Robert Turner

Robert Turner
Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences | CBS · Department of Neurophysics

BA, PhD, Post-grad Diploma

About

476
Publications
96,319
Reads
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53,284
Citations
Introduction
Robert Turner is semi-retired, but continues to collaborate in research at the Department of Neurophysics, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences--and also at the Spinoza Centre, Amsterdam, and the Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, Nottingham. Robert does research in Imaging Neuroscience, Biological Anthropology, Cognitive Psychology and Electromagnetism. His current project is 'Strategies for modelling the human brain.'
Additional affiliations
July 2022 - present
Cardiff University
Position
  • Honorary Distinguished Professor in the School of Psychology
Description
  • Honorary professor
March 2014 - September 2019
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor
March 2014 - present
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (476)
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been shown to be a robust and important physiological parameter for quantitative interpretation of functional (f)MRI, capable of delivering highly localized mapping of neural activity. Indeed, with recent advances in ultra-high-field (≥7T) MRI hardware and associated sequence libraries, it has become possible to capt...
Article
An efficient multi-slice inversion–recovery EPI (MS-IR-EPI) sequence for fast, high spatial resolution, quantitative T1 mapping is presented, using a segmented simultaneous multi-slice acquisition, combined with slice order shifting across multiple acquisitions. The segmented acquisition minimises the effective TE and readout duration compared to a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been shown to be a robust and important physiological parameter for quantitative interpretation of functional (f)MRI, capable of delivering highly localized mapping of neural activity. Indeed, with recent advances in ultra-high-field (>=7T) MRI hardware and associated sequence libraries, it has become possible to cap...
Article
A comprehensive understanding of the basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of the brain is important for the scientific discovery of root causes, risk and protective factors for mental disorders in global mental health. Systematic research in cultural neuroscience within the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework investigates the fundamental b...
Article
Full-text available
In our environment our senses are bombarded with a myriad of signals, only a subset of which is relevant for our goals. Using sub-millimeter-resolution fMRI at 7T we resolved BOLD-response and activation patterns across cortical depth in early sensory cortices to auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli under auditory or visual attention. In visual...
Article
As a pioneer of the burgeoning research field of imaging neuroscience, I describe the pivotal role of Colwyn Trevarthen during my interactions with him over 30 years, in inspiring and guiding the enquiries that led to unprecedented measurements of brain activity associated with human performance.
Article
To efficiently survive, living creatures require some means of recording their experiences, predicting future experiences on the firm basis of such recordings and deciding on actions that help survival and reproduction. For us humans, this is provided by our very large brains. Our brains are adaptable; indeed, we never use the same brain twice. The...
Article
Full-text available
Histological studies of myelin-stained sectioned cadaver brain and in vivo myelin-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show that the cerebral cortex is organized into cortical areas with generally well-defined boundaries, which have consistent internal patterns of myelination. The process of myelination is largely driven by neural experience,...
Article
Full-text available
Many species use touching for reinforcing social structures, and particularly, non-human primates use social grooming for managing their social networks. However, it is still unclear how social touch contributes to the maintenance and reinforcement of human social networks. Human studies in Western cultures suggest that the body locations where tou...
Preprint
Full-text available
In our natural environment our senses are bombarded with a myriad of diverse signals, only a subset of which is relevant for our current goals. Using sub-millimeter-resolution fMRI at 7T we resolved BOLD response and activation patterns across cortical depth in early sensory cortices to auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli under auditory and vi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: PET imaging is an established technique to detect cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in vivo. Some preclinical and postmortem data report an accumulation of redox-active iron near Aβ plaques. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) at high-field MRI enables iron deposits to be depicted with high spatial resolution. Objective: Aim of t...
Article
The neuromatrix, or "pain matrix", is a network of cortical brain areas which is activated by noxious as well as salient somatosensory stimulation. This has been studied in mice and humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Here we demonstrate that BOLD effects observed in the murine neuromatrix in response to salient somatosensor...
Article
Full-text available
The reciprocal cortico-cerebellar loops that underlie cerebellar contributions to motor and cognitive behavior form one of the largest systems in the primate brain. Work with non-human primates has shown that the dentate nucleus, the major output nucleus of the cerebellum, contains topographically distinct connections to both motor and non-motor re...
Chapter
The volume of published research at the levels of systems and cellular neuroscience continues to increase at an accelerating rate. At the same time, progress in psychiatric medicine has stagnated and scientific confidence in cognitive psychology research is under threat due to careless analysis methods and underpowered experiments. With the advent...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: A fine structure of the corpus callosum, consisting of radial lines, is seen in historical anatomical atlases as far back as that of Vicq d'Azyr (1786). This study examines a similar pattern observed in-vivo using high-resolution MR images at 7 Tesla. Methods: 8 healthy subjects were examined with 7 Tesla MRI. Anatomical images were...
Article
Full-text available
Mental, neurological and substance-use (MNS) disorders comprise approximately 13% of the global burden of disease. The Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health Initiative has recently identified research priorities for the next decade to address prevention and treatment of MNS disorders. One main research priority is to identify the root causes, ri...
Article
Physicist who developed MRI, revolutionizing medicine.
Article
Full-text available
The habenula is a paired epithalamic structure involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Evidence comes from its impact on the regulation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, the role in emotional processing and studies on animal models of depression. The present study investigated habenula volumes in 20 unmedicated and...
Article
Full-text available
The aging brain undergoes several anatomical changes that can be measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Early studies using lower field strengths have assessed changes in tissue properties mainly qualitatively, using \(T_{1}\)- or \(T_{2}^{*}\)- weighted images to provide image contrast. With the development of higher field strengths (7 T...
Article
In a dynamic and uncertain environment it is beneficial to learn the causal structure of the environment in order to minimize uncertainty. This requires determining estimates of probable outcomes, which will guide expectations about incoming information. One key factor in this learning process is to detect whether an unexpected event constitutes a...
Article
Full-text available
When blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was discovered in the early 1990s, it provoked an explosion of interest in exploring human cognition, using brain mapping techniques based on MRI. Standards for data acquisition and analysis were rapidly put in place, in order to assist comparison of...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that audiovisual interactions are not deferred to association areas, but start already at the primary cortical level. Moreover, visual stimuli induce fMRI deactivations in primary auditory areas as well as activations in the visual system, and vice versa for auditory stimuli. It is unknown whether these c...
Article
A key aspect of optimal behavior is the ability to predict what will come next. To achieve this, we must have a fairly good idea of the probability of occurrence of possible outcomes. This is based both on prior knowledge about a particular or similar situation and on immediately relevant new information. One question that arises is: when consideri...
Article
Water diffusion in brain tissue can now be easily investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, providing unique insights into cellular level microstructure such as axonal orientation. The diffusive motion in white matter is known to be non-Gaussian, with increasing evidence for more than one water-containing tissue compartment. In this st...
Article
Structural magnetic resonance imaging can now resolve laminar features within the cerebral cortex in vivo. A variety of intracortical contrasts have been used to study the cortical myeloarchitecture with the purpose of mapping cortical areas in individual subjects. In this article, we first briefly review recent advances in MRI analysis of cortical...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most in...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most i...
Article
This project aims to characterize the impact of underlying noise distributions on diffusion-weighted imaging. The noise floor is a well-known problem for traditional magnitude-based diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) data, leading to biased diffusion model fits and inaccurate signal averaging. Here, we introduce a total-variation-based algorithm to elim...
Article
Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra high field opens the door to quantitative brain imaging at sub-millimeter isotropic resolutions. However, novel image processing tools to analyze these new rich datasets are lacking. In this article, we introduce the Open Science CBS NeuroImaging Repository: a unique repository of high-resolution and quantitative...
Article
Several prominent neurocomputational models predict that an increase of choice alternatives is modulated by increased activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In turn, increased STN activity allows prolonged accumulation of information. At the same time, areas in the medial frontal cortex such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the pre-SM...
Article
Full-text available
Trance is an absorptive state of consciousness characterized by narrowed awareness of external surroundings and has long been used-for example, by shamans-to gain insight. Shamans across cultures often induce trance by listening to rhythmic drumming. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the brain-network configuration ass...
Article
Musical memory is relatively preserved in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In a 7 Tesla functional MRI study employing multi-voxel pattern analysis, Jacobsen et al. identify brain regions encoding long-term musical memory in young healthy controls, and show that these same regions display relatively little atrophy and hypometabolism in pati...
Patent
Full-text available
The invention relates to a method for optimization of the performance of a multi-channel coil (1) comprising at least three coil elements, wherein the method comprises the following steps: a) Exciting the coil elements of the multi-channel coil (1) by electrical power signals comprising a specific power, wherein the power of the power signals is pa...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents a novel approach for modelling laminar myelin patterns in the human cortex in brain MR images on the basis of known cytoarchitecture. For the first time, it is possible to estimate intracortical contrast visible in quantitative ultra-high resolution MR images in specific primary and secondary cytoarchitectonic areas. The presente...
Article
The increased availability of ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI has led to its application in a wide range of neuroimaging studies, which are showing promise in transforming fundamental approaches to human neuroscience. This review presents recent work on structural and functional brain imaging, at 7 T and higher field strengths. After a short outline of...
Article
Full-text available
The position of cortical areas can be approximately predicted from cortical surface folding patterns. However, there is extensive inter-subject variability in cortical folding patterns, prohibiting a one-to-one mapping of cortical folds in certain areas. In addition, the relationship between cortical area boundaries and the shape of the cortex is v...
Article
Examining the function of individual human hippocampal subfields remains challenging because of their small sizes and convoluted structures. Previous human fMRI studies at 3 T have successfully detected differences in activation between hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) field CA1, combined CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) region (CA23DG), and the subi...
Article
Structural brain data is key for the understanding of brain function and networks, i.e., connectomics. Here we present data sets available from the 'atlasing of the basal ganglia (ATAG)' project, which provides ultra-high resolution 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from young, middle-aged, and elderly participants. The ATAG data s...
Article
Specific absorption rate is a serious problem at high field strengths, especially for sequences involving many high power radiofrequency pulses, such as turbo spin echo (TSE). GRASE (gradient and spin echo) may overcome this problem by omitting a certain number of refocusing pulses of a TSE sequence, and replacing them with segmented echo-planar im...
Article
Full-text available
The human inferior parietal cortex convexity (IPCC) is an important association area, which integrates auditory, visual, and somatosensory information. However, the structural organization of the IPCC is a controversial issue. For example, cytoarchitectonic parcellations reported in the literature range from 2 to 7 areas. Moreover, anatomical descr...
Data
Supplementary data to "Connectivity Architecture and Subdivision of the Human Inferior Parietal Cortex Revealed by Diffusion MRI", Cerebral Cortex (2014) 24 (9): 2449-2463 doi:10.1093/cercor/bht096 . The file contains the group population maps of the IPCC parcellation as 3D NFTI files. Each file represents the percentage of overlap of the IPCC sub...
Article
To improve slice coverage of gradient echo spin echo (GESE) sequences for dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI using a simultaneous-multiple-slice (SMS) method. Data were acquired on 3 Tesla (T) MR scanners with a 32-channel head coil. To evaluate use of SMS for DSC, an SMS GESE sequence with two-fold slice coverage and same temporal sampling...
Article
Full-text available
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an important node of the cortico-basal ganglia network and the main target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease. Histological studies have revealed an inhomogeneous iron distribution within the STN, which has been related to putative subdivisions within this nucleus. Here, we investigate the iron d...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeYang et al. proposed an MRI technique for the simultaneous acquisition of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-weighted MRI signals (9). The purpose of this study was to develop modified version of the Yang sequence, which utilizes the advantages of 7 Tesla, leading to a robust...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: Measurement of 3D volume-preserving cortical profiles in histological sections is difficult due to the 2D nature of the specimen. In this study it is shown for the first time that proper registration and stacking of neighboring sections, allows for measurement of 3D volume-preserving profiles also in histological sections....
Article
Full-text available
MRI can now provide human brain images of structure, function and connectivity with isotropic voxels smaller than one millimeter, and thus much smaller than the cortical thickness. This resolution, achievable in scan times of less than one hour, allows visualization of myeloarchitectural layer structure, intracortical variations in functional activ...
Article
Full-text available
MRI methods sensitive to functional changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) may map neural activity with better spatial specificity than standard functional MRI (fMRI) methods based on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect. The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate a vascular space occupancy (VASO) method with high sensitivity to...
Article
Full-text available
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data are usually registered into standard anatomical space. However, standard atlases, such as LPBA40, the Harvard–Oxford atlas, FreeSurfer, and the Jülich cytoarchitectonic maps all lack important detailed information about small subcortical structures like the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus. H...
Article
Full-text available
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependen...
Conference Paper
We used the interior-point optimization algorithm to perform static RF shimming of three overlapped dual-row magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arrays. These had radiative elements of axial lengths 80, 100, and 110 mm respectively. We evaluated the robustness of the static shims thus obtained. The head-and-torso model was located at different axial p...
Poster
Aim: To employ prior anatomical knowledge and resting-state functional connectivity, together with a novel visualization method, to manually parcellate the cortex of human brain in vivo. The manual parcellations provide training datasets for the development of automated parcellation algorithms with comparable precision at the individual level.
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that audiovisual interactions are not deferred to higher order association areas, but start already at the primary cortical level. Moreover, visual stimuli have been shown to induce fMRI activations in the visual system, with deactivations in primary auditory areas, and vice versa for auditory stimuli. It...
Article
Objective: To identify a shielding material compatible with optical head-motion tracking for prospective motion correction and which minimizes radio frequency (RF) radiation losses at 7 T without sacrificing line-of-sight to an imaging target. Materials and methods: We evaluated a polyamide mesh coated with silver. The thickness of the coating w...
Article
Full-text available
Although ultra-high-field fMRI at field strengths of 7T or above provides substantial gains in BOLD contrast-to-noise ratio, when very high-resolution fMRI is required such gains are inevitably reduced. The improvement in sensitivity provided by multivariate analysis techniques, as compared with univariate methods, then becomes especially welcome....
Article
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data with very high isotropic resolution can be obtained at 7T. However, for extensive brain coverage, a large number of slices is required, resulting in long acquisition times (TAs). Recording multiple slices simultaneously (SMS) promises to reduce the TA. A combination of zoomed and parallel imaging is...
Article
To investigate the feasibility of discriminating the habenula in human brain using high-resolution structural MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging at 7 Tesla (T). MRI experiments included a MP2RAGE and GRE sequence to acquire quantitative parameter maps of T1, T2*, and a calculated proton density map and the combined approach of zoomed and parallel i...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a novel processing strategy for the spatial normalization of ultrahigh resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of small ex vivo samples into MNI standard space. We present a multistage scanning and registration method for data of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) obtained using ultrahigh 7 T MRI on four human postmor...