Robert Strong

Robert Strong
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communications

PhD - Agricultural Education and Communications

About

91
Publications
5,887
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347
Citations
Introduction
Robert Strong is an Associate Professor in the Department of Agricultural Leadership. Education, and Communications at Texas A&M University. He investigates innovation adoption in agricultural sciences and extension contexts including electronic Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs), Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), precision agriculture, and virtual reality. He evaluates stakeholder adoption and impact resulting from participation in training programs.
Additional affiliations
July 2010 - April 2021
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • I am an Associate Professor and the Associate Department Head for Graduate Programs. My appointment is 50% research, 30% teaching, and 20% service. I study the adoption and diffusion of innovations, and teach courses in methods of technological change, social survey research methods, and frontiers in research. I represent our department on college and university initiatives from recruiting to career placement, respective to graduate education.
Education
August 2007 - May 2010
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Agricultural Education and Communications

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
This article investigated household-level food security for Ghana, Liberia, and Senegal. Different agroclimatic, ecological, social, and farming conditions in West Africa were represented. Using data-driven Random Forest and Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) decision tree methodology, this study classified 644 Ghanaian, 323 Liberia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Dr. Joe Townsend Leadership Fellows Program focuses on developing students in five specific area: developing self, developing others, organizational management skills, vision, and values. Evaluations should assess the extent leadership programs are meeting outcomes and preparing students for postgraduate success. The purpose of this study was t...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Dr. Joe Townsend Leadership Fellows Program focuses on developing students in five specific area: developing self, developing others, organizational management skills, vision, and values. Evaluations should assess the extent leadership programs are meeting outcomes and preparing students for post-graduate success. The purpose of this study was...
Article
Full-text available
Sub-Saharan Africa will accommodate more population this century by having a multitude of births across the continent. Family planning methods provide women with techniques to manage their health and wellbeing. This study investigated how radio communications in family planning changed the perception of Ghanaian, Liberian, and Senegalese mothers to...
Presentation
Full-text available
A Nexus Solution to Improve Sustainability and Reduce Poverty: Evaluating the Innovation-Decision Process for Marginalized Smallholder Farmers Chin-Ling Lee, Robert Strong Jr. Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communications Texas A&M University Sustainability and poverty reduction are two of the global Sustainable Developmen...
Presentation
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Food waste is described in the literature as a growing issue. With the population predicted to increase by the year 2050, literature states that food production will need to increase in order to meet nutrition needs. Goals 1 and 2 of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals express the necessity to end hunger and reduce poverty. Effective...
Article
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Stigma, cultural norms, nature of work and lack of access to care are among the many variables that place agricultural producers particularly at risk for compromised mental health and related illness. One variable related to improved mental health outcomes is help-seeking intention, which can be mediated by variables such as social identity and soc...
Article
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Virtual reality is a technology that is on the leading edge of agricultural sciences dissemination. Virtual reality can be beneficial to improving global food security and better understanding climate impacts, due to its capabilities to reach mass media with critical information. Virtual reality, with the proper access, can connect users from all b...
Article
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This study sought to assess the mental health impacts on farmers from across the globe post-natural weather-related disasters. There were two objectives that guided the study: (a) determine themes among the literature discussing post-disaster impacts on farmers' mental health, (b) identify personal characteristics that influence farmers' mental hea...
Article
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Precision agriculture (PA) is a holistic, sustainable, innovative systems approach that assists farmers in production management. Adopting PA could improve sustainable food security and community economic sustainability. Developing an understanding of PA adoption attributes is needed in order to assist extension practitioners to promote adoption an...
Article
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The complexities of food, agriculture, natural resources, and human sciences (FANH) programs and projects require faculty to write and secure funding in addition to mastering skills such as evaluation competencies that integrate abilities in quantitative and qualitative research methods and evaluation theory and practice. The EVAL Framework was dev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Teaching students about contentious topics and encouraging them to develop practical solutions can be more challenging in a pandemic environment. Food security remains a global concern due to the 2050 Food Challenge. Virtual reality is increasingly used to disseminate information not only for the convenience and opportunities to reduce training cos...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Precision Agriculture (PA) applies in the traditional farming practice with the new technology, new practices make the updated agriculture. According to the definition of PA by the International Society of Precision Agriculture in 2019, the purpose of PA application is to support management decisions to achieve the agricultural production quality,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) is the forefront of future agricultural sciences dissemination. VR will be a beneficial asset to improving global food security and better understanding climate impacts. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension connects research to industry and stakeholders across Texas. One thing that we can garner from this pandemic experience is that ha...
Conference Paper
Education is transformative. For women and girls, each year of completed secondary education increases their average lifetime earnings by at least 10%, and increased education of women and girls across education levels is correlated to reduced child marriages, improved child and maternal health, and increased women's participation in the private an...
Conference Paper
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Introduction Since the United States’ economic farm crisis of the 1980s, extensive research has been dedicated to better understanding farmer mental health in both domestic and international spheres (Milner, Spittal, Pirkis, & LaMontagne, 2013; Ortega, Johnson, Beeson & Craft, 1994; Truchot & Andela, 2018). Much of the literature focused on prevale...
Article
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Water has a significant role in society, whether through human consumption or agricultural use. The Lavaca Watershed is an agricultural community affected by nonpoint source pollution, and water quality protection is of high concern. Beef cattle operations are linked to nonpoint source pollution which contaminates surrounding water sources. If prop...
Article
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Purpose An Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) is a collaborative governance (CG) arrangement which brings together several actors in the agriculture sector forming an innovation platform (IP). This study presents findings of CG dynamics obtained from an IP. Design/Methodology/Approach : A qualitative study used focus group discussions, key infor...
Conference Paper
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This project was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture to develop the Preparing Organizational Leaders in Agriculture (POLA) Academy. The Academy was composed of thirty-six (N = 36) multidisciplinary and multi-institutional group of faculty with potential for impacting large numbers of st...
Article
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In an effort to evaluate the current use of case studies as a teaching technique in postsecondary agricultural education and to develop a model for integrating technologies into the case study technique (CST), a qualitative study was conducted that explored the current use of case studies, examined the effectiveness of the technique, and explored t...
Conference Paper
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According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, n.d.), farmers in Guinea engage in subsistence agriculture, growing crops on small plots to feed themselves and their families. In Guinea, inadequate infrastructure and poor access to agricultural extension services, technologies and inputs, undermine potential productivity. However, demand f...
Conference Paper
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To facilitate is the process of making something easy for others. Facilitating learning for students is a nontraditional is rooted in Knowles Adult Learning Theory, commonly referred in academics as Andragogy. Knowles claimed that Andragogy is based on the six agreed assumptions that are inherent to how adults learn. While the definition of an adul...
Conference Paper
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The future of agriculture is dependent on decision-makers that seek to improve and create legislation in order to better the lives of the people (Lamm et al., 2017). Agriculture policy is vital to the livelihood of the agriculture industry; from a political standpoint, bargaining and persuasion are the essence of political power, requiring an acute...
Conference Paper
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Teaching online for the purposes of critical thinking development can often be tricky. Attendees will have the opportunity to hear first-hand, the experiences from a project team which created an online critical thinking academy which supported the creation of faculty-developed scenarios on contentious topics for use in an online environment.
Book
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Following a background to the conflict in South Sudan and the post-conflict context, this chapter examines the agricultural extension system in the country, highlighting the different extension providers and actors with varied roles and operational statuses. Various agricultural extension projects and activities to improve food security in the coun...
Article
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Eighty percent of the Malawian population depends on agriculture for employment. This commentary is a reflection of a number of training workshops conducted to orient frontline extension staff on improved agricultural technologies. These trainings were conducted by the Technology Transfer Unit (TTU) is under the Department of Agricultural Research...
Technical Report
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In his acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize Norman Borlaug (1970) stated “Civilization as it is known today could not have evolved, nor can it survive, without an adequate food supply” (para. 1). Feeding a world with nine billion people in approximately 35 years will require several key problems to be resolved (U.N. Food and Agriculture Orga...
Article
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Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) offer Extension systems opportunities to expand participation and provide information faster to stakeholders. The study included fifty-seven new extension officers drawn from the public, private and state assisted extension organizations in Trinidad. Participants were surveyed to assess their level of c...
Article
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Texas has the largest wild pig population in the nation, estimated at 2.6 million animals. Damage to agronomic enterprises was conservatively estimated in 2004 at $52 million annually with total economic damage to agriculture and the environment in urban, suburban, and rural Texas possibly reaching 10 times that figure. In response to damage caused...
Article
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If we accept leaders and followers as active collaborators in the education process, an understanding of educational leadership is insufficient if we fail to examine the students' followership styles in conjunction with educators' leadership styles. The purpose of this study was to identify students' followership styles (critical thinking and engag...
Article
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Mobile learning is an evolving form of technology-based learning. The novelty of mobile learning gives educators a new tool for evaluating how to develop effective instruction for this new medium. A Delphi study was conducted using a 30-member panel comprised of experts across 20 states. The purpose was to determine the competencies needed to devel...
Article
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Mobile technology is pervasive in our daily lives. The use of mobile devices is changing the educational model in traditional classrooms and eLearning classrooms. Mobile learning is the use of mobile technology to deliver educational content and is a growing educational tool in our educational institutions. A synthesis of research on the implicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile learning is an evolving form of technology-based learning. The novelty of mobile learning gives educators a new tool for evaluating how to develop effective instruction for this new medium. A Delphi study was conducted using a 30-member panel comprised of experts across 20 states. The purpose was to determine the competencies needed to devel...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe selected Caribbean extension officers' technology preferences and examine factors that may affect their technology preferences.Design/methodology/approach: The sample consisted of extension officers (N = 119) participating in professional development training sessions in Grenada, Belize and Saint L...
Article
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Blogging is a form of social media and student engagement is at the center of blogging. The benefits of blogging include ease in making writing easier to share, encouraging students to write outside of the classroom, and supporting group collaboration. The findings suggest students are more passive in their blogging experiences, as the data found s...
Article
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The leader has typically been the myopic center of studies involving leadership on the collegiate level. However, that does not give a holistic picture of leadership as a phenomenon. Understanding the relational, influential, and often-reciprocal roles of followers, known as followership, is essential in reaching organizational goals. Understanding...
Article
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Food security issues are a global concern of countless citizens irrespective of professional vocation or individual residence. Literature indicated numerous factors affect food security and researchers should continue examining elements that may influence food insecurity. The lack of acquiring finance can prohibit farmers from planting and harvesti...
Article
Food security issues are a global concern of countless citizens irrespective of professional vocation or individual residence. Literature indicated numerous factors affect food security and researchers should continue examining elements that may influence food insecurity. The lack of acquiring finance can prohibit farmers from planting and harvesti...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile technology is pervasive at institutions across the U.S. The study was framed with self-efficacy theory, self-directed learning theory, and the unified theory for acceptance and use of technology. The purpose of this study was to assess undergraduate students’ behavioral intention towards mobile technology acceptance in agricultural education...
Article
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The objectives of this study were to demographically describe this beef breed association’s membership and to determine membership’s perceived barriers to Total Performance Rating (TPR) values. Results are derived from 282 member survey responses from a census of all 527 active association members, which is a 53% response rate. Respondents were mos...
Article
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Leadership orientation is an important component of students’ leadership development and helps inform the creation and understanding of more advanced models of leadership. Students’ level of self-direction must be understood in order to better serve their instructional and leadership needs. The researchers examined leadership style and self-directe...
Article
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Higher education has adopted innovative teaching strategies and devices to influence student learning to meet the demands of a technology-driven society. Mobile learning is the use of mobile technology to access educational content. Agricultural leadership educators have studied technology use, preferences and level of acceptance from instructor an...
Article
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The Federal Bureau of Prisons has a long-standing desire to be the pinnacle in corrections and correctional education. In 1891 Congress passed the Three Prisons Act, which established the federal prison system, prior to this Act federal inmates were housed in state, city, and county jails (Keve, 1991). The Act not only established the first three p...
Article
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Leadership is a versatile process that requires working with others in personal and professional relationships to accomplish a goal. Cultivating leadership skills is important for students who are developing professional competencies. Leadership characteristics and abilities should be evaluated to assist in learning student traits to better prepare...
Article
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Agriculture plays a fundamental role in the infrastructure of many developing economies. Trinidad and Tobago depends on food imports for over 90% of its domestic food supply making agriculture a politically sensitive sector. Technology adoption, specifically Integrated Pest Management (IPM), is one method used by the government to help enhance food...
Article
Full-text available
Food security issues are a global concern of countless citizens irrespective of professional vocation or individual residence. Literature indicated numerous factors affect food security and researchers should continue examining elements that may influence food insecurity. The lack of acquiring finance can prohibit farmers from planting and harvesti...
Article
Full-text available
The use of faculty abroad programs has become a popular means of professional and curricular development over the past years (Dooley & Rouse, 2009). Universities are calling for the internationalization of the curricula and new teaching methods that include the use of highimpact educational practices to develop the “knowledge of human cultures and...
Article
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Mobile learning is a growing segment of e-learning as more students are regularly engaged in mobile technology use. The amalgamation of learning and mobile technologies, known as mobile learning, is a relatively recent phenomenon and a thorough framework of knowledge has yet to be developed. Researchers lack data on the factors affecting college an...
Article
Full-text available
Developing the human capacity of extension systems is a necessary part of improving services intended to meet the needs of small farmers. The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies for which professional development is needed in the area of programming for extension officers in selected Caribbean countries. A survey was conducted w...
Article
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Nonformal education is learner–centered and provides knowledge in a practical manner to participants. Master Gardener is a nonformal extension horticultural program that includes extensive requirements to earn certification. The purpose of this study was to examine the Mergener Education Participation Scale (M–EPS) to evaluate adult motivations to...
Article
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Student demand and budget shortages have influenced the need for land–grant institutions to offer online courses. Research has identified that online courses broaden the reach of land–grant institutions to students who may not have access to campus. Literature indicated student satisfaction in online courses should be routinely assessed in order to...
Article
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There has been an increasing push to utilize eLearning resources as a more active component within agricultural education due to increased presence of technology in society. Instructors must overcome the barriers to social interaction and preserve the knowledge facilitated by traditional educational environments in using technology enhanced learnin...
Article
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Literature suggests Extension agents should be more proficient in delivering educational programs to enhance learning. This article reports on an innovative delivery method with a robust learning theory for constructing learning objectives. The reported here examined an approach used to improve learning in the Master Goat Producer program. The popu...
Method
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The module concentrates on addressing professional development needs of individuals involved with farmer-driven extension systems by developing competencies in conducting needs assessments. Extension workers serving farmers in developing countries need enhanced abilities in developing, disseminating, and evaluating educational programs. Developing...
Article
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The Mexican Ministry of Agriculture provides lending institutions outlooks for respective crops grown in the country. This study sought to assist in determining Mexican banks' perceptions of the relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability of agricultural information from the Ministry to aid in distributing loans t...
Article
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Master Gardeners serve Cooperative Extension as volunteer educators who deliver horticultural knowledge to citizens across Florida by teaching a broader amount of public constituents than can a single extension agent. The economic value of the Master Gardener participation to Florida Extension was nearly $9,000,000 in 2010. Very little research has...
Article
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Master Gardeners are very important in helping Extension deliver horticultural information to local citizens. The theoretical framework of the study reported here was based on Houle's Typology. The purpose was to develop an understanding of adult motivations to participate in the Florida Master Gardener program. The sampled population was 613 adult...
Article
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With increased budget cuts and a shortage of funding sources, Cooperative Extension must have a reliable group of proficient volunteers to carry–out organizational goals. Developing an understanding of volunteer abilities will assist extension agents in preparing and utilizing volunteers. Self–efficacy theory provided the theoretical framework of t...
Article
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Social media has an impact on how many Americans go about their daily lives. Over 800 million people have Facebook accounts and 50% of users log into the site each day. Facebook has been used in formal education environments to supplement traditional delivery methods and improve learning. Agricultural education researchers have studied the use of F...
Article
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The study expands reported here Extension education's knowledge regarding characteristics of potential change agents. Graduate students learning to become agricultural Extension educators were studied to determine their definition of a change agent. Participants' cognitive styles were assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory to explo...
Article
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Agricultural extension plays a significant role in the global production and supply of food. A problem with extension services in developing countries is the lack of an adequate balance between the technical and professional competencies of personnel. The purpose of this study was to explore the professional competencies needed by U.S. extension ag...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile learning is a growing segment of e-learning as more students are regularly engaged in mobile technology use. The amalgamation of learning and mobile technologies, known as mobile learning, is a relatively recent phenomenon and a thorough framework of knowledge has yet to be developed. Researchers lack data on the factors affecting college an...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a better understanding of adult participation in the Master Gardener Program in Putnam County, Tennessee. Eighty-nine participants were surveyed, and 66 participants returned their completed survey, for a 74.16% response rate. Adults participated "to obtain a practical benefit," "to feed an appe...
Article
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Cooperative Extension needs a consistent corps of volunteers to deliver organizational objectives. Extension agents should develop an understanding of volunteer motivations in order to identify and retain those individuals. The theoretical framework of this study was based on self-efficacy theory. The purpose of this study was to develop an underst...
Article
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The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively select...