Robert Timm

Robert Timm
University of Kansas | KU · Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

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245
Publications
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Publications

Publications (245)
Article
In this report we investigate the origin and nature of morphological diversity in domestic dogs utilizing a database of over 1,000 recent and ancient canid skulls and skeletons. Integrated skull–skeleton analysis reveals eight functional groups, giving a clear picture of the extent and kind of morphological diversity produced by dog breeders in Eur...
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The Japanese-style mist net that mammalogists and ornithologists use extensively came into regular use by scientists in the 1950s and early 1960s and its use in capturing bats and birds unharmed is now worldwide. The history of the innovative mist net, which was originally made of silk and brought to the U.S. by ornithologist Oliver L. Austin, Jr.,...
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Dr. Thomas Henry Kunz, an internationally recognized expert on the ecology and behavior of bats and Professor at Boston University, passed away on April 13, 2020 in Dedham, Massachusetts, at the age of 81 as the result of complications from COVID-19. “Tom,” to his many friends and colleagues, was born on June 11, 1938 in Independence, Missouri, to...
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Our second selection for an innovation that changed mammalogy is the Japanese mist net, which was a repurposing of a centuries old invention. Prior to the availability of these nets, mammalogists had limited ability to sample members of the order Chiroptera. Samples of bats were obtained primarily from day roosts or hibernacula, or by shooting them...
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On 12 August 2018, the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) lost one of its giants of the latter half of the 20th century when Sydney Anderson quietly passed away at his home in Birmingham, Alabama, at the age of 91. “Syd,” to his many friends and colleagues, was born on 11 January 1927 in Topeka, Kansas, to Robert Grant and Evelyn Fern (Hunt) An...
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With more than 1,400 species of bats described worldwide, the order Chiroptera is second only to rodents in ecological and taxonomic diversity. Bats play critically important roles in natural systems as seed and pollen dispersers, predators of invertebrates and vertebrates, and sanguinivores. The Central American countries of Costa Rica and Nicarag...
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Although most summaries of the distribution of Neotoma magister (Allegheny Woodrat) do not include Massachusetts, there are 2 historical reports of the species' past occurrence there. Herein, we review those reports and provide details on a specimen from the Berkshire Mountains taken in 1958. No additional observations have been documented in Massa...
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The Neotropical variegated squirrel, Sciurus variegatoides, is represented in Nicaragua by five known subspecies—adolphei, belti, boothiae, dorsalis, and underwoodi. Analyses of morphometrics, color, and color patterns of 394 specimens from throughout the country and all available literature support the retention of these subspecies, but also revea...
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The Neotropical variegated squirrel, Sciurus variegatoides, is represented in Nicaragua by five known subspecies—adolphei, belti, boothiae, dorsalis, and underwoodi. Analyses of morphometrics, color, and color patterns of 394 specimens from throughout the country and all available literature support the retention of these subspecies, but also revea...
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Genetic studies provide important insights into the evolutionary history and taxonomy of species, allowing us to identify lineages difficult to distinguish morphologically. The relationships among species in the genus Heteromys have been in flux as new species have been described, and candidate species have been suggested in the H. desmarestianus g...
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In this report we focus on harriers, small dogs of gracile build widely represented in Roman artwork, yet not previously documented from skull or skeletal material. With them we compare remains of other types of small dogs from 'Vindolanda and other Roman-era sites. Accurate characterization of small dogs requires differentiation between paedomorph...
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We name and describe a new species of long-tailed sigmodontine rodent of the genus Tanyuromys, based on 3 specimens collected from 3 different localities in northern Ecuador, during the period 1953-2008. All 3 localities are at middle elevations on the Pacific Andean slopes and specimens were taken both in intact and disturbed forest areas. Tanyuro...
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Taxonomy is a scientific discipline that has provided the universal naming and classification system of biodiversity for centuries and continues effectively to accommodate new knowledge. A recent publication by Garnett and Christidis [1] expressed concerns regarding the difficulty that taxonomic changes represent for conservation efforts and propos...
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We provide the first account of all non-volant, non-marine mammals recorded, whether reliably, questionably, or erroneously, from the Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea. Species recorded with certainty, or near certainty, are the bandicoot Echymipera cf. kalubu, the widespread cuscus Phalanger orientalis, the endemic (?) cuscus Spilocuscus kraemer...
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Sciurus aureogaster Cuvier, 1829 is a sciurid commonly called the red-bellied squirrel. It is a medium-bodied tree squirrel quite variable in color throughout its geographic distribution; partial and complete melanism are common. One of 28 species in the genus, S. aureogaster is endemic to Mexico and Guatemala, and introduced to the Florida Keys, U...
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We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis th...
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We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis th...
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The question whether taxonomic descriptions naming new animal species without type specimen(s) deposited in collections should be accepted for publication by scientific journals and allowed by the Code has already been discussed in Zootaxa (Dubois & Nemésio 2007; Donegan 2008, 2009; Nemésio 2009a–b; Dubois 2009; Gentile & Snell 2009; Minelli 2009;...
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This plot is not part of the published stance but derives from it. The plot shows the number of authors by geographic region (courtesy of Dr. Diego Astua).
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The Roman-era fort-village complex at Vindolanda in northern England, occupied from about A.D. 50 to A.D. 415, has yielded extensive well-preserved remains of the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. Herein, utilizing a novel combination of biostatistical techniques to identify parameters that best differentiate canids, we test the hypothesis that the i...
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The Roman fort-village complex at Vindolanda in northern England has yielded extensive well-preserved remains of domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. Herein, we pose the questions—did the Romans breed for distinctive dog morphotypes, or were dogs breeding panmictically; and if dogs were bred, was it for functionality. We address these questions utilizi...
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We describe a new species of Rattus, from 3 modern specimens collected on Manus Island in the Admiralty Group, Papua New Guinea, between 2002 and 2012. Subfossil specimens of early to late Holocene age from the Pamwak archaeological site on Manus Island are referred to the new species on morphological criteria; these confirm the species as a long-t...
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Secondary forests are now prominent features in Neotropical landscapes, yet little is known about their conservation value for nonvolant mammalian communities. We performed a 20-month study using transect walks to survey the nonvolant mammal fauna in primary and secondary forests at La Selva Biological Station in the Caribbean lowlands of northeast...
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Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecol...
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We document for the first time that Sciurus ignitus, a medium-sized agouti-patterned squirrel with white venter, occurs in Paraguay, being found in the northern Chaco-Pantanal region of the country, where the borders of Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil come together. Sciurus urucumus, the only species of squirrel previously known with certainty to ran...
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Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natura...
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Patterns in community composition across a landscape are the result of mechanistic responses and species interactions. Interactions between hosts and parasites have additional complexity because of the contingency of host presence and interactions among parasites. To assess the role of environmental changes within host and parasite communities, we...
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In the past decade, seven new species and one new genus have been described in the Lonchophyllinae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), increasing the number of recognized taxa in the subfamily to four genera and 18 species. During this time, three studies, both morphologic and genetic, indicated the genus Lonchophylla was paraphyletic with respect to oth...
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The vesper mouse, Nyctomys sumichrasti (Rodentia: Cricetidae), a poorly known, arboreal, nocturnal, rodent found in Central America, has been considered rare, and limited information is available about its biology, especially reproduction. We obtained vesper mice from several sites in Costa Rica and prepared them as scientific specimens with standa...
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The abundances and habitat preferences of peccaries in Neotropical forests are important to understand because these keystone species influence many aspects of the ecosystem. In the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica, we conducted walking surveys for ∼2 years to study the behavior and population trends of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu), and found...
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The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones re...
Data
Sequential stages of tenebrionid bone damage in live experiments. (DOCX)
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Detailed description of insect damage. (DOCX)
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Sequential stages of dermestid bone damage in live experiments. (DOCX)
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Summarized description of insect damage and estimates of minimum time to produce damage. (DOCX)
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Recent taxonomic works have recognized only two species of spiny pocket mice of the genus Heteromys (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) from Costa Rica. Within Costa Rica, the widespread H. desmarestianus is considered to occur throughout the wet Caribbean lowlands, as well as at middle and high elevations on the Caribbean and Pacific slopes of the country's...
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Ten species of bats (Centronycteris maximiliani, Diclidurus albus, D. ingens, D. isabellus, Peropteryx leucoptera, Micronycteris brosseti, M. microtis, Tonatia carrikeri, Lasiurus atratus, and Myotis riparius) collected in the Iwokrama International Rain Forest Programme site represent the first records of these taxa from Guyana. This report brings...
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The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to hu...
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We expand upon recent studies on relationships within the Oryzomyini, in particular, those involving taxa currently assigned to the genus Sigmodontomys. In recent years, Sigmodontomys has been treated as including 2 species, alfari (J. A. Allen, 1897) and aphrastus (Harris, 1932), but throughout their complicated taxonomic history both species also...
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F. A. Reid 2009. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, 346 pp. + 52 color plates. ISBN - 978-0-19-534322-6, price (hardbound), $149.00; ISBN - 978-0-19-534323-6, price (paper), $45.00. Fiona Reid has revised and updated her extremely useful, beautifully illustrated field guid...
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Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs)—with a mean annual temperature greater than 17 degrees Celsius, rainfall ranging from 250 to 2000 millimeters annually and highly seasonal, and an annual ratio of potential evapotranspiration to precipitation of less than 1 (Holdridge 1967)—represent a unique combination of challenges for the living biota con...
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UM NOVO MODELO ESPONTÂNEO DE FIBRODISPLASIA OSSIFICANTE PROGRESSIVA. Fibrodisplasia ossificante progressiva (FOP) é uma doença genética caracterizada por uma acentuada, progressiva e aparentemente incontrolável ossificação dos tendões, ligamentos, faciais e músculos estriados da formação de osso heterotópico resultando na imobilização em cadeiraa d...
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Geological and climatic processes potentially alter speciation rates by generating and modifying barriers to dispersal. In Southeast Asia, two processes have substantially altered the distribution of land. Volcanic uplift produced many new islands during the Miocene–Pliocene and repeated sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene resulted in int...
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Reserva Natural Absoluta Cabo Blanco, a strongly seasonal deciduous forest located at the southernmost tip of northwestern Costa Rica's Nicoya Peninsula, was established in 1963 and is the country's oldest nationally protected reserve. The peninsula has been occupied for millennia and is a heavily impacted landscape, and, unfortunately, its biotic...
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Several species of bats contain pigment granules within the scrotal skin, tunica vaginalis, or tunica albuginea surrounding the testis and/or epididymis. Seventy-two species of bats, representing 49 genera were examined for the presence of such pigmentation. Histological, chemical and spectrophotometric tests were performed and confirmed the pigmen...
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C. A. Long 2008. The Wild Mammals of Wisconsin. Pensoft Series Faunistica 68, Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Bulgaria, 544 pp. + 27 colored illustrations. ISBN 978-954-642-303-0, price (hardbound) EURO 78; ISBN 978-954-642-313-9, price (paper) EURO 45. The state of Wisconsin is fortunate to have a number of state parks, national protected areas, priva...