Roberto González

Roberto González
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile | UC · Escuela de Psicología

Doctor of Philosophy

About

109
Publications
71,787
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4,093
Citations
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January 1994 - present
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
Full-text available
Even though formal processes (i.e., gender quotes) are necessary to achieve gender justice, attitudinal changes (i.e., support of egalitarian social norms) are also essential. The endorsement of sexism and gender stereotypes perpetuate inequality on a daily basis, and can be seen as barriers that prevent societies from reaching social justice. Ther...
Article
Full-text available
What are the things that we think matter morally, and how do societal factors influence this? To date, research has explored several individual-level and historical factors that influence the size of our ‘moral circles.' There has, however, been less attention focused on which societal factors play a role. We present the first multi-national explor...
Preprint
What are the things that we think matter morally, and how do societal factors influence this? To date, research has explored several individual-level and historical factors that influence the size of our ‘moral circles’. There has, however, been less attention focused on which societal factors play a role. We present the first multi-national explor...
Article
Full-text available
Happiness is a valuable experience, and societies want their citizens to be happy. Although this societal commitment seems laudable, overly emphasizing positivity (versus negativity) may create an unattainable emotion norm that ironically compromises individual well-being. In this multi-national study (40 countries; 7443 participants), we investiga...
Article
Whether there are common features inherent to the psychology of Indigenous peoples around the globe has been the subject of much debate. We argue that Indigenous peoples share the experience of colonization and its social and psychological consequences. We develop this argument across four sections: ( a) the global history of colonization and socia...
Article
La pregunta sobre la existencia de características comunes inherentes a la psicología de los pueblos Indígenas de todo el mundo ha sido objeto de mucho debate. Nosotros argumentamos que los pueblos Indígenas comparten la experiencia de la colonización, así como sus consecuencias sociales y psicológicas. Desarrollamos este argumento en cuatro seccio...
Article
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater social equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged group members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged group members a need for ac...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that democracies are under threat around the world while the quest for strong leaders is increasing. Although the causes of these developments are complex and multifaceted, here we focus on one factor: the extent to which citizens express materialist and post-materialist concerns. We explore whether objective higher levels of demo...
Article
The longitudinal causal relationships between individuals’ online and offline forms of civic participation require further understanding. We provide a robust test of four competing theoretical perspectives to establish the direction of causality between online political participation and offline collective action as well as the persistence of their...
Article
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How do stances on public policies aimed at ethnic conflict resolution affect intergroup trust? Building on theories of pro-sociality, social identity, and intergroup bias, we expect redistributive policy preferences meant to resolve ethnic conflict to replace ethnicity as the main barrier to intergroup trust because their zero-sum nature raises int...
Technical Report
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Este número de MIDEvidencias informa los resultados de un módulo de la encuesta Foco Ciudadano centrado en explorar las percepciones que tiene la población chilena del fenómeno migratorio en el país. En primer lugar, se les solicitó a los participantes del estudio identificar el país de origen de los mayores grupos de migrantes que viven en Chile y...
Article
In this study, we examined the intergenerational transmission of collective action from parents to children. Using a mixed‐method approach combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, we analysed data from 100 dyads of activist parents in Chile (involved in the mobilizations against the dictatorship during the 1980s) and their adult children (N...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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The relationships between subjective status and perceived legitimacy are important for understanding the extent to which people with low status are complicit in their oppression. We use novel data from 66 samples and 30 countries (N = 12,788) and find that people with higher status see the social system as more legitimate than those with lower stat...
Article
Full-text available
Guided by the early findings of social scientists, practitioners have long advocated for greater contact between groups to reduce prejudice and increase social cohesion. Recent work, however, suggests that intergroup contact can undermine support for social change towards greater equality, especially among disadvantaged group members. Using a large...
Preprint
Full-text available
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged groups members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged groups members a need for accepta...
Article
Full-text available
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged groups members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged groups members a need for accepta...
Article
Societal inequality has been found to harm the mental and physical health of its members and undermine overall social cohesion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that economic inequality is associated with a wish for a strong leader in a study involving 28 countries from five continents (Study 1, N = 6,112), a study involving an Australian community s...
Article
Collective nostalgia for the good old days of the country thrives across the world. However, little is known about the social psychological dynamics of this collective emotion across cultures. We predicted that collective nostalgia is triggered by collective angst as it helps people to restore a sense of in-group continuity via stronger in-group be...
Article
Full-text available
Relative deprivation (RD) is the judgment that one or one’s ingroup is worse off compared with some relevant standard coupled with feelings of dissatisfaction, anger, and resentment. RD predicts a wide range of outcomes, but it is unclear whether this relationship is moderated by national cultural differences. Therefore, in the first study, we used...
Article
The maximization principle—that people aspire to the highest possible level of something good if all practical constraints are removed—is a common yet untested assumption about human nature. We predict that in holistic cultures—where contradiction, change, and context are emphasized—ideal states of being for the self will be more moderate than in o...
Preprint
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of howcontact affects receiving society members' preferences for acculturation orientation ofimmigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined howperceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross-group...
Article
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of how contact affects receiving society members’ preferences for acculturation orientation of immigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined how perceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross‐gro...
Article
Note: Accepted article. In recent years, multiple social movements have emerged around the world. In addition, public surveys indicate the highest recorded levels of support for protest. In this context of acceptance of collective action, we examine the role of non-activists in the legitimacy of social movements, as this ‘passive’ support can cont...
Article
Full-text available
Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which wou...
Article
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Objective Why do people justify intergroup violence? In this paper we examine attitudes towards violence perpetrated by indigenous activists to claim for rights and violence by pólice officers against indigenous people. We assess the role that perceived pólice legitimacy, procedurally just policing towards the indigenous minority group and group id...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Why do people justify intergroup violence? In this paper we examine attitudes towards violence perpetrated by indigenous activists to claim for rights and violence by pólice officers against indigenous people. We assess the role that perceived pólice legitimacy, procedurally just policing towards the indigenous minority group and group i...
Article
This article examines the proposition that conservatives will be less willing than liberals to apologize and less likely to forgive after receiving an apology. In Study 1, we found evidence for both relationships in a nine-nation survey. In Study 2, participants wrote an open-ended response to a victim of a hypothetical transgression they had commi...
Book
La transición entre la etapa escolar y la vida adulta está muchas veces marcada por una revisión de las creencias más arraigadas que tienen los jóvenes, y por el análisis que hacen de la cultura y de su entorno social más inmediato. En esta etapa de transición vital, aspectos tan relevantes como las identidades, creencias y prácticas sociales, polí...
Article
Full-text available
Self-continuity – the sense that one’s past, present, and future are meaningfully connected – is considered a defining feature of personal identity. However, bases of self-continuity may depend on cultural beliefs about personhood. In multilevel analyses of data from 7287 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations, we tested a new tripartite theo...
Article
In three experiments (N = 56, 99, and 225) we showed that racial phenotypicality bias characterizes educational expectations for Chilean mestizo students: Participants displayed more positive educational expectations for light complexioned than for dark complexioned high school students. In Study 1, with male high school target students, the relati...
Chapter
In this chapter, we propose a conceptual framework in which we integrate the literature on attribution and intergroup helping behaviour. We discuss how conceptions of internal, external and fatalistic attributions of poverty relate to helping behaviours. The importance of looking for possible mediators to help untangle the association between attri...
Article
Full-text available
This article tests a longitudinal model of the antecedents and consequences of changes in identification with indigenous (Mapuche) among indigenous and nonindigenous youth in Chilean school contexts over a 6-month period (633 nonindigenous and 270 Mapuche students, Mages = 12.47 and 12.80 years, respectively). Results revealed that in-group norms s...
Article
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This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results sho...
Article
Full-text available
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon...
Article
Full-text available
Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-oth...
Article
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Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-r...
Chapter
In this chapter, we seek to integrate historical and contextual perspectives with socio-psychological theories to better understand the development of social identities and conflicts in Chile. Specifically, we analyse across different contexts, ethnic identity, national identity in the context of immigration, political, gender and social class iden...
Article
The current study explores different routes to civic involvement by identifying how a context-specific dimension of empathy and beliefs of autonomy and dependency might jointly predict different types of giving behaviors (i.e., monetary donations), which in turn should predict civic engagement. The sample consisted of 1,294 participants (656 female...
Article
Full-text available
Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles 1–4 , and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries 5,6. Here we investigate a diierent appro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Este número de MIDevidencias reporta resultados de la encuesta Foco Ciudadano de MIDE Sociedad realizada a 1300 personas entre 18 y 64 años de zonas urbanas de Chile. En su segundo módulo, la encuesta indagó distintos aspectos de las esferas social y psicológica asociados al desarrollo de diversas conductas de ayuda (donación de dinero, material y...
Article
Full-text available
Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles1–4, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries5,6. Here we investigate a di�erent approach...
Article
Survivors of disasters commonly provide each other with social support, but the social-psychological processes behind such solidarity behaviours have not been fully explicated. We describe a survey of 1240 adults affected by the 2010 Chile earthquake to examine the importance of two factors: observing others providing social support and social iden...
Article
Obtaining and maintaining a social licence to operate is a major challenge for the mining industry around the world. This study examines how the public’s perceptions of the distributional fairness of the benefits of mining, procedural fairness in the interactions between the mining industry and society, and confidence in the governance arrangements...
Article
Full-text available
Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one’s surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for s...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to identify the mechanisms that cause strongly fused individuals (those who have a powerful, visceral feeling of oneness with the group) to make extreme sacrifices for their group. A large multinational study revealed a widespread tendency for fused individuals to endorse making extreme sacrifices for their country. Nevertheless, when ask...
Article
Full-text available
Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for s...
Article
Full-text available
When there is neither direct experience nor formal socialization about a historical issue, the means of remembering rely only on collective memory. This study was based on interviews that addressed representations, explanations, and evaluations regarding the 1973 coup in Chile, in an intentional sample of 213 pre-adolescent students (mean age 11)....
Article
Full-text available
In 2 correlational studies conducted in Santiago de Chile (N1= 996 and N2= 841) -with samples based on quotas of socioeconomic status, age, and gender- 2 hypotheses were tested: (a) that Chileans socialized in different political context (before, during or after the dictatorship) and who have different political orientations (left, center or right)...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of the Chilean political reconciliation process, the present study conceptualizes and tests a meditational model that examines the relational pattern established between social identities (national and political) and attitudes toward political forgiveness and reparation, mediated by intergroup emotional factors (anger, empathy, trust...
Article
Full-text available
A study with British participants (N = 90) tested a potential mediator of the effect of essentialist beliefs about the national ingroup on prejudice against immigrants. Essentialist beliefs were defined as beliefs in genetic determinism, a basic assumption that group membership is "written in the blood" and that the groups' boundaries and character...
Article
Prejudice is more prevalent among members of the working class than among members of the middle or upper class. It is still a matter of discussion whether education works to suppress prejudice among upper class members or, on the contrary, to enhance genuinely tolerant attitudes. We propose that (i) two indicators of social class—income and educati...
Article
Full-text available
Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultura...
Article
Full-text available
Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultura...
Article
Full-text available
Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultura...