Robert Gordon Walters

Robert Gordon Walters
Victoria University Melbourne | VU · Victoria Law School (VLS)

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64
Publications
1,839
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96
Citations

Publications

Publications (64)
Book
Full-text available
The Digital Economy and International Trade, authored by an eminent specialist in transnational commercial and private law, is a timely book exploring a developing and evolving area of law related to the role of the digital economy in international trade, making a direct call for the need to internationalise the law regulating transnational data fl...
Article
Full-text available
The world is embracing Artificial Intelligence (AI) at a rapid rate, and over the forthcoming decade it is likely to pervade the daily lives of everybody. Countries are developing, embracing and adopting AI at varying rates, some more rapidly than others. On the one hand, the application of AI in managing the smart home infrastructure will pave the...
Book
This book provides a comparison and practical guide of the data protection laws of Canada, China (Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan), Laos, Philippines, South Korea, United States and Vietnam. The book builds on the first book Data Protection Law. A Comparative Analysis of Asia-Pacific and European Approaches, Robert Walters, Leon Trakman, Bruno Zeller. As...
Article
Full-text available
Close-out netting provisions are a relatively new addition to the financial legal framework. Their primary objective is to strengthen the regulation and manage the risk associated with over-the-counter derivatives. They have been adopted by the financial industry and used in financial transactions to assist in controlling and allocating financial r...
Chapter
Human rights are an important part of a state’s identity. They are fundamental democratic principles that have been embraced by the EU, Slovenia and Australia. More importantly, they make a significant contribution to social cohesion. This chapter has been divided into two parts. Part one highlights compares the constitutional rights of Slovenia an...
Chapter
Australia history and beginning is very different to that of Slovenia and the EU. Australia has been occupied by the Indigenous Aboriginal peoples for centuries. However, the treatment of the Indigenous community can be best described in the modern period as barbaric and quite shocking. They were excluded from all forms of the polity and society. T...
Chapter
European citizenship has to be one of the most significant changes to citizenship law and policy since WWII. It is the only supranational citizenship in the world. This chapter explores what it means for Slovenians to be part of the European Union. Slovenia became a member to the European Union (EU) in 2004. As a result, they inherited European Law...
Chapter
Migration is a pathway to citizenship. It supports and contributes to a state’s identity. On the one hand it can also support social cohesion. On the one hand, it also can divide and fragment societal cohesion. Immigration law is naturally exclusionary because it allows a state to restrict who can enter, stay and take out citizenship. Moreover, imm...
Chapter
This chapter highlights some of the policy drivers that will influence the development and retention of national identity and social cohesion in the future. More pervasively, the impact on national identity and social cohesion will be influenced by world population growth and migration. Tensions are appearing between generations and among various p...
Chapter
This chapter identifies the differences between the current day citizenship laws of Slovenia and Australia. While they are grounded in the same concepts and principles, such as, the citizenship by birth, descent and naturalization, it will be demonstrated how the respective laws do differ. It is argued that their role within each state while achiev...
Article
A serious dilemma for regulators of the Internet is to ensure that data providers secure the informed consent of digital consumers before accessing and transmitting their personal data. An economic dilemma for Internet regulators is to recognize the economic costs to data providers of informing data consumers about the nature and consequences of co...
Book
This book aims to enrich the thinking and discussion in relation to the importance that citizenship, immigration, rights and private laws play in the modern world. This is in a time when social cohesion and national identity is being challenged. It will explore the impact these laws have had on Australia, European Union (EU) and Slovenia. Identity...
Chapter
India has neither prepared or implemented specific data protection or privacy laws. Since 2011, the Indian Parliament has presided over a Privacy Bill, and today there continues to be little progress on implementing dedicated privacy laws. In 2017, India released a White Paper in relation to a data protection framework for the country, which sought...
Chapter
Introduction - Privacy and Data Protection Laws;
Chapter
Efforts to reconcile the tension between personal data (protection) law and intellectual property law remains contentious. This Chapter explores the nature of personal data in intellectual property. The growing value of personal data has, over the past decade, begun to lend itself to question whether this data contains a level of intellectual prope...
Chapter
For decades, competition law has been effective when intervention is warranted of companies cause or may cause harm to competition within a single market or across several market and diminish consumer welfare. Today more than ever competition law, along with many other areas of the law is being challenged by the introduction of data protection laws...
Chapter
This Chapter begins by outlining the problem in defining and understanding the interrelationship between privacy and data protection law in Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the European Union. This Chapter will demonstrate and discuss how the concept of privacy is considered an important feature of the modern er...
Chapter
This Chapter explores whether the law of contracts is an adequate mechanism for personal data protection pertaining to transnational commercial trade. The question arises whether Data Protection has become a new frontier in transnational contract law. It is well understood that the transition into the new digital economy has begun and is moving at...
Chapter
This Chapter provides an outline of the current privacy laws in Australia. Privacy regulation and law in Australia is multilayered and includes regulation by government (primary legislation, regulations and codes), and industry self-regulation. The Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) is the principal legislation that regulates privacy, personal data and persona...
Chapter
Singapore has, within 50 years, come from the third world to the first world and established a reputation as a trade, investment and legal hub for Asia. Singapore has recognized that data, including personal data, is an increasingly important resource in the digital age (Chesterman, S Data Protection Law in Singapore Privacy and Sovereignty in an I...
Chapter
Today’s Internet technology provides access to information and allows people to do things, no matter where they are located in the world that, would not have been possible even three decades ago. This is no different for the people of Malaysia. This chapter provides and overview of the Malaysian data protection and privacy legal framework. Malaysia...
Chapter
Indonesia is a relatively new country in regulating data protection and privacy. In 2016, the Indonesian Parliament approved the Electronic Information and Transactions Law No. 11 of 2008 (EIT). In the same year the Minister of Communication and Information (MCI) Regulation No. 20 of 2016 on Personal Data Protection in the Electronic System (PDP) w...
Chapter
This Chapter briefly discusses the international, regional frameworks and institutions that currently deal with data protection and privacy. Arguably, the popularity of not only the Internet but also the portable devices such as the Iphone, laptop computers, Ipads, home security and camera systems, even televisions and other household appliances ha...
Chapter
This Chapter aims to bring together the research and analysis from each of the jurisdictional Chapters and provides an outline of the key policy and legal gaps facing data protection and privacy. It does not attempt to highlight every gap or issue, due to the many variables that exist. This Chapter will provide a possible pathway to strengthen the...
Chapter
This Chapter highlights how personal data has become an important tool in cyber-crime. This Chapter also discusses the issues associated with the collection and use of personal data by law enforcement agencies investigating criminal offences. The Chapter brings together the discussions already highlighted in Chaps. 13 and 14 that relate to personal...
Chapter
This Chapter introduces technology and the law. This Chapter highlights the importance of the digital economy to Asia Pacific and Europe. The world is living in a period of rapid technological change, which is creating complex policy, regulatory and legal issues for governments and the broader community. The explosion in connectivity, data volumes,...
Chapter
In Japan, the Act on the Protection of Personal Information 2016 came into effect on 30 May 2017. However, the road to adopting their current day data protection laws was complex and due, in part, to significant pressures from the community, and the need for the government to ensure trade with the European Union was not impacted in any way. Pressur...
Chapter
This Chapter highlights the importance of data protection law to the European Union (EU) and its member states. Chapter 3 will discuss the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (Regulation 2016/679 Of the European Parliament and the European Council, on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the...
Chapter
As of 2018 and early 2019, Thailand has not implemented any specific legislation with regard to personal data and privacy protection. Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. The country has had 20 constitutions in total (both interim and permanent ones) since 1932, with the most recent in 2017. Since 2014, Thailand has been ruled by a military gover...
Article
A pressing concern today is whether the rationale underlying the protection of personal data is itself a meaningful foundation for according intellectual property (IP) rights in personal data to data subjects. In particular, are there particular technological attributes about the collection, use and processing of personal data on the Internet, and...
Book
This book provides a comparison and practical guide for academics, students, and the business community of the current data protection laws in selected Asia Pacific countries (Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand) and the European Union. The book shows how over the past three decades the range of economic, political, and...
Article
Full-text available
The human rights legal framework of Australia and Slovenia are vastly different. This article explores the evolution of human rights laws of Slovenia and Australia. While the study and comparison of Australia and Slovenia is uncommon, and not often used as an example to highlight aspects of human rights, both states have a long history of cooperati...
Article
Full-text available
This article shows that the transnational engagement of citizens between Australia and Slovenia, and other countries in not new. Slovenia and Australia have a long standing relationship that dates back to the late nineteenth century. This article compares the private international laws (PIL) of Australia and Slovenia, and the application of citizen...
Chapter
This chapter investigates how Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) can assist the small and medium-sized enterprise sector (SME) to benefit from reduced tariffs and opening overseas markets. It identifies the importance of SMEs when negotiating the proposed European Union Australian Free Trade Agreement (EU-Australian FTA) which commenced in 1995 when the...

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