Roberto Sarmiento

Roberto Sarmiento
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | ULPGC · Instituto Universitario de Microelectrónica Aplicada (IUMA)

Dr. Engeeniering

About

202
Publications
13,246
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Introduction
Roberto Sarmiento is Full-Professor at the Telecommunication Engineering School at University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. He is a founder of the Research Institute for Applied Microelectronics (IUMA) and Director of the Integrated Systems Design Division of this Institute. Currently he is responsible of European Spatial Agency funded project TRPAO8032 and Spanish funded project REBECCA. His research interest is on electronics design for space applications and hiperspectral image processing.

Publications

Publications (202)
Article
Super-resolution (SR) covers a set of techniques whose objective is to improve the spatial resolution of a video sequence or a single frame. In this scope, fusion SR techniques obtain high-resolution (HR) frames taking as a reference several low-resolution (LR) frames contained in a video sequence. This paper is based on a selective filter to decid...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technology for medical diagnosis. This research work presents a proof-of-concept on the use of HSI data to automatically detect human brain tumor tissue in pathological slides. The samples, consisting of hyperspectral cubes collected from 400 nm to 1000 nm, were acquired from ten different patients diagnos...
Article
Full-text available
Anomaly detection (AD) is an important technique in hyperspectral data analysis that permits to distinguish rare objects with unknown spectral signatures that are particularly not abundant in a scene. In this paper, a novel algorithm for an accurate detection of anomalies in hyperspectral images with a low computational complexity, named ADALOC², i...
Article
Hyperspectral imaging systems are a powerful tool for obtaining surface information in many different spectral channels that can be used in many different applications. Nevertheless, the huge amount of information provided by hyperspectral images also has a downside, since it has to be processed and analyzed. For such purpose, parallel hardware dev...
Article
Image spatial resolution is critical in several fields such as medicine, communications or satellite, and underwater applications. While a large variety of techniques for image restoration and enhancement has been proposed in the literature, this paper focuses on a novel Super-Resolution fusion algorithm based on a Multi-Camera environment that per...
Conference Paper
The HELICoiD project is a European FP7 FET Open funded project. It is an interdisciplinary work at the edge of the biomedical domain, bringing together neurosurgeons, computer scientists and electronic engineers. The main target of the project was to provide a working demonstrator of an intraoperative image-guided surgery system for real-time brain...
Article
Introduction: Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technology for medical diagnosis. In this research work, a multidisciplinary team, made up of pathologists and engineers, presents a proof of concept on the use of HSI analysis in order to automatically detect human brain tumour tissue from pathological slides. The samples were acquired from...
Article
Linear spectral unmixing is one of the nowadays hottest research topics within the hyperspectral imaging community, being a proof of this fact the vast amount of papers that can be found in the scientific literature about this challenging task. A subset of these works is devoted to the acceleration of previously published unmixing algorithms for ap...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we perform the Electronic System Level (ESL) modelling and verification of two lossless compression standard algorithms for space applications using the SystemC language. In particular we present the architectures and a description in SystemC of the CCSDS-121 universal lossless compressor and the CCSDS-123 lossless compressor for hyp...
Article
Remote sensing systems equipped with multispectral and hyperspectral sensors are able to capture images of the surface of the Earth at different wavelengths. In these systems, hyperspectral sensors typically provide images with a high spectral resolution but a reduced spatial resolution, while on the contrary, multispectral sensors are able to prod...
Conference Paper
Hyperspectral images allow obtaining large amounts of information about the surface of the scene that is captured by the sensor. Using this information and a set of complex classification algorithms is possible to determine which material or substance is located in each pixel. The HELICoiD (HypErspectraL Imaging Cancer Detection) project is a Europ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hyperspectral Imaging is an emerging technology for medical diagnosis issues due to the fact that it is a non-contact, non-ionizing and non-invasive sensing technique. The work presented in this paper tries to establish a novel way in the use of hyperspectral images to help neurosurgeons to accurately determine the tumour boundaries in the process...
Article
Linear spectral unmixing is nowadays an essential tool to analyze remotely sensed hyperspectral images. Although many different contributions have been uncovered during the last two decades, the majority of them are based on dividing the whole process of linearly unmixing a given hyperspectral image into three sequential steps: 1) estimation of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hyperspectral imaging is an active research field for remote sensing applications. These images provide a lot of information about the characteristics of the materials due to the high spectral resolution. This work is focused in the use of this kind of information to detect tumour tissue, particularly brain cancer tissue. In recent years, the study...
Conference Paper
One of the first problems that a hardware designer needs to solve when facing a new and complex electronic design, is to know in advance where the critical parts of the design are, and how many resources the design will require. This information will ease the developing of feasible systems and will help in the design of well suited architectures. T...
Conference Paper
Linear unmixing of hyperspectral images has rapidly become one of the most widely utilized tools for analyzing the content of hyperspectral images captured by state-of-the-art remote hyperspectral sensors. The aforementioned unmixing process consists of the following three sequential steps: dimensionality estimation, endmember extraction and abunda...
Article
Spectral unmixing is an important task for remotely sensed hyperspectral data exploitation. It amounts the identification of pure spectral signatures (endmembers) in the data, and the estimation of the abundance of each endmember in each (possibly mixed) pixel. A challenging problem in spectral unmixing is how to determine the number of endmembers...
Conference Paper
It is highly desirable to know in advance the transaction of data in the design of any electronic embedded system. It is of especial interest for data-intensive applications, such as complex video systems, when the options available in the video decoder continuously change and/or the features of the input video sequences are different. This paper e...
Article
Full-text available
The pairwise orthogonal transform (POT) is an attractive alternative to the Kahrunen- Loève transform for spectral decorrelation in on-board multispectral and hyperspectral image compression due to its reduced complexity. This work validates that the low complexity of the POT makes it feasible for a space-qualified field-programmable gate array (FP...
Article
A challenging problem in spectral unmixing is how to determine the number of endmembers in a given scene. One of the most popular ways to determine the number of endmembers is by estimating the virtual dimensionality (VD) of the hyperspectral image using the well-known Harsanyi–Farrand–Chang (HFC) method. Due to the complexity and high dimensionali...
Article
Full-text available
An efficient compression of hyperspectral images on-board satellites is mandatory in current and future space missions in order to save bandwidth and storage space. Reducing the data volume in space is a challenge that has been faced with a twofold approach: To propose new highly efficient compression algorithms; and to present technologies and str...
Conference Paper
In this work, the factors of reduction of memory requirements and increase in memory traffic associated with the change from reference frame level (baseline algorithm) to macroblock-level for the Super-Resolution (SR) image restoration non-uniform grid projection algorithm are compared over combinations of algorithm parameter values. Then, based on...
Article
The increase of data rates and data volumes in present remote sensing payload instruments, together with the restrictions imposed in the downlink connection requirements, represent at the same time a challenge and a must in the field of data and image compression. This is especially true for the case of hyperspectral images, in which both, reductio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables screening of the gastrointestinal tract by a swallowable imaging system. However, contemporary WCE systems have several limitations, which often result in low diagnostic yield. This paper introduces the concept of a next generation WCE system with embedded intelligence aiming to effectively minimize diagnost...
Conference Paper
Endmember extraction and abundances calculation represent critical steps within the process of linearly unmixing a given hyperspectral image because of two main reasons. The first one is due to the need of computing a set of accurate endmembers in order to further obtain confident abundance maps. The second one refers to the huge amount of operatio...
Article
Hyperspectral imaging instruments capture and collect hundreds of different wavelength data corresponding to the same surface. As a result, tons of information must be stored, processed and transmitted to ground. However, the downlink bandwidth is limited, and transmitting all data from the satellite to ground is a slow task that jeopardizes the us...
Article
Earth observation hyperspectral imaging instruments capture and collect hundreds of different wavelength data corresponding to the same surface. As a result, tons of information must be stored, processed, and transmitted to ground by means of a combination of time-consuming processes. However, one of the requirements of paramount importance when de...
Article
Super-Resolution (SR) covers a set of techniques whose objective is to improve the resolution of a video sequence or a single frame. In this scope, a fusion SR algorithm has been used, where High-Resolution (HR) images are constructed from several observed Low-Resolution (LR) images. In this paper, this approach is combined with a Multi-Camera (MC)...
Article
Hyperspectral imaging represents the state-of-theart technique in those applications related to environmental monitoring, military surveillance, or rare mineral detection. However, one of the requirements of paramount importance when dealing with such scenarios is the ability to achieve real-time constraints taking into account the huge amount of d...
Conference Paper
Efficient onboard satellite hyperspectral image compression represents a necessity and a challenge for current and future space missions. Therefore, it is mandatory to provide hardware implementations for this type of algorithms in order to achieve the constraints required for onboard compression. In this work, we implement the Lossy Compression fo...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a new method in order to perform the endmembers extraction with the same accuracy in the results that the well known Winter’s N-Finder algorithm but with less computational effort. In particular, our proposal makes use of the Orthogonal Subspace Projection algorithm, OSP, as well as the information provided by the dimensionality...
Conference Paper
Georeferencing consists in establishing a relationship between information and geographic locations, usually through geospatial referencing (i.e., longitude and latitude coordinates). Super-Resolution is a technique that enhances the spatial resolution of an imaging system. In this paper, the integration of both Georeferencing and Super-Resolution...
Conference Paper
Super-Resolution (SR) covers a set of techniques which objective is to improve the resolution of a video sequence or a single frame. In this scope, a fusion SR algorithm has been used, where High-Resolution (HR) images are constructed from several observed Low-Resolution (LR) images. In this paper, this approach is combined with a Multi-Camera (MC)...
Article
Hyperspectral image processing represents a valuable tool for remote sensing of the Earth. This fact has led to the inclusion of hyperspectral sensors in different airborne and satellite missions for Earth observation. However, one of the main drawbacks encountered when dealing with hyperspectral images is the huge amount of data to be processed, i...
Conference Paper
FPGA-based embedded systems are gaining relevance for implementing a wide range of applications. Part of their success is due to their balanced compromise between performance and flexibility, but also because of their capability for exploiting the dynamic reconfiguration. However, the costly reconfiguration process and the lack of management suppor...
Article
The deblocking filter (DF) is one of the most complex functional cores of the H.264/AVC and SVC codecs. Its computational cost is heavily dependent on the video profile and the selected scalability level. With the goal of providing faster and better solutions, developers are focused on designing hardware architectures. Thus, it is possible taking a...
Article
One of the main problems in the analysis of remotely sensed hyperspectral data cubes is the presence of mixed pixels, which arise when the spatial resolution of the sensor is not able to separate spectrally distinct materials. Due to this reason, spectral unmixing has become one of the most important tasks for hyperspectral data exploitation. Howev...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present an FPGA implementation of a novel adaptive and predictive algorithm for lossy hyperspectral image compression. This algorithm was specifically designed for on-board compression, where FPGAs are the most attractive and popular option, featuring low power and high-performance. However, the traditional RTL design flow is rath...
Conference Paper
Super-Resolution (SR) is a set of techniques which objective is to increase and improve the resolution of an image or a video sequence. In this scope, one of the most used techniques is “fusion”, where High-Resolution (HR) images are constructed from several observed Low-Resolution (LR) images. In this paper, a fusion SR algorithm is enhanced intro...
Conference Paper
One of the limiting factors that have prevented a widely dissemination of the reconfigurable technology is the absence of an appropriate model for certain target applications capable of offering a reliable control. Moreover, the lack of flexible and easy-to-use scheduling and management systems are also relevant drawbacks to be considered. Under st...
Article
Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are becoming a widespread tool for general-purpose scientific computing, and are attracting interest for future onboard satellite image processing payloads due to their ability to perform massively parallel computations. This paper describes the GPU implementation of an algorithm for onboard lossy hyperspectral image...
Article
The detection of (moving or static) targets in remotely sensed hyperspectral images often requires real-time responses for swift decisions that depend upon high computing performance of algorithm analysis. The automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA) has been widely used for this purpose. In this letter, we develop several op...
Article
There is an intense necessity for the development of new hardware architectures for the implementation of algorithms for hyperspectral image compression on board satellites. Graphics processing units (GPUs) represent a very attractive opportunity, offering the possibility to dramatically increase the computation speed in applications that are data...
Conference Paper
Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is an extension of H.264/AVC standard proposed by Joint Video Team (JVT) to provide flexibility and adaptability on video transmission. For this purpose, this standard exploits the use of layers, what permits to obtain a bit-stream where enhancement layers can be considered to obtain an output video sequence with a highe...
Article
There is presently a high interest in the spatial industry to develop high-performance on-board processing platforms with a high degree of flexibility, so they can adapt to varying mission needs and/or to future space standards. For this purpose, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices have demonstrated to offer an excellent compromise between...
Conference Paper
Spectral unmixing is an important tast for remotely sensed hyperspectral imaging. Spectral unmixing algorithms can be computationally expensive. In this paper, we develop two efficient implementations of a full hyperspectral unmixing chain on two different kinds of high performance computing architectures: graphics processing units (GPUs) and multi...
Article
Microprocessor-based systems are employed in an increasing number of applications where dependability is a major constraint. For this reason detecting faults arising during normal operation while introducing the least possible penalties is a main concern. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a lossy compression algorithm for onboard hyperspectral image compression is implemented on a GPU. The strategy followed for parallelizing the algorithm is presented, as well as the experimental results obtained when executing it on the GPU. Furthermore, we present the speedups that can be gained by the GPU implementation with respec...
Conference Paper
Linear spectral unmixing represents an awesome technique for the analysis of remotely sensed hyperspectral images. However, its large computational cost severely compromises its use in applications under real-time constraints, where swift responses are of a crucial importance. Hence, the hardware acceleration of the operations involved in the unmix...
Article
Endmember extraction represents one of the most challenging aspects of hyperspectral image processing. In this letter, a new algorithm for endmember extraction, named modified vertex component analysis (MVCA), is presented. This new technique outperforms the popular vertex component analysis (VCA) by applying a low-complexity orthogonalization meth...
Article
In this paper, a performance evaluation of the state-of-the-art H.264/AVC video coding standard is carried out with the aim of determining its feasibility when applied to hyperspectral image compression. Results are obtained based on configuring diverse parameters in the encoder in order to achieve an optimal trade-off between compression ratio, ac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Onboard processing of remotely sensed hyper spectral data is a highly desirable goal in many applications. For this purpose, compact reconfigurable hardware modules such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are widely used. In this paper, we develop a new implementation of an automatic target generation process (ATGP) for hyper spectral images...
Article
Full-text available
FPGAs are well-suited for applications that need to adjust the composition of computational structures over the lifetime of the application. While the underlying hardware framework for supporting run-time reconfiguration has existed for years, there have been negligibly few FPGA applications that have benefited from this. This is likely not an issu...
Conference Paper
Systems relying on fixed hardware components with a static level of parallelism can suffer from an underuse of logical resources, since they have to be designed for the worst-case scenario. This problem is especially important in video applications due to the emergence of new flexible standards, like Scalable Video Coding (SVC), which offer several...
Conference Paper
A highly parallel and scalable Deblocking Filter (DF) hardware architecture for H.264/AVC and SVC video codecs is presented in this paper. The proposed architecture mainly consists on a coarse grain systolic array obtained by replicating a unique and homogeneous Functional Unit (FU), in which a whole Deblocking-Filter unit is implemented. The propo...
Conference Paper
Hyperspectral images are nowadays used in multiple fields, such as medical diagnosis, assessment of food quality, or environmental monitoring, just to name some. Due to their inherent nature, a great number of these applications require the implementation of a real time hyperspectral image processing system. However, most of the research effort so...
Article
One of the most computational intensive tasks in recent video encoders and decoders is the deblocking filter. Its computational complexity is considerable, and it might take more than 30% of the total computational cost of the decoder execution. Nowadays, some of its limiting factors for reaching real-time capabilities are mainly related with memor...
Article
Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoCs) are emerging as one of the technologies providing a way to support the growing design complexity of embedded systems including several types of cores. The interconnection among cores of a MPSoC is proposed to be provided by Networks-on-Chip (NoC). In real applications it is usual to find different interconnect...
Article
The growth of complexity and the requirements of on-chip technologies create the need for new architectures which generate solutions representing a compromise between complexity and power consumption, and Quality of Service (QoS) of the communications between the cores of a System-on-Chip (SoC). Network-on-Chip (NoC) arises as a solution to impleme...
Article
Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is the extension of H.264/AVC standard proposed by Joint Video Team (JVT) to provide flexibility and adaptability on video transmission. SVC is an extension of the H.264/AVC codec that exploits the use of layers, what permits to obtain a bit stream where specific parts can be removed to obtain an output video with a lowe...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, images are employed in several areas, as could be medicine, communications, cartography or in the military field. Various techniques for image enhancement have been proposed in the literature, but it is necessary to fairly validate this enhancement. This work is focused on a test environment that permits to compare, both qualitative and q...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, images are employed in several areas of medicine for early diagnosis. In this sense, the industry provides accurate models to obtain, for example, X-ray and cardiology images of high resolution. However, other images, such as those related to pathological anatomy present in many situations poor quality, which complicates the diagnostic pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hardware sharing can be used to reduce the area and the power dissipation of a design. This is of particular interest in the field of image and video compression, where an encoder must deal with different design tradeoffs depending on the characteristics of the signal to be encoded and the constraints imposed by the users. This paper introduces a n...