Robert West

Robert West
University College London | UCL · Department of Epidemiology and Public Health

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798
Publications
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Publications

Publications (798)
Article
Background: To build cumulative evidence about what works in behaviour change interventions, efforts have been made to develop classification systems for specifying the content of interventions. The Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) is one of the most widely used classifications of behaviour change techniques across a variety o...
Article
Background: We examined whether, in adults receiving behavioural support, offering e-cigarettes together with varenicline helps more people stop smoking cigarettes than varenicline alone. Methods: A two-group, parallel-arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted in six English stop smoking services from 2019-2020. Adults enrolled on...
Preprint
Background We examined whether, in adults receiving behavioural support, offering e-cigarettes together with varenicline helps more people stop smoking cigarettes than varenicline alone. Methods A two-group, parallel-arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted in six English stop smoking services from 2019-2020. Adults enrolled onto a...
Article
BACKGROUND: We examined whether, in adults receiving behavioural support, offering e-cigarettes together with varenicline helps more people stop smoking cigarettes than varenicline alone. METHODS: A two-group, parallel-arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted in six English stop smoking services from 2019-2020. Adults enrolled onto...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There are few longitudinal studies of poststroke emotionalism (PSE) and our understanding of the psychological associations of PSE is limited, constraining assessment of existing interventions and the development of new therapies. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and course of PSE over the first year poststroke, and its psychol...
Article
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Introduction. It has been estimated that smokers tend to fail to report unsuccessful quit attempts that lasted a short time and occurred a longer time ago. However, it is unclear whether the failure to report unsuccessful quit attempts varies by the type of cessation aid used. Methods. A total of 5,892 smokers aged 16+ years who had made 1+ quit at...
Article
Ontologies aim to represent the world in terms of uniquely defined classes and their properties which are expressed as relationships with other classes. They are becoming widely used in science to improve clarity, searching, inference and the ability to link data from different sources. Ontological definitions are descriptions that represent the es...
Article
Since the start of the covid-19 pandemic, in the UK and elsewhere, the phrase “living with covid”—and variations such as “live with it,” “learning to live with the virus”—has circulated in public discourse. It refers to, and summarises, increasingly polarised positions with regards to the pandemic: on the one hand, accept the virus and resist adapt...
Article
Findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behaviour change interventions encode much of our knowledge on intervention efficacy under defined conditions. Predicting outcomes of novel interventions in novel conditions can be challenging, as can predicting differences in outcomes between different interventions or different conditions. To p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place during the first Ontologies for Research in the Behavioural and Social Sciences (OntoBess) workshop, held in Bozen-Bolzano and virtually on the 18th September 2021. The workshop highlighted the relevance of ontologies to address overarching challenges in the behavioural and so...
Preprint
Background: Failure to understand the rules and procedures regarding self-isolation when symptomatic with Covid-19 may have contributed to the low level of adherence found in the UK. We investigated knowledge of these rules and factors associated with knowledge.Methods: Data were drawn from repeated weekly/fortnightly online surveys of nationally r...
Preprint
Objectives: Working from home where possible is important in reducing spread of Covid-19. In early 2021, a quarter of people in England who believed they could work entirely from home reported attending their workplace. To inform interventions to reduce this, this study examined associated factors.Study design: Data from the ongoing CORSAIR survey...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Failure to understand the rules and procedures regarding self-isolation when symptomatic with Covid-19 may have contributed to the low level of adherence found in the UK. We investigated knowledge of these rules and factors associated with knowledge. / Methods: Data were drawn from repeated weekly/fortnightly online surveys of nationall...
Article
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Background Implementing evidence-based recommendations is challenging in UK primary care, especially given system pressures and multiple guideline recommendations competing for attention. Implementation packages that can be adapted and hence applied to target multiple guideline recommendations could offer efficiencies for recommendations with commo...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the complex relationship between science and policy. Policymakers have had to make decisions at speed in conditions of uncertainty, implementing policies that have had profound consequences for people's lives. Yet this process has sometimes been characterised by fragmentation, opacity and a disconnect betw...
Article
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Aims The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional, observational cohort study of patients presenting for revision of a total hip, or total or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, to understand current routes to revision surgery and explore differences in symptoms, healthcare use, reason for revision, and the revision surgery (surgical time...
Article
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Background and aims Cigarette smoking takes place within a cultural and social context. Political views and practices are an important part of that context. To gain a better understanding of smoking, it may be helpful to understand its association with voting patterns as an expression of the political views and practices of the population who smoke...
Article
The 1988 U.S. Surgeon General’s Report titled ‘Nicotine Addiction’ was a comprehensive treatise setting out the evidence that tobacco is addictive and showing that nicotine lies at the heart of this addiction. It likened tobacco to drugs such as cocaine and heroin, and provided a powerful rationale for combining public health and clinical approache...
Article
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Background Improving adherence to self-protective behaviours is a public health priority. We aimed to assess the potential effectiveness and ease of use of an online version of the Risk Acceptance Ladder (RAL) in promoting help-seeking for cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, insufficient physical activity, or low fruit and vegetable c...
Article
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Objectives Delivery of craving management tools via smartphone applications (apps) may improve smoking cessation rates, but research on such programmes remains limited, especially in real-world settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of adding craving management tools in a cessation app (BupaQuit). Methods The study was a two-arm pragmati...
Article
Full-text available
Background In recent years the UK has expanded the provision of liaison mental health services (LMHS). Little work has been undertaken to explore first-hand experiences of them. Aims The aim of this study was to gain insights into the experiences of users of LMHS in both emergency departments and acute inpatient wards in the UK. Methods This cros...
Article
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Objectives: The Scientific Pandemic Insights group on Behaviours (SPI-B) as part of England's Scientific Advisory Group on Emergencies (SAGE), were commissioned by the UK Cabinet Office to identify strategies to embed infection control behaviours to minimize Covid-19 transmission in the long term. Methods: With minimal direct evidence available,...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Working from home where possible is important in reducing spread of Covid-19. In early 2021, a quarter of people in England who believed they could work entirely from home reported attending their workplace. To inform interventions to reduce this, this study examined associated factors. / Study design: Data from the ongoing CORSAIR surv...
Article
Importance: Cytisine is more effective than placebo and nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. However, cytisine has not been tested against the most effective smoking cessation medication, varenicline, which is associated with adverse events known to lead to discontinuation of therapy. Objective: To examine whether standard cytisin...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Working from home where possible is important in reducing spread of Covid-19. In early 2021, a quarter of people in England who believed they could work entirely from home reported attending their workplace. To inform interventions to reduce this, this study examined associated factors. Study design Data from the ongoing CORSAIR survey...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Digital interventions have the potential to reduce alcohol consumption, although evidence on the effectiveness of apps is lacking. Drink Less is a popular, evidence-informed app with good usability, putting it in a strong position to be improved upon prior to conducting a confirmatory evaluation. This paper describes the process of refi...
Article
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Purpose: Increasing personal protective behaviours is critical for stopping the spread of respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2: We need evidence to inform how to achieve this. We aimed to synthesize evidence on interventions to increase six personal protective behaviours (e.g., hand hygiene, face mask use, maintaining physical distancing) to...
Article
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Aim To investigate predictors of participant eligibility, recruitment and retention in behavioural randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for smoking cessation. Method Systematic review and pre-specified meta-regression analysis of behavioural RCTs for smoking cessation including adult (≥ 18-year-old) smokers. The pre-specified predictors were identif...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Recently the NHS has expanded the provision of liaison mental health services (LMHS) to ensure that every acute hospital with an emergency department in England has a liaison psychiatry service. Little work has been undertaken to explore first-hand experiences of these services. The aim of this study was to capture service users’ experiences o...
Article
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International evidence indicates that older people with frailty are more likely to access social care services, compared to nonfrail older people. There is, however, no robust evidence on costs of social care provided for community-dwelling older people living with frailty in their own homes. The main objective of this study was to examine the rela...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and aims: Cigarette smoking takes place within a cultural and social context. Political views and practices are an important part of that context. To gain a better understanding of smoking, it may be helpful to understand its association with voting patterns as an expression of the political views and practices of the population who smok...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Conventionally, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is subgrouped using predominant stool form, yet it is a complex disorder, with multiple biopsychosocial contributors. We previously derived and validated a latent class model subgrouping people with IBS into seven clusters based on gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms and psycholo...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Analysed using classical frequentist hypothesis testing with alpha set to 0.05, the Evaluating Adverse Events in a Global Smoking Cessation Study (EAGLES) did not find enough evidence to reject the hypothesis of no difference in neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPSAEs) attributable to varenicline, bupropion, or nicotine patch...
Article
Background: Identifying how behaviour change interventions are delivered, including by whom, is key to understanding intervention effectiveness. However, information about who delivers interventions is reported inconsistently in intervention evaluations, limiting communication and knowledge accumulation. This paper reports a method for consistent r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and aims: Working from home where possible is important in reducing spread of Covid-19. In early 2021, a quarter of people in England who believed they could work entirely from home reported attending their workplace. To inform interventions to reduce this, this study examined associated factors. Methods: Data from the ongoing CORSAIR su...
Article
Background: Investigating and improving the effects of behaviour change interventions requires detailed and consistent specification of all aspects of interventions. An important feature of interventions is the way in which these are delivered, i.e. their mode of delivery. This paper describes an ontology for specifying the mode of delivery of inte...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To establish the number of smokers in England who would be targeted by increasing the age of sale of cigarettes from 18 to 21 years and to assess the smoking and sociodemographic profile of those smokers. Design and setting Nationally representative cross‐sectional survey of adults in England conducted between January 2009 and July 2019. Par...
Article
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Introduction: Activities promoting research reproducibility and transparency are crucial for generating trustworthy evidence. Evaluation of smoking interventions is one area where vested interests may motivate reduced reproducibility and transparency. Aims: Assess markers of transparency and reproducibility in smoking behaviour change interventi...
Article
Background: Behaviour change interventions (BCI), their contexts and evaluation methods are heterogeneous, making it difficult to synthesise evidence and make recommendations for real-world policy and practice. Ontologies provide a means for addressing this. They represent knowledge formally as entities and relationships using a common language abl...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Smartphone apps are increasingly used for health-related behaviour change and people discover apps through different sources. However, it is unclear whether users differ by mode of app discovery. Drink Less is an alcohol reduction app that received national media coverage in the UK caused by celebrity influence (a male TV and radio nati...
Article
Background: Behaviour and behaviour change are integral to many aspects of wellbeing and sustainability. However, reporting behaviour change interventions accurately and synthesising evidence about effective interventions is hindered by lacking a shared, scientific terminology to describe intervention characteristics. Ontologies are standardised fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ontologies are being used in many areas of science to improve clarity and communication of research methods, findings and theories. Many of these ontologies use an upper level ontology called Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as their frame of reference. This article summarises Basic Formal Ontology and shows how it can provide a basis for development of...
Article
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Background and aim: National social marketing campaigns have been shown to promote smoking cessation in England. There is reason to believe that regional and city-wide campaigns can play a valuable role in reducing smoking prevalence over and above any national tobacco control activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of the London Smoking C...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To assess the effectiveness of training stop smoking service providers in Malaysia to deliver support for smoking cessation based on the UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training (NCSCT) Standard Treatment Programme compared with usual care. Design Two‐arm cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial across 19 sites with follo...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) among smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in post hoc analyses of Evaluating Adverse Events in a Global Smoking Cessation Study data. Methods: Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=390) and without...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To estimate 1) associations between self-reported COVID-19, hand washing, smoking status, e-cigarette use, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use and 2) the extent to which COVID-19 has prompted smoking and vaping quit attempts, and more smoking inside the home. Design: Cross-sectional household surveys. Setting and participants: A r...
Article
Background: Between 2018 and 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration announced various restrictions on e-cigarette manufacturers in response to a perceived epidemic of e-cigarette use and nicotine dependence among high school students. The stimulus came from headline figures from the 2018 and 2019 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). We analysed...
Article
Background: Behaviour and behaviour change are integral to many aspects of wellbeing and sustainability. However, reporting behaviour change interventions accurately and synthesising evidence about effective interventions is hindered by lacking a shared, scientific terminology to describe intervention characteristics. Ontologies are knowledge struc...
Article
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the efficacy of mindfulness interventions for smoking cessation among people who smoke, and whether mindfulness interventions for smoking cessation have an effect on mental health outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Background: To efficiently search, compare, test and integrate behaviour change theories, they need to be specified in a way that is clear, consistent and computable. An ontology-based modelling system (OBMS) has previously been shown to be able to represent five commonly used theories in this way. We aimed to assess whether the OBMS could be appli...
Article
Background Previous studies have summarized evidence on health-related quality of life for older people, identifying a range of measures that have been validated, but have not sought to present results by degree of frailty. Furthermore, previous studies did not typically use quality-of-life measures that generate an overall health utility score. He...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Monthly changes in the prevalence of high-risk drinking and smoking in England appear to be positively correlated. This study aimed to assess how far monthly changes in high-risk drinking were specifically associated with attempts to stop smoking and the success of quit attempts. Design Data were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolki...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims: To explore 1) associations between suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, hand washing, smoking status, e-cigarette use, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use and 2) whether COVID-19 has prompted smoking and vaping quit attempts, and more smoking inside the home. Design: Cross-sectional household surveys of a representative sample of the popula...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Contextual factors such as an intervention’s setting are key to understanding how interventions to change behaviour have their effects and patterns of generalisation across contexts. The intervention’s setting is not consistently reported in published reports of evaluations. Using ontologies to specify and classify intervention setting...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Behaviour change interventions (BCI), their contexts and evaluation methods are heterogeneous, making it difficult to synthesise evidence and make recommendations for real-world policy and practice. Ontologies provide a means for addressing this. They represent knowledge formally as entities and relationships using a common language abl...
Article
Changing behaviour is necessary to address many of the threats facing human populations. However, identifying behaviour change interventions likely to be effective in particular contexts as a basis for improving them presents a major challenge. The Human Behaviour-Change Project harnesses the power of artificial intelligence and behavioural science...