Roberto Fernando Nespolo

Roberto Fernando Nespolo
Universidad Austral de Chile · Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas

PhD Ecology

About

149
Publications
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Introduction
Roberto Fernando Nespolo currently works at the Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile.
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - present
Universidad Austral de Chile
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
The current distribution of the flora and fauna of southern South America is the result of drastic geological events that occurred during the last 20 million years, including marine transgressions, glaciations and active vulcanism. All these have been associated with fragmentation, isolation and subsequent expansion of the biota, south of 35°S, suc...
Article
Full-text available
Although the typical genomic and phenotypic changes that characterize the evolution of organisms under the human domestication syndrome represent textbook examples of rapid evolution, the molecular processes that underpin such changes are still poorly understood. Domesticated yeasts for brewing, where short generation times and large phenotypic and...
Article
Full-text available
Torpor and hibernation are powerful strategies enabling animals to survive periods of low resource availability. The state of torpor results from an active and drastic reduction of an individual’s metabolic rate (MR) associated with a relatively pronounced decrease in body temperature. To date, several forms of torpor have been described in all thr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the typical genomic and phenotypic changes that characterize the evolution of organisms under the human domestication syndrome represent textbook examples of rapid evolution, the molecular processes that underpin such changes are still poorly understood. Domesticated yeasts for brewing, where short generation times and large phenotypic and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Several geological events affecting Southern South America during the middle Miocene climatic optimum acted as important drivers of diversification to the biota. This is the case of Microbiotheria, for which Dromiciops is considered the sole surviving lineage, the sister group of Eomarsupialia (Australian marsupials). Three main Dromiciops gene...
Preprint
Full-text available
During the last sixty years, mammalian hibernation (i.e., seasonal torpor) has been interpreted as a physiological adaptation for energy economy. However -and crucially for validating this idea - direct field comparisons of energy expenditure in hibernating and active free-ranging animals are scarce. Using replicated mesocosms and a combination of...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity of some yeasts to extract energy from single sugars, generating CO2 and ethanol (=fermentation), even in the presence of oxygen, is known as the Crabtree effect. This phenomenon represents an important adaptation as it allowed the utilization of the ecological niche given by modern fruits, an abundant source of food that emerged in the...
Article
Full-text available
The recent isolation of the yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus has opened new avenues in the brewing industry. Recent studies characterized the production of volatile compounds in a handful set of isolates, utilizing a limited set of internal standards, representing insufficient evidence into the ability of the species to produce new and diverse aromas...
Article
Full-text available
Population‐level sampling and whole‐genome sequences of different individuals allow one to identify signatures of hybridization, gene flow and potential molecular mechanisms of environmental responses. Here, we report the isolation of 160 Saccharomyces eubayanus strains, the cryotolerant ancestor of lager yeast, from ten sampling sites in Patagonia...
Article
Full-text available
The utilization of S. eubayanus has recently become a topic of interest due to the novel organoleptic properties imparted to beer. However, the utilization of S. eubayanus in brewing requires the comprehension of the mechanisms that underlie fermentative differences generated from its natural genetic variability. Here, we evaluated fermentation per...
Article
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The evolution of endothermy represents a major transition in vertebrate history, yet how and why endothermy evolved in birds and mammals remains controversial. Here, we combine a heat transfer model with theropod body size data to reconstruct the evolution of metabolic rates along the bird stem lineage. Results suggest that a reduction in size cons...
Article
Full-text available
The geographic range of a species is often limited by sampling approaches, underestimating the actual distribution. This is likely the case of Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria), an endemic marsupial from southern South America. We used camera-traps to record D. gliroides for the first time in Chaitén and Futaleufú (southern Chile), expanding it...
Preprint
Full-text available
Saccharomyces eubayanus represents missing cryotolerant ancestor of lager yeast hybrid and can be found in Patagonia in association with Nothofagus forests. The limited number of isolates and associated genomes available has prevented to resolve the S. eubayanus origin and evolution. Here, we present a sampling effort at an unprecedented scale and...
Article
Full-text available
Symbiosis in insects has been recognized as contributing to their ecological and evolutionary success. In the case of agricultural pests, endosymbionts may help insects colonize and expand their niches, allowing them to use different crops and to confront climatic variation. Moreover, endosymbionts provide improved defences against pathogens, preda...
Article
Full-text available
La manipulación con fines científicos de vertebrados terrestres en poblaciones naturales chilenas se debe realizar previa autorización del SAG y de Comités de Bioética institucionales. Obtener dichas autorizaciones es cada vez más complejo; los trámites no se adecúan al quehacer científi co ni al conocimiento sobre el efecto de la manipulación en l...
Article
Physiological traits associated with maintenance, growth, and reproduction demand a large amount of energy and thus directly influence an animal's energy budget, which is also regulated by environmental conditions. In this study, we evaluated the interplay between ambient temperature and salinity of drinking water on energy budgets and physiologica...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN La manipulación con fi nes científi cos de vertebrados terrestres en poblaciones naturales chilenas se debe realizar previa autorización del SAG y de Comités de Bioética institucionales. Obtener dichas autorizaciones es cada vez más complejo; los trámites no se adecúan al quehacer científi co ni al conocimiento sobre el efecto de la manipul...
Article
The small South American marsupial, Dromiciops gliroides, known as the missing link between the American and the Australian marsupials, is one of the few South American mammals known to hibernate. Expressing both daily torpor and seasonal hibernation, this species may provide crucial information about the mechanisms and the evolutionary origins of...
Article
Full-text available
Life in saline environments represents a major physiological challenge for birds, particularly for passerines that lack nasal salt glands and hence are forced to live in environments that do not contain salty resources. Increased energy costs associated with increased salt intake, which in turn increases the production of reactive oxygen species, i...
Article
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There have been over 25 independent unicellular to multicellular evolutionary transitions, which have been transformational in the complexity of life. All of these transitions likely occurred in communities numerically dominated by unicellular organisms, mostly bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that bacteria were involved in generating th...
Article
Full-text available
There are two heuristic explanations proposed for the evolution of endothermy in vertebrates: a correlated response to selection for stable body temperatures, or as a correlated response to increased activity. Parental care has been suggested as a major driving force in this context given its impact on the parents' activity levels and energy budget...
Article
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by extensive adjustments to metabolism that typically include suppression of carbohydrate catabolism and a switch to triglycerides as the primary fuel during torpor. A crucial locus of control in this process is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that gates carbohydrate entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle....
Article
When faced with harsh environmental conditions, the South American marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides), reduces its body temperature and uses either daily torpor or multiday hibernation to survive. This study used ELISA and multiplex assays to characterize the responses to hibernation by three regulatory components of protein transla...
Article
Hibernation is a period of torpor and heterothermy that is typically associated with a strong reduction in metabolic rate, global suppression of transcription and translation, and upregulation of various genes/proteins that are central to the cellular stress response such as protein kinases, antioxidants, and heat shock proteins. The current study...
Article
The South American marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides) uses both daily torpor and multi-day hibernation to survive in its southern Chile native environment. The present study leverages multiplex technology to assess the contributions of key stress-inducible cell cycle regulators and heat shock proteins to hibernation in liver, heart,...
Article
Flight capacity is one of the most important innovations in animal evolution; it only evolved in insects, birds, mammals and the extinct pterodactyls. Given that powered flight represents a demanding aerobic activity, an efficient cardiovascular system is essential for the continuous delivery of oxygen to the pectoral muscles during flight. It is w...
Article
Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifi...
Article
Marine ectotherms inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal environments are continuously exposed to diurnal tidal cycles and seasonal variability in temperature. These organisms have adaptive mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis, irrespective of thermal environmental variation. In this study, we describe the molecular responses to thermal...
Article
Full-text available
Food availability varies substantially throughout animals' lifespans, thus the ability to profit from high food levels may directly influence animal fitness. Studies exploring the link between basal metabolic rate (BMR), growth, reproduction, and other fitness traits have shown varying relationships in terms of both magnitude and direction. The div...
Article
The evolution of endothermy is a controversial topic in evolutionary biology, although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it. To a great extent, the debate has centered on the aerobiccapacity model (AC model), an adaptive hypothesis involving maximum and resting rates of metabolism (MMR and RMR, respectively; hereafter “metabolic trai...
Article
A fundamental problem in evolutionary biology is the understanding of the factors that promote or constrain adaptive evolution, and assessing the role of natural selection in this process. Comparative phylogenetics, that is, using phylogenetic information and traits to infer evolutionary processes has been a major paradigm in this field. Here we di...
Article
Full-text available
When novel sources of ecological opportunity are available, physiological innovations can trigger adaptive radiations. This could be the case of yeasts (Saccharomycotina), in which an evolutionary novelty is represented by the capacity to exploit simple sugars from fruits (fermentation). During adaptive radiations, diversification and morphological...
Article
Full-text available
When faced with adverse environmental conditions, the marsupial Dromiciops gliroides uses either daily or seasonal torpor to support survival and is the only known hibernating mammal in South America. As the sole living representative of the ancient Order Microbiotheria, this species can provide crucial information about the evolutionary origins an...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive mechanisms involved in the prediction of future environments are common in organisms experiencing temporally variable environments. One of these is AGR (anticipatory gene regulation); in which differential gene expression occur in an individual, triggered by the experience of an ancestor. In this study, we explored the existence of AGR dri...
Article
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One of the central questions in evolutionary ecology is how different functional capacities impact fitness, and how it varies across populations. For instance, do phenotypic attributes influence fitness similarly across geographic gradients? Which traits (physiological, morphological and life history) are most likely to be targets of natural select...
Article
Full-text available
Lower temperatures, extreme seasonality and shorter growing seasons at higher latitudes are expected to cause a decline in metabolic rates and annual growth rates of ectotherms. If a reduction in the rates of these biological processes involves a reduction in fitness, then organisms may evolve compensatory responses for the constraints imposed by h...
Article
Full-text available
Summary The distribution of additive versus non-additive genetic variation in natural populations represents a central topic of research in evolutionary/organismal biology. For evolutionary physiologists, functional or whole-animal performance traits (“physiological traits”) are frequently studied assuming they are heritable and variable in populat...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The evolution of endothermy is one of the most puzzling events in vertebrate evolution, for which several hypotheses have been proposed. The most accepted model is the aerobic model, which assumes the existence of a genetic correlation between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and maximum aerobic capacity (whose standard measure is maximum meta...
Article
Full-text available
Most evolutionary research on biological invasions has focused on changes seen between the native and invaded range for a particular species. However, it is likely that species that live in human-modified habitats in their native range might have evolved specific adaptations to those environments, which increase the likelihood of establishment and...
Article
Full-text available
We compiled published values of mammalian maximum oxygen consumption during exercise (VO2max) and supplemented these data with new measurements of VO2max for the largest rodent (capybara), 20 species of smaller-bodied rodents, two species of weasels, and one small marsupial. Many of the new data were obtained with running-wheel respirometers instea...
Article
Full-text available
Life-history evolution-the way organisms allocate time and energy to reproduction, survival, and growth-is a central question in evolutionary biology. One of its main tenets, the allocation principle, predicts that selection will reduce energy costs of maintenance in order to divert energy to survival and reproduction. The empirical support for thi...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of organisms to perform at different temperatures could be described by a continuous nonlinear reaction norm (i.e., thermal performance curve, TPC), in which the phenotypic trait value varies as a function of temperature. Almost any shift in the parameters of this performance curve could highlight the direct effect of temperature on org...
Article
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We explored differences in metabolic rates of the introduced snail Cornu aspersum collected from three distant coastal locations across a 1300 km latitudinal range in Chile and raised under common-garden conditions. We measured two proxies of metabolic rate: heart rate (fH) and CO2 production (standard metabolic rate, SMR) in a flow-through respiro...
Article
Full-text available
The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific diverge...
Article
Background: A close association between locomotor performance, sexual selection, and fitness has been shown in many species, indicating that reproductive success depends on a complex interaction between locomotor efficiency and mating. Frequently, this interaction produces trade-offs between traits or sexes. Aims: First, determine whether fitness (...
Data
Compositional bias of the % GC content in the 13 protein-coding genes of the Pulmonata mitochondrial genomes used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. (DOCX)
Data
Best Partition Scheme (BPS) and best-fit models of molecular evolution for the subsets partitions of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes alignment. The likelihood score (lnL) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) value were -123862 and 248843 respectively. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on phy...
Data
Variance and covariance components estimated for additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C), population replicate (R) and non-common environmental (E) effects of measured traits (log10-transformed) in Drosophila melanogaster from the San Fernando population (Chile) reared in ethanol-supplemented conditions. Values of the deviance information cr...
Data
Variance and covariance components estimated for additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C), population replicate (R) and non-common environmental (E) effects of measured traits (log10-transformed) in Drosophila melanogaster from the Valdivia population (Chile) reared in ethanol-supplemented conditions. Values of the deviance information criter...
Data
Number dams mated with each sire and total sibs derived from matings which were measured for each population (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile) reared in ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. (DOC)
Data
Mixed-model ANOVA testing effects of population, ethanol treatment, sex, interactions between these fixed effects, and replicated line nested within population (as random effect) on larval development time, pupal development time, total development time, adult body mass and routine metabolic rate of Drosophila melanogaster . (DOC)
Data
Variance and covariance components estimated for additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C), population replicate (R) and non-common environmental (E) effects of measured traits (log10-transformed) in Drosophila melanogaster from the San Fernando population (Chile) reared in ethanol-free conditions. Values of the deviance information criterion...
Data
Variance and covariance components estimated for additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C), population replicate (R) and non-common environmental (E) effects of measured traits (log10-transformed) in Drosophila melanogaster from the Valdivia population (Chile) reared in ethanol-free conditions. Values of the deviance information criterion (DIC...
Article
Full-text available
Aim We provide insights into one of the most widespread biological invasions by reconstructing the molecular phylogeographic history of non-native populations of the land snail Cornu aspersum in austral South America. The goals of this work were: (1) to examine the genetic diversity of native vs. non-native populations of C. aspersum; (2) to analyz...
Article
Full-text available
During periods of cold, small endotherms depend on a continuous supply of food and energy to maintain euthermic body temperature (T(b)), which can be challenging if food is limited. In these conditions, energy-saving strategies are critical to reduce the energetic requirements for survival. Mammals from temperate regions show a wide arrange of such...
Article
We examine here evaporative water loss, economy and partitioning at ambient temperatures from 14 to 33°C for the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides), a microbiotheriid marsupial found only in temperate rainforests of Chile. The monito's standard evaporative water loss (2.58 mg g(-1) h(-1) at 30°C) was typical for a marsupial of its body mass an...