-course ideas, techn...
Article
Objective To develop an online, interactive educational tool to deliver an evidence-based clinical practice guideline to faculty members at a Canadian chiropractic college. Second, to evaluate the learning, design, and engagement constructs of the tool in a sample of chiropractic faculty members. Methods Using an integrated knowledge translation m...
Article
Full-text available
One of the primary skills required by mathematics teachers is the ability to provide effective explanations to their students. Using Kay's (2014) theory-based framework for creating instructional videos, this study explored the quality and growth of explanations embedded in mathematical instructional videos created by 37 pre-service teachers (femal...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe the best evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based learning tools designed to improve knowledge of health care providers about clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Methods: We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL from inception to July 2018. Included studies investigated the effectiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many studies have examined the use of mobile apps in K-12 classrooms, however, a detailed analysis of factors that might influence the effectiveness of learning performance has yet to be conducted. The purpose of this study was to assess student and teacher-based factors that could influence learning performance with mobile apps. A total of 722 stu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effective, timely feedback is a critical part of learning and can increase understanding and future learning performance. The standard format of feedback in digital environments is text-based, however, the use of video-based feedback has risen recently, particularly in online environments. The viability, sustainability and effectiveness of video fe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This review explores the benefits and challenges of using wearable technologies for teachers in K-12 learning environments. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the PRISMA framework in conjunction with a thematic narrative analysis. Fifty-two peer-reviewed articles from 2003 to 2019 were examined. The benefits of using wearable...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Limited research exists on how social media can support students in K-12 environments. This narrative inquiry study focused on the Ontario Educational Student Chat (ONedSschat) to explore the extent to which students, who were part of the organizing and leadership team, developed digital citizenship, digital literacies, and student voice. Data exam...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gender differences in preferred learning strategies for learning new software could indirectly and negatively influence the successful integration of technology in the classroom by preservice teachers. In this study, we compared four learning strategies (collaboration, authentic tasks, formal instruction, exploratory learning) between male (n=25) a...
Article
Full-text available
Limited research has been conducted on the use of mathematics apps in elementary school environments. The purpose of this study was to examine student (n = 127) and teacher (n = 6) attitudes toward the use of constructive-based, mathematics apps in Grades 4-6 and to explore what factors influence learning performance. Students rated the design and...
Research
Full-text available
This paper contributes a broad mapping of how discreet wearable technologies are used in K-12 contexts. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the PRISMA framework in conjunction with a thematic narrative analysis. A total of 52 peer-reviewed articles from 2003 to 2019 were examined. Five key categories were used to organize the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many colleges and universities struggle to support underprepared first-year mathematics students [1]. A flipped classroom model is a promising approach to address at-risk, higher education mathematics students because it allows for increased interaction and support within the classroom after students have viewed instructional videos at home. Howeve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Considerable research has been conducted in the domain of K-12 online learning, however, a limited number of studies have been conducted on the quality learning using this format and best practices [1, 2]. While standards have been created for developing online learning environments [3], no formally developed, evidence-based, reliable and valid sca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many colleges and universities are challenged to support students who are at-risk of failing mandatory mathematics courses [1]. The use of video-podcasts is a promising strategy for providing support, particularly within a flipped-classroom environment [2]. However, limited research has been conducted on how to design effective video podcasts to su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As of 2017, an estimated 750,000 apps were available in the domain of education. Consequently, teachers have a monumental task in evaluating and selecting effective educational apps to be used in their classrooms. A number of studies have proposed, discussed and examined frameworks or classification schemes for evaluating mobile apps, but to date,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of video feedback is relatively new. Reported benefits include improved personal connection, increased focus, and improved learning. However, limited research has been conducted on exploring student and teacher perceptions of written and video feedback in pre-service teacher education. The purpose of this study was to compare written and vi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A review of the research [1] suggests that limited evaluation has been conducted on how pre-service teachers learn how to use technology. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare four learning strategies used by these teachers to acquire technology-related skills within an eight-month teacher education program. One hundred forty-three (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the primary skills required by secondary school mathematics teachers is to provide effective explanations to their students. Using Kay’s (2014) theory-based framework for creating instructional video podcasts, this study explored the quality of explanations embedded in mathematical instructional videos created by 37 pre-service teachers (fem...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Student response systems (SRSs) allow students to answer digitally displayed questions and receive immediate feedback. While considerable research has been conducted on the use of SRSs in higher education (e.g., Chien et al., 2016; Kay & LeSage, 2009; Keough, 2012), limited research has focused on elementary school classrooms. The purpose of the st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current research indicates that grit, growth mindset, hardiness and resilience are psychological constructs beneficial to learning [1,2,3]. Furthermore, success in online learning may be mediated by various concepts related to the characteristics of individual learners, thereby affecting how individuals approach the online learning experience, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a pilot study of online graduate students' responses to a pedagogical strategy for developing social presence in synchronous online graduate courses. This work is grounded in current research on the impact of social presence in the development of interactive, creative online communities. The article describes a teaching strateg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The majority of research on flipped learning has focused on higher education. The purpose of the current study was to compare flipped and traditional approaches to teaching chemistry in secondary school classrooms. Attitudes and learning performance were assessed for 50 grade 11 students (21 male, 29 female) participating in two flipped and two tra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs are becoming increasingly popular in secondary school environments (Delgado et al., 2015; Johnson et al., 2014), however, limited research has been conducted on the impact of BYOD learning environments. There has, however, been extensive research on one-to-one (OTO) programs, where schools provide devices for s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Preservice teachers need to develop a wide range of skills and knowledge including awareness of learners, understanding curriculum content and goals, subject matter skills, pedagogical knowledge, and how to interact in diverse, complex classroom environments (Cohen, Hoz & Kaplan; Darling-Hammond, 2006). Student-response systems (SRSs) allow teacher...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Based on over 150 meta-analyses, technology has proven to have a significant impact on education with an effect size of 0.34 [1]. If we assume that meaningful use of technology can have a significant and positive impact on student learning, teacher education is a reasonable place to start with respect to integrating technology into the classroom [2...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Student response systems (SRSs), also known as audience response systems, classroom response systems and clickers, allow students to answer electronically displayed questions. SRSs can be hardware (e.g., physical device) or software-based (e.g., mobile apps). Typically, all responses are instantly presented, in chart form, then reviewed and discuss...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The flipped classroom reverses the typical sequence of listening to an in-class lecture in class followed by completing assigned work at home, to an approach where students watch video lectures online before class, then participate in problem-solving and application-based exercises in class with the instructor acting as a guide. Previous literature...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher-related factors (attitudes, demographics, lesson plan purpose, and strategies) on student learning performance with mathematics apps in elementary school classrooms. Eighteen teachers (8 male, 10 female) and 408 students from grades 4 to 8 participated in the study. Ten unique constr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2017, the projected number of educational mobile apps available was estimated at 750,000 making the selection process incredibly challenging for educators. The purpose of this paper was to develop a coherent model for selecting and guiding the use of mobile apps. An emergent content analysis was conducted on 11 previous classification schemes to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Limited research has been conducted on teacher-related factors that influence student learning performance after using STEM-based mobile apps. The purpose of this study was to examine a wide range of teacher-based factors that might influence student learning performance including teacher attitudes, preparation and implementation strategies, and de...
Article
Full-text available
Literacy and Basic Skills (LBS) programs in many Ontario colleges offer adult learners who have low literacy and basic skills with opportunities to improve their employment skills as well as results on prerequisite courses for entrance into post-secondary education. LBS students encounter many challenges and require extra interpersonal instructiona...
Article
Full-text available
Literacy and Basic Skills (LBS) programs in many Ontario colleges offer adult learners who have low literacy and basic skills with opportunities to improve their employment skills as well as results on prerequisite courses for entrance into post-secondary education. LBS students encounter many challenges and require extra interpersonal instructiona...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a collection of books that I have read over the past 5-10 years that I believe would be particularly useful, practical, and accessible to new (and experienced) teachers. Many are relatively short but impactful. All are based on sound evidence and research
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A number of studies have examined the use of STEM-based mobile apps for elementary school students, however, a comprehensive analysis of factors that might contribute to individual differences in effectiveness has yet to be conducted. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual differences in student learning performance after using STE...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extensive research has been conducted on evaluating the quality of asynchronous online learning. However, limited research has focused on assessing the effectiveness synchronous or virtual classrooms. The purpose of the study was to develop a metric to evaluate the quality of virtual learning environments in higher education. Data were collected fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Global initiatives have directed education to emphasize science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of this study was to assess elementary school teacher attitudes and behaviours with respect to using STEM-based apps in the classroom. This mixed-methods study involved 34 teacher-participants (14 males, 20 females) integrati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence participation in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) within the domain of healthcare education. A year-long, content analysis of 11 simulation-based healthcare education VCoPs was used to examine the frequency of participation. LinkedIn had poor user engagement compared to independ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous research on the use of apps in elementary school classrooms has employed general measures of attitude and learning performance to assess overall tablet use. This study uses a reliable, validated metric for attitude and content-based learning performance measures based on Bloom's revised taxonomy (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001) to examine th...
Data
A short video on best practices for teaching in virtual classrooms.
Data
This file provides clear examples for each of the 8 mobile app categories - Descriptions, reviews, format and educational level are listed for each app example.
Data
Clear examples for each of the 8 mobile app categories are provided including - links, descriptions, reviews, format and educational level.
Article
Full-text available
Competency-based education in health care requires rigorous standards to ensure professional proficiency. Demonstrating competency in hands-on laboratories calls for effective preparation, knowledge, and experience, all of which can be difficult to achieve using traditional teaching methods. Virtual laboratories are an alternative, cost-effective a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While considerable research and investigation have been conducted on asynchronous online learning [1, 2, 3], much less is known about synchronous or virtual classrooms. Research and practice within asynchronous environments do not readily transfer to virtual environments. Since 2010, the use of virtual classrooms has grown considerably, although th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Currently, there are thousands of educational apps available, however, most are not formally regulated, and educators have limited guidance on how to choose the most effective apps [1,2]. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive framework for selecting and evaluating educational apps based on an extensive review of the research from...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Given that there are over 80,000 educational apps in the Apple store alone (Apple, 2017), teachers need clear guidance on choosing the most useful tools possible. The purpose of this paper is to provide an evidence-based framework for selecting and evaluating math apps used in elementary school settings. Based on a comprehensive review of the liter...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding type and characteristics of mathematics apps can help primary school teachers to effectively assess and select apps to support learning. This study is an exploratory comparison of four different types of mathematics apps (practice-based, constructive, productive, game-based) based on the assessment of three characteristics (perceived...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While laptop programs have been investigated extensively, Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs, which have a unique set of features, have not been examined, particularly at the secondary school level. This study explored the effectiveness of a BYOD approach to teaching high school English over a four-month semester. Using a mixed methods design, w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many reports indicate that students have difficulty in mathematics (e.g., Carr, 2012; Hinton, 2014;). Some evidence suggests that technology can help (Boogart et al., 2014; Riconscente, 2013). This study investigated how the use of mathematics apps in a grade 2/3 mathematics class impact student attitudes and academic performance. Five apps were ca...
Article
Full-text available
In the past five years, there has been considerable interest in the decision-making process of school board officials in the field of education. However, a paucity of research exists on how these leaders use online resources to inform decision-making. Through an online survey and face-to-face interviews, this study examined the use of online resour...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on distractions and the use of mobile devices (personal digital assistants, tablet personal computers, or laptops) have been conducted almost exclusively in higher education. The purpose of the current study was to examine the frequency and influence of distracting behaviors in Bring Your Own Device secondary school classrooms. Qu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of laptops is prevalent in secondary school education, however, limited research has been conducted in this domain. The purpose of this study was to examine secondary school students' off-task behaviors in laptop-based classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 224 secondary school students. Key areas investigated wer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Literacy and Basic Skills (LBS) programs offer adult learners with a variety of special needs opportunities to improve employment skills and pre-requisite courses for entrance into post-secondary education. Barriers to learning that adult learners encounter in LBS programs might be reduced through a blended learning instructional approach. The purp...