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Roberto J Botelho

Roberto J Botelho
Toronto Metropolitan University

PhD

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84
Publications
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Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
Lysosome membranes contain diverse phosphoinositide (PtdIns) lipids that coordinate lysosome function and dynamics. The PtdIns repertoire on lysosomes is tightly regulated by the actions of diverse PtdIns kinases and phosphatases; however, specific roles for PtdIns in lysosomal functions and dynamics are currently unclear and require further invest...
Article
Full-text available
Aluminum salts have been successfully utilized as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens since the 1930s. However, the cellular mechanisms behind the immune adjuvanticity effect of these materials in antigen-presenting cells are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the uptake and trafficking of aluminum oxy-hydroxi...
Preprint
The dynamics of living cells can be studied by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. However, this often requires the use of excessive light energy to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio, which can then photobleach the fluorochromes used, and more worrisome, lead to photo-toxicity. Thus, strategies that can reduce the amount and/or exposure to excitatio...
Article
Full-text available
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) controls many aspects of cell physiology. EGF binding to EGFR elicits the membrane recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, leading to Akt phosphorylation and activation. Concomitantly, EGFR is recruited to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), eventually leading to receptor endocytosis....
Preprint
Full-text available
Ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. USMB can induce a variety of effects on cells including transient formation of plasma membrane pores (sonoporation) and enhanced endocytosis, which enhance drug delivery, and can also lead to enhanced cell death. However, the outcomes of USMB on cell physiology are heter...
Article
The design and synthesis of a microporous construct based on the entrapment of an emissive fluorescein derivative in a zinc 2-methylimidazolate (ZIF-8) metal-organic framework (MOF) is detailed. Synthesis of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lysosome membranes contain diverse phosphoinositide (PtdIns) lipids that co-ordinate lysosome function and dynamics. The PtdIns repertoire on lysosomes is tightly regulated by the action of diverse PtdIns kinases and phosphatases. Specific roles for PtdIns in lysosomal function and dynamics are currently unclear and require further investigation. P...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for the identification of new antiviral drug therapies for a variety of diseases. COVID-19 is caused by infection with the human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, while other related human coronaviruses cause diseases ranging from severe respiratory infections to the common cold. We developed a computatio...
Article
Full-text available
Lysosomes are terminal, degradative organelles of the endosomal pathway that undergo repeated fusion-fission cycles with themselves, endosomes, phagosomes, and autophagosomes. Lysosome number and size depends on balanced fusion and fission rates. Thus, conditions that favour fusion over fission can reduce lysosome numbers while enlarging their size...
Article
Various vaccine quality attributes should be monitored to ensure consistency, potency, purity, and safety of vaccine products prior to lot release. Vaccine particle size and protein antigen aggregation are two important considerations for particle-adsorbed vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the use of imaging flow cytometry as a potential all-in...
Article
Phagocytosis is a dynamic process that requires an intricate interplay between phagocytic receptors, membrane lipids, and numerous signalling proteins and their effectors, to coordinate the engulfment of a bound particle. These particles are diverse in their physico-chemical properties such as size and shape and include bacteria, fungi, apoptotic c...
Article
Full-text available
Phagocytes engulf unwanted particles into phagosomes that then fuse with lysosomes to degrade the enclosed particles. Ultimately, phagosomes must be recycled to help recover membrane resources that were consumed during phagocytosis and phagosome maturation, a process referred to as “phagosome resolution.” Little is known about phagosome resolution,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an urgent need for the identification of new antiviral drug therapies that can be rapidly deployed to treat patients with this disease. COVID-19 is caused by infection with the human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We developed a computational approach to identify new antiviral drug targets and repurpose clinically-relevant...
Preprint
Despite an increased understanding of leukemogenesis, specific mechanisms that underlie ‘stemness’ in leukemia remain largely undefined. Here, we report a novel pathway which regulates leukemic differentiation through control of lysosomal biology. We show that disruption of INPP4B results in dysregulated lysosomal gene networks, reduced lysosomal n...
Chapter
The dynamic phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol produces seven distinct but interconvertible phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs). Each PIP exhibits specific enrichment in a subset of membrane compartments as a result of dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by lipid kinases and phosphatases, and/or by vesicle-mediated transport. Seve...
Book
This detailed book examines experimental approaches used to investigate the regulation and function of phosphoinositides (PtdInsP), rare eukaryotic phospholipids with a broad role in biological processes such as signal transduction, cell migration and adhesion, cell growth, subcellular organization, and membrane trafficking. The combination of comp...
Article
Full-text available
The free-living infectious stages of macroparasites, specifically, the cercariae of trematodes (flatworms), are likely to be significant (albeit underappreciated) vectors of nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to consumers within aquatic food webs, and other macroparasites could serve similar roles. In the context of de novo...
Preprint
Full-text available
During phagocytosis, phagocytes like macrophages engulf and sequester unwanted particles like bacteria into phagosomes. Phagosomes then fuse with lysosomes to mature into phagolysosomes, resulting in the degradation of the enclosed particle. Ultimately, phagosomes must be recycled to help recover membrane resources like lysosomes consumed during ph...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms that govern organelle adaptation and remodelling remain poorly defined. The endo-lysosomal system degrades cargo from various routes, including endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For phagocytes, endosomes and lysosomes (endo-lysosomes) are kingpin organelles because they are essential to kill pathogens and process and present...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mechanisms that govern organelle adaptation and remodeling remain poorly defined. The endo-lysosomal system degrades cargo from various routes including endocytosis, phagocytosis and autophagy. For phagocytes, endosomes and lysosomes (endo-lysosomes) are kingpin organelles since they are essential to kill pathogens and process and present antig...
Article
Full-text available
Iron overload, a common clinical occurrence, is implicated in the metabolic syndrome although the contributing pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully defined. We show that prolonged iron overload results in an autophagy defect associated with accumulation of dysfunctional autolysosomes and loss of free lysosomes in skeletal muscle. These autop...
Article
Mechanisms that control lysosomal function are essential for cellular homeostasis. Lysosomes adapt in size and number to cellular needs but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. We demonstrate that the late endosomal/lysosomal multimeric BLOC-1 related complex (BORC) regulates size of these organelles via PIKfyve-dependent phosp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lysosomes are terminal, degradative organelles of the endosomal pathway that undergo repeated fusion-fission cycles with themselves, endosomes, phagosomes, and autophagosomes. Lysosome number and size depends on balanced fusion and fission rates. Thus, conditions that favour fusion over fission can reduce lysosome numbers while enlarging their size...
Article
Full-text available
Lysosomes are the terminal degradative compartment of autophagy, endocytosis and phagocytosis. What once was viewed as a simple acidic organelle in charge of macromolecular digestion has emerged as a dynamic organelle capable of integrating cellular signals and producing signal outputs. In this review, we focus on the concept that the lysosome surf...
Article
Lysosomes are acidic and degradative organelles that receive and digest a plethora of molecular and particulate cargo delivered by endocytosis, autophagy, and phagocytosis. The mechanisms responsible for sorting, transporting, and ultimately delivering membranes and cargo to lysosomes through fusion have been intensely investigated. Much less is un...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Loss-of-function mutations in diacylglycerol kinase epsilon ( DGKE ) cause a rare form of atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) for which there is no treatment besides kidney transplantation. Highly expressed in kidney endothelial cells, DGKE is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatic acid (PA). Specific...
Article
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small signaling phospholipid that mediates diverse functions including cell proliferation, migration, and survival by engaging LPA-agonized G-protein coupled receptors. Autophagy is a survival mechanism in response to nutrient depletion or organellar damage that encloses idle or damaged organelles within autophagoso...
Article
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small signaling phospholipid that mediates diverse functions including cell proliferation, migration, and survival by engaging LPA-agonized G-protein coupled receptors. Autophagy is a survival mechanism in response to nutrient depletion or organellar damage that encloses idle or damaged organelles within autophagoso...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphoinositide (PtdInsP) lipids recruit effector proteins to membranes to mediate a variety of functions including signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Each PtdInsP binds to a specific set of effectors through characteristic protein domains such as the PH, FYVE and PX domains. Domains with high affinity for a single PtdInsP species are u...
Article
Full-text available
Phagocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved process. In Protozoa, phagocytosis fulfills a feeding mechanism, while in Metazoa, phagocytosis diversified to play multiple organismal roles, including immune defence, tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Accordingly, phagocytes display a high level of plasticity in their capacity to recognize, engulf and...
Article
Full-text available
Lysosomes receive and degrade cargo from endocytosis, phagocytosis and autophagy. They also play an important role in sensing and instructing cells on their metabolic state. The lipid kinase PIKfyve generates phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate to modulate lysosome function. PIKfyve inhibition leads to impaired degradative capacity, ion dysregula...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lysosomes receive and degrade cargo from endocytosis, phagocytosis and autophagy. They also play an important role in sensing and instructing cells on their metabolic state. The lipid kinase PIKfyve generates phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate to modulate lysosome function. PIKfyve inhibition leads to impaired degradative capacity, ion dysregula...
Article
Full-text available
Lysosomes are acidic and hydrolytic organelles responsible for receiving and digesting cargo acquired during endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For macrophages and dendritic cells, the lysosome is kingpin, playing a direct role in microbe killing and antigen processing for presentation. Strikingly, the historic view that lysosomes are homoge...
Article
Full-text available
Phagocytosis of filamentous bacteria occurs through tubular phagocytic cups (tPCs) and takes many minutes to engulf these filaments into phagosomes. Contravening the canonical phagocytic pathway, tPCs mature by fusing with endosomes. Using this model, we observed the sequential recruitment of early and late endolysosomal markers to the elongating t...
Chapter
Phagocytosis is the cellular internalization and sequestration of particulate matter into a `phagosome, which then matures into a phagolysosome. The phagolysosome then offers a specialized acidic and hydrolytic milieu that ultimately degrades the engulfed particle. In multicellular organisms, phagocytosis and phagosome maturation play two key physi...
Chapter
Cells such as macrophages and neutrophils can internalize a diverse set of particulate matter, illustrated by bacteria and apoptotic bodies through the process of phagocytosis. These particles are sequestered into phagosomes, which then fuse with early and late endosomes, and ultimately with lysosomes to mature into phagolysosomes, through a proces...
Chapter
Phagocytosis is the actin-driven internalization of solid particles, utilized by phagocytic immune cells to sequester potentially infectious microorganisms. Aided by the innate and adaptive immune system, the activation of various phagocytic receptors triggers a cascade of downstream signaling mediators that drive actin and plasma membrane remodeli...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) modulate a plethora of functions including signal transduction and membrane trafficking. PtdInsPs are thought to consist of seven interconvertible species that localize to a specific organelle, to which they recruit a set of cognate effector proteins. Here, in reviewing the literature, we argue that this model needs rev...
Article
Full-text available
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major regulator of cell surface protein internalization. Clathrin and other proteins assemble into small invaginating structures at the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that mediate vesicle formation. In addition, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is regulated by its accumul...
Article
Full-text available
Neutrophils rapidly arrive at an infection site because of their unparalleled chemotactic ability, after which they unleash numerous attacks on pathogens through degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as by phagocytosis, which sequesters pathogens within phagosomes. Phagosomes then fuse with lysosomes and granules to ki...
Book
This volume details experimental approaches used to investigate phagocytosis and phagosome maturation. Chapters present methods and protocols on quantifying uptake and phagosome maturation using biophysical and biochemical approaches, proteomics, microscopy, and flow cytometry. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series fo...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are key regulators of membrane traffic and signaling. The interconversion of PIPs by lipid kinases and phosphatases regulates their functionality. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and PIPs have a unique enrichment of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl acyl species; however, the regulation and function of this specific acyl profile remains p...
Article
Macrophages internalize pathogens through phagocytosis, entrapping them into organelles called phagosomes. Phagosomes then fuse with lysosomes to mature into phagolysosomes, acquiring an acidic and hydrolytic lumen that kills the pathogens. During an ongoing infection, macrophages can internalize dozens of bacteria. Thus, we hypothesized that an in...
Article
Phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) are essential signaling lipids responsible for recruiting specific effectors and conferring organelles with molecular identity and function. Each of the seven PtdInsPs varies in their distribution and abundance, which are tightly regulated by specific kinases and phosphatases. The abundance of PtdInsPs can change abrupt...
Article
Full-text available
Macrophages and dendritic cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) convert their lysosomes from small punctate organelles into a network of tubules. Tubular lysosomes have been implicated in phagosome maturation, retention of fluid-phase and antigen presentation. There is a growing appreciation that lysosomes act as sensors of stress and the meta...
Article
Macrophages internalize and sequester pathogens into a phagosome. Phagosomes then sequentially fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, converting into degradative phagolysosomes. Phagosome maturation is a complex process that requires regulators of the endosomal pathway including the phosphoinositide lipids. Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphat...
Article
Full-text available
Lysosomes and the yeast vacuole are degradative and acidic organelles. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2], a master architect of endolysosome and vacuole identity, is thought to be necessary for vacuolar acidification in yeast. There is also evidence that PtdIns(3,5)P2 may play a role in lysosomal acidification in higher-eukaryot...
Article
Macrophages eliminate pathogens and cell debris through phagocytosis, a process by which particulate matter is engulfed and sequestered into a phagosome. Nascent phagosomes are innocuous organelles resembling the plasma membrane. However, through a maturation process, phagosomes are quickly remodeled by fusion with endosomes and lysosomes to form t...
Conference Paper
Phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) are important signaling lipids that regulate many cellular processes, including membrane trafficking and cell proliferation. There are seven interconvertible species of PtdInsPs based on the inositol headgroup phosphorylation. However, there are additional molecular species of PtdInsPs that differ by their acyl chain ty...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) helps control various endolysosome functions including organelle morphology, membrane recycling, and ion transport. Further highlighting its importance, PtdIns(3,5)P2 misregulation leads to the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The Fab1/PIKfyve lipid kin...
Article
Lysosomes provide a niche for molecular digestion and are a convergence point for endocytic trafficking, phagosome maturation and autophagy. Typically, lysosomes are small, globular organelles that appear punctate under the fluorescence microscope. However, activating agents like phorbol esters transform macrophage lysosomes into tubular lysosomes...
Article
Phagocytosis is defined as the receptor-mediated engulfment of large (≥0.5 μm) particles into plasma membrane-derived vacuoles called phagosomes. Following scission from the plasma membrane, the phagosomes undergo a maturation process, sequentially fusing with endosomes and lysosomes, ultimately becoming phagolysosomes - highly acidic and hydrolase...
Article
Phosphoinositides play an important role in organelle identity by recruiting effector proteins to the host membrane organelle, thus decorating that organelle with molecular identity. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphos- phate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2) ] is a low-abundance phosphoinositide that predominates in endolysosomes in higher eukaryotes and in the yeast...
Article
Full-text available
Plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P(2)) synthesized by PI 4-phosphate (PI4P) 5-kinase (PIP5K) is key to the polymerization of actin that drives chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We investigated the means whereby PIP5K is targeted to the membrane and its fate during phagosome formation. Homology modeling revealed that all PIP5...
Article
Joining an antagonistic phosphoinositide (PtdInsP) kinase and phosphatase into a single protein complex may regulate rapid and local PtdInsP changes. This may be important for processes such as membrane fission that require a specific PtdInsP and that are innately local and rapid. Such a complex could couple vesicle formation, with erasing of the i...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a role for diacylglycerol in the activation of Ras and Rap1 at the phagosomal membrane. During phagocytosis, Ras density was similar on the surface and invaginating areas of the membrane, but activation was detectable only in the latter and in sealed phagosomes. Ras activation was associated with the recruitment of RasGRP3, a diacylglyc...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)] regulates several vacuolar functions, including acidification, morphology, and membrane traffic. The lipid kinase Fab1 converts phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] to PtdIns(3,5)P(2). PtdIns(3,5)P(2) levels are controlled by the adaptor-like protein Vac14 and the Fig4 PtdIns(3,5)P(2)...
Article
Full-text available
The lipid kinase Fab1 governs yeast vacuole homeostasis by generating PtdIns(3,5)P(2) on the vacuolar membrane. Recruitment of effector proteins by the phospholipid ensures precise regulation of vacuole morphology and function. Cells lacking the effector Atg18p have enlarged vacuoles and high PtdIns(3,5)P(2) levels. Although Atg18 colocalizes with...
Article
Yeast vacuoles are very dynamic structures that must respond to changes in extracellular osmolarity by rapidly altering their size, thereby releasing or taking up water and ions. Further, the need to accommodate a constant biosynthetic influx of membrane and to partition vacuoles during cell division necessitates precise regulation of the size and...
Article
Full-text available
Intracellular pathogens have developed strategies to survive for extended periods inside their host cells. These include avoidance of host microbicidal effectors, often by sequestration in a protected subcompartment of the host cell. In some cases, the parasites exert also an antiapoptotic effect that prolongs the life of the infected host cell. Ch...
Article
Full-text available
The Rho GTPases play a critical role in initiating actin polymerization during phagocytosis. In contrast, the factors directing the disassembly of F-actin required for fission of the phagocytic vacuole are ill defined. We used fluorescent chimeric proteins to