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Robert Trevethan

Robert Trevethan
Independent author and researcher

BA (Hons), MSc, PhD

About

29
Publications
224,837
Reads
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890
Citations
Introduction
Robert Trevethan lives in Australia. After more than 30 years in academia, during which time he directed his energies to teaching (interrupted by several years as head of school), he retired and started editing - mainly academic material. He also found time - at last - to conduct research. With others, he is currently investigating teacher sense of efficacy and physical activity of adolescents, but he has investigated and published in several other fields, including podiatry and methodology.
Education
January 1984 - December 1990
Macquarie University
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1975 - May 1976
January 1969 - December 1972
Australian National University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Full-text available
In some contexts, including those that involve community healthcare, the functional status of mothers who have infants is of particular interest. This status has been assessed with the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF), proposed by its developers as an improvement over preexisting scales. The present study comprises a description and eval...
Method
Full-text available
When the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents was modified to improve the validity of the data it yielded, few suggestions were provided about how those data might best be scored. The method most likely to be chosen by researchers produces misleading outcomes. Therefore, in this brief report, several other methods for scoring the data ar...
Preprint
Background The functional status of mothers after childbirth has implications for maternal, child, and family health. There is a lack of adequate reliable and valid instruments in Ethiopia for assessing women’s postpartum functional status. Objective This study was intended to reveal the psychometric properties of the Barkin Index of Maternal Func...
Article
Full-text available
Certain combinations of number and labeling of response options on Likert scales might, because of their interaction, influence psychometric outcomes. In order to explore this possibility with an experimental design, two versions of a scale for assessing sense of efficacy for teaching (SET) were administered to preservice teachers. One version had...
Article
Full-text available
The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ–A) has been used in a variety of forms and in a range of countries. This study involves a detailed examination of the PAQ–A to determine its applicability and effectiveness in an Ethiopian setting. We administered the scale to 110 Ethiopian adolescents on two occasions, 5 weeks apart. Data we...
Article
Full-text available
This study comprises the second stage of a research program in which sense of efficacy for teaching (SET) was investigated in Chinese mainland preservice and inservice teachers (PSTs and ISTs, respectively). Scores on SET were calculated and described, and SET comparisons were made between and within PSTs and ISTs. Relative to PSTs, ISTs had higher...
Article
Full-text available
The article Measuring Teacher Sense of Efficacy: Insights and Recommendations Concerning Scale Design and Data Analysis from Research with Preservice and Inservice Teachers in China written by Kang Ma, Robert Trevethan and Shuhong Lu, was originally published on vol. 14, no. 4 of Frontier of Education in China without Open Access. After publication...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, issues concerning the design of scales for measuring teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) are first identified with particular attention to the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Psychometric issues concerning analysis and reporting of TSE data are subsequently identified. Recommendations are offered about all identified issues, and...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster summarises some of the research that Sylvia McAra and I have conducted to determine the most effective ways for measuring lower-extremity blood pressures and how to make appropriate decisions concerning those pressures in relation to peripheral artery disease and amputation risk.
Article
Full-text available
This article is concerned with the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and other metrics associated with screening tests. It has direct origins in two previous articles. In this third article, the author of the first article writes about topics and issues that were addressed only minimally in his previous article and expands on topics rais...
Article
Full-text available
This article commences with arguments that toe systolic pressure (TSP) should be used as a means of diagnosing low blood pressure in relation to the prospect of wound nonhealing and amputation risk, that the toe-brachial index (TBI) should be used as a means of screening for peripheral artery disease, and that those specific uses for TSPs and TBIs...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To be effective in screening, prognostic, and monitoring contexts, the toe–brachial index (TBI) should not be susceptible to large sporadic fluctuations from one time to another. In order to identify whether those fluctuations exist in people who have suboptimal TBIs, the temporal stability of their TBIs was examined in detail across 6 mo...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Insufficient information exists about the nature of toe-brachial indices (TBIs) and how best to obtain them, yet their validity may be particularly important for the identification and management of peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular disease risk. We explore ways in which valid TBI measurements might be obtained. Methods: T...
Article
Full-text available
Background & aims: Toe systolic blood pressures (TSPs) and toe-brachial indices (TBIs) have been identified as useful adjuncts in the identification of pedal ischemia, peripheral artery occlusive diseases, and risk for either nonhealing of lower extremity wounds or for amputation. Valid measurement of TSPs and TBIs is therefore essential. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Although the ankle-brachial index (ABI) has been used as an indicator of peripheral artery disease and vascular supply to the foot for over 50 years, it is now associated with reservations and qualifying empirical evidence to the extent that the provocative step of abandoning it totally might be advisable. In this article, the results of three publ...
Article
Full-text available
Within the context of screening tests, it is important to avoid misconceptions about sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. In this article, therefore, foundations are first established concerning these metrics along with the first of several aspects of pliability that should be recognized in relation to those metrics. Clarification is th...
Article
Full-text available
When people’s knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite t...
Article
Full-text available
Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are frequently employed in health science research, often to assess intrarater and interrater reliability. In many cases, insufficient details are provided about these ICCs and there seem to be misunderstandings about their selection and how they should be interpreted. This paper is intended primarily to p...
Article
Full-text available
Although commendable in many respects, some university library websites categorise academic referencing styles and systems in ways that are unhelpful and inaccurate. In this article, the four major styles of referencing (Harvard, Oxford, Vancouver and Modern Language Association) are described in sufficient detail to demonstrate that they should be...
Article
Full-text available
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is asymptomatic in 50–75% of cases and tends to be underdiagnosed due to the inherent difficulties in screening. Accurate peripheral vascular testing is particularly important for those at highest risk of PAD, including older people and people with diabetes, renal disease or a history of smoking. Unfortunately, com...
Article
Full-text available
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is asymptomatic in 50–75% of cases and tends to be underdiagnosed due to the inherent difficulties in screening. Accurate peripheral vascular testing is particularly important for those at highest risk of PAD, including older people and people with diabetes, renal disease or a history of smoking. Unfortunately, com...
Article
Full-text available
Two foot health inventories, the Foot Function Index and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire, are evaluated in terms of the developmental procedures used to create them. Both instruments have a number of deficiencies with regard to the initial stages of their development and with their purported reliability and validity. These deficiencies indicat...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship...
Article
Full-text available
If self-referent instruments about people's health are to be useful in clinical and research settings, those instruments must be developed according to well-established processes and principles of measurement. We outline the main processes that should occur in the development of self-referent measuring instruments in general, with a focus, for illu...
Article
Investigated the personality correlates of authoritarian attitudes (Ray, 1979) and anti-submissive behaviour (Rigby, 1986), among an Australian college sample (N = 198). Authoritarianism (in the attitudinal sense) was found not to correlate with the major dimensions of the EPQ for the whole sample although female authoritarians scored high on the N...

Questions

Questions (22)
Question
I have never assumed that the means of items within a Likert scale should be roughly equivalent to each other, as should the standard deviations, but I have come across the following statement on the web, which also refers to a desirable size for standard deviations:
"Items should have roughly equivalent means and standard deviations within a Likert scale with the rule of thumb of 2:1 (ratio of the maximum standard deviation to the minimum standard deviation. "
I have two questions:
1. Do you agree with this statement (all of it, or only parts, or not at all)?
2. Can anyone provide a reference for the above notions?

Network

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Projects

Projects (11)
Project
In this project, I am investigating one of a number of scales that have been designed for measuring the experiences and perceptions of mothers following the birth of their first or most-recent child. The target of my investigation is the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning.
Project
Three colleagues and I are currently finalising research in which the main focus involves a comparison of high- and low-status people in Bangladesh about their knowledge, awareness, and lifestyle practices concerning coronary heart disease.
Project
Colleagues in Ethiopia and I are investigating how mothers perceive themselves to be functioning in the maternal role. Of particular interest is whether Ethiopian mothers perceive maternal functioning within dimensions that are different from the dimensions that shape the perceptions of mothers in other cultures.