Robin R Ingalls

Robin R Ingalls
Boston University School of Medicine/Boston Medical Center · Department of Medicine, Department of Microbiology

MD

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60
Publications
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6,515
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Publications

Publications (60)
Article
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Preterm birth is a major public health problem, occurring in more than half a million births per year in the United States. A number of maternal conditions have been recognized as risk factors for preterm birth, but for the majority of cases, the etiology is not completely understood. Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually tran...
Article
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Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global health problem. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C7 recognizes a gonococcal lipooligosaccharide epitope that is expressed by >95% of clinical isolates and hastens gonococcal vaginal clearance in mice. Chimeric mAb 2C7 (human immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]) with an E430G Fc modification that enhances Fc:Fc i...
Article
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Complement is an important arm of the innate immune system. Recent studies have shown that products of complement pathway activation can interact directly with other innate immune signaling molecules, including TLRs and inflammasome family members, during some infectious and chronic inflammatory disorders. Activation of the complement system genera...
Article
Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus lead...
Article
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of the innate immune system. While a number of studies have described TLR expression in the female reproductive tract, few have examined the temporal expression of TLRs within the human placenta. We hypothesized that the pattern of TLR expression in the placenta changes throughout the first and...
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Background: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human pathogen that is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract infections. It has also been suggested that C. pneumoniae infection can trigger or promote a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, including asthma and atherosclerosis. Several strains of C. pneumoniae have been isolated from...
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Diverse and multi-factorial processes contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. These processes affect cells involved in the development of this disease in varying ways, ultimately leading to atherothrombosis. The goal of our study was to compare the differential effects of specific stimuli - two bacterial infections and a Western di...
Data
In vitro growth of C.pneumoniae in macrophages vs. fibroblasts. BMDMs (top panel A) or mouse lung fibroblasts (MLF, bottom panel B) were prepared from C57BL/6 (a–b) or B6.C3H-sst1 congenic mice (c–d), as described in the Methods. The cells were infected with C. pneumoniae at an MOI = 3∶1 (A, BMDM) or 10∶1 (B, MLF), in the absence (a, c) or presence...
Data
Weight loss and bacterial clearance over time in C. pneumoniae infected B6 vs B6.C3H-sst1 mice. C57BL/6 (B6) or B6.C3H-sst1 congenic mice were intranasally inoculated with 5×106 IFU C. pneumoniae (Cp) or SPG buffer (mock) as described in the Methods. (A) Recorded daily weights of mice over 6 days post infection. Shown above is the weight change rel...
Data
C. pneumoniae infected B6.C3H-sst1 mice display more evidence of tissue damage and repair compared to B6 mice. C57BL/6 (B6) or B6.C3H-sst1 congenic mice were infected with C. pneumoniae as described in the Methods. Lungs were removed at the indicated time and processed as follows: immunohistochemistry for detection of vimentin at day 3 (A and B); M...
Data
Cytokine secretion and C. pneumoniae growth in mouse lung fibroblasts (MLF). MLF isolated from B6 or B6.C3H-sst1 mouse were infected with Cp at the indicated MOI (A) or an MOI of 5∶1 (B) in the absence or presence of IFN-γ (10 U/ml). A: Supernatant was harvested at 24 hpi and assayed for IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-β. Shown above is IL-6 data. No detectabl...
Data
Clinical scores were determined on day 6 post-infection, and mice were subsequently assigned to two outcome groups based on severity of illness: severe to moribund animals (score 3–4) vs. subtle to moderately ill animals (score 0–2). Data shown above represents the number of mice that fell into each outcome group. Significance was calculated from t...
Article
Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an immunocompromised host has a high mortality rate but may initially present with nonspecific pulmonary and gastrointestinal symptoms. Donor-derived S. stercoralis by kidney transplantation is an uncommon diagnosis and difficult to prove. We report two renal allograft recipients on different immunosuppre...
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The sst1, "supersusceptibility to tuberculosis," locus has previously been shown to be a genetic determinant of host resistance to infection with the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with community acquired pneumonia, and chronic infection with C. pneumoniae h...
Article
NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. We examined the ability of NOD1 an...
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Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. B. burgdorferi has been shown to bind to different receptors on the surface of phagocytic cells, including the β(2) integrin, complement receptor 3 (CR3). However, whether th...
Article
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Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, m...
Data
Scatter plot illustration of microarray comparison of the transcriptional profile of C. caviae GPIC and its plasmid-cured derivative CC13 30 hours after infection. (DOCX)
Data
Primers directed against the predicted open reading frames encoded on pCpGP amplify predicted fragments from C. caviae GPIC but not from CC13. Primers pairs directed against each ORF are detailed in Table 1 and amplification conditions are described in Methods. (DOCX)
Article
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Like all Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane of the gonococcus is rich in endotoxin, a known ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4. However, the role of endotoxin and that of its cognate receptor TLR4 in the mucosal response to acute gonococcal infection in the genita...
Article
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Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen and is associated with infant pneumonia. Data from the female mouse model of genital tract chlamydia infection suggests a requirement for TLR2-dependent signaling in the induction of inflammation and oviduct pathology. We hypothesized that the role of TLR2 in moderating mucosal inflamm...
Article
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia, and it has been suggested as a trigger or promoter of several chronic inflammatory conditions, such as asthma and atherosclerosis. The beta form of IL-1 (IL-1beta) is a proinflammatory cytokine released by many cell types and is an important mediator of inflam...
Article
TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine superfamily which regulates a number of cellular responses, including inflammation and proliferation. TWEAK is primarily secreted by phagocytic cells and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), is expressed on non-lymphoid cells, i...
Article
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Acute gonorrhea in women is characterized by a mucopurulent exudate that contains polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with intracellular gonococci. Asymptomatic infections are also common. Information on the innate response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in women is limited to studies with cultured cells, isolated immune cells, and analyses of cervicovag...
Article
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the world. In women, genital infection can cause endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease with the severe sequelae of ectopic pregnancy or infertility. Chlamydia sp. do not damage tissues directly, but induce an injurious host inflammatory response at the in...
Article
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that recognize distinct molecular patterns shared by a broad range of pathogens, including nucleic acids. TLR9, for example, recognizes unmethylated deoxycytidyl-phosphate-deoxyguanosine (CpG) dinucleotides that are common in bacterial and some viral nucleic acids, whereas TLR...
Article
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Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative pathogen and the etiologic agent of significant ocular and genital tract diseases. Chlamydiae primarily infect epithelial cells, and the inflammatory response of these cells to the infection directs both the innate and adaptive immune response. This study focused on determining the ce...
Article
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The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces an array of diseases ranging from urethritis to disseminated gonococcal infections. Early events in the establishment of infection involve interactions between N. gonorrhoeae and the mucosal epithelium, which leads to the local release of inflammatory mediators. Because of this, it is important to i...
Article
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Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation...
Article
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently been identified as fundamental components of the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. We investigated the role of TLR signaling in immune defense of the mucosal epithelial cells of the lower female genital tract. This site provides first line defense against microbial pathogens while remaining tole...
Article
The ability of a host to sense invasion by pathogenic organisms and to respond appropriately to control infection is paramount to survival. In the case of sepsis and septic shock, however, an exaggerated systemic response may, in fact, contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with overwhelming infections. The innate immune system has ev...
Article
The ability of a host to sense invasion by pathogenic organisms and to respond appropriately to control infection is paramount to survival. In the case of sepsis and septic shock, however, an exaggerated systemic response may, in fact, contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with overwhelming infections. The innate immune system has ev...
Article
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Down-regulation of cell surface expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 following LPS stimulation has been suggested to underlie endotoxin tolerance. In this study, we examined whether overexpression of TLR2 or TLR4 would affect the ability of cells to become tolerant to LPS or the mycobacterial components, arabinose-capped lipoarabinomannan (LAM)...
Article
The recent isolation of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant of Neisseria meningitidis has allowed us to explore the roles of other gram-negative cell wall components in the host response to infection. The experiments in this study were designed to examine the ability of this mutant strain to activate cells. Although it was clearly less pote...
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and related bacterial products can be recognized by host inflammatory cells in a particulate, bacterium-bound form, as well as in various soluble, released forms. In the present study we have compared the mechanisms used by LPS, detoxified LPS (DLPS), and mannuronic acid polymers (M-polymers), in solution or covalently link...
Article
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Gram-negative bacteria and the LPS constituent of their outer membranes stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators believed to be responsible for the clinical manifestations of septic shock. The GPI-linked membrane protein, CD14, initiates the signaling cascade responsible for the induction of this inflammatory response by LPS. In this paper,...
Article
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacol...
Article
The inflammatory response to bacterial infections plays an important role in the detection and elimination of invading micro-organisms. Various components of the bacterial cell wall are capable of activating this pro-inflammatory response. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the dominant trigger, although other bacter...
Article
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 are signal transducers for lipopolysaccharide, the major proinflammatory constituent in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We observed that membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides from Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans activated cells heterologously expressing TLR2 but not t...
Article
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Invasive infection with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria often results in septic shock and death. The basis for the earliest steps in innate immune response to Gram-positive bacterial infection is poorly understood. The LPS component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall appears to activate cells via CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 a...
Article
The ability of a host to sense invasion by a pathogenic organism, and to respond appropriately to control infection, is paramount to survival. To that end, an array of receptors and binding proteins has evolved as part of the innate immune system to detect Gram-negative bacteria. This article reviews the role of CD14, other LPS binding proteins, an...
Article
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The activation of phagocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative sepsis. Although the interaction between CD14 and LPS is a key event in the signaling cascade, the molecular mechanism by which cellular activation occurs remains obscure. We hypothesized that the main function of CD14 was to bind LPS a...
Article
The activation of phagocytic leukocytes by LPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative sepsis. The identification of CD14 as a mediator of LPS-inducible signal transduction was a crucial event in understanding the mechanism by which LPS-induced cellular activation occurs. CD14, a 55 kDa glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked pr...
Article
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The activation of phagocytes by the lipid A moiety of LPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative sepsis. While two LPS receptors, CD14 and CD11/CD18, have been associated with cell signaling, details of the LPS signal transduction cascade remain obscure. CD14, which exists as a GPI-anchored and a soluble protein, lacks cytoplasmic...
Article
Gram-negative bacterial LPS is a potent activator of inflammatory responses. The binding of LPS to CD14 initiates signal transduction; however, the molecular processes immediately following this event remain unclear. We engineered an LPS-inducible fibroblast reporter cell line to facilitate the use of molecular genetic techniques to study the LPS s...
Article
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of CD14 and complement receptors type 3 (CR3) and 4 (CR4) in mediating TNF release and NF-kappaB activation induced by LPS and cell wall preparations from group B streptococci type III (GBS). LPS and GBS caused TNF secretion from human monocytes in a CD14-dependent manner, and soluble CD14, LPS binding...
Article
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Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates phagocytic leukocytes by interacting with the cell surface protein CD14. Cellular responses to LPS are markedly potentiated by the LPS-binding protein (LBP), a lipid-transfer protein that binds LPS aggregates and transfers LPS monomers to CD14. LBP also transfers LPS to lipoproteins, there...
Article
Exaggerated responses by phagocytes to bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] may result in the sepsis syndrome. While a number of LPS-binding proteins have been identified on immune cells, only CD14 has been definitively shown to be involved in signal transduction in response to LPS. The beta2 leukocyte integrins are a family of transmembr...
Article
Ligand binding to integrins activates intracellular signaling pathways that coordinate and regulate a variety of cellular responses. There is evidence to suggest that the cytoplasmic tails play a key role in several of these signaling events. We sought to determine whether the beta2 integrin complement receptor type 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18), a receptor...
Article
Previously, we demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against any of the three defined complement receptors (CR) for the third component of complement (CR1, CR3, and CR4) profoundly inhibited the binding of serum-opsonized Cryptococcus neoformans to monocyte-derived macrophages. These studies suggested either that a synergistic inte...
Article
Phagocytic leukocytes respond to a variety of bacterial products including Gram-negative bacterial LPS and mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Anti-CD14 mAbs have been shown to block LPS and LAM activation of myeloid cells, suggesting that CD14 is required for cellular recognition of both ligands. Activation of undifferentiated promonomyelocytic...
Article
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Chlamydia trachomatis is a major etiologic agent of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is a gram-negative pathogen, chlamydial infections are not generally thought of as endotoxin-mediated diseases. A molecular characterization of the acute immune response to chlamydia, especially with regard to the role of its lipopolysaccharid...
Article
CD11c/CD18 is a member of the leukocyte integrin family, heterodimeric adhesion molecules that interact with a diverse repertoire of ligands, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Their role as signal transducing receptors remains uncertain. We used a heterologous expression system to determine if CD11c/CD18 was capable of initiating signal...

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