Robert Sottilare

Robert Sottilare
Soar Technology, Inc.

Doctorate

About

213
Publications
87,087
Reads
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1,810
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Robert Sottilare is the Director of Learning Sciences and joined SoarTech in 2018 after completing a 35-year federal career in both Army and Navy training science and technology organizations. He has nearly 40 years of experience as a researcher, developer and evaluator of instructional technology and training systems. His experience spans government (US Army and Navy science & technology organizations), industry and academia.
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
United States Military Academy West Point
Position
  • Visiting Faculty
April 2012 - present
University of Central Florida
Position
  • Graduate Faculty Scholar & Visiting Lecturer
Description
  • Nominated in recognition of expertise by the Modeling and Simulation Program to participate in the educational activities of this program including teaching, thesis, and dissertation committees.

Publications

Publications (213)
Book
Full-text available
Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) explores the impact of intelligent tutoring system design on education and training. Specifically, this volume examines “Authoring Tools and Expert Modeling Techniques”. The “Design Recommendations book series examines tools and methods to reduce the time and skill required to develop I...
Patent
Full-text available
An exemplary embodiment of the invention relates to an on-axis or near on-axis optical head mounted projection display optical assembly for transmitting and magnifying a real image to an eye. The assembly comprises a miniature display, a projection lens for receiving the light rays from the display, a second lens positioned to receive the light fro...
Article
Full-text available
It has been long recognized that successful human tutors are capable of adapting instruction to mitigate barriers (e.g., withdrawal or frustration) to learning during the one-to-one tutoring process. A significant part of the success of human tutors is based on their perception of student affect (e.g., mood or emotions). To at least match the capab...
Article
Full-text available
This article considers the premise that computer-based tutoring systems (CBTSs) could be used to accelerate learning and facilitate retention because of their ability to assess, predict and adapt to unique learner traits and states. Existing CBTSs tend to provide each learner the same instructional regimes (e.g., event-driven feedback) or provide v...
Article
Full-text available
Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) have traditionally been and are currently utilized in a variety of applications including training, entertainment, and military operations. Most applications of HMDs seek to provide the user with enriched information, that is, information beyond that of what a human can gather with only biological vision. The Land Warri...
Chapter
This paper identifies challenges related to the optimal selection of adaptive instructional system (AIS) learner interventions. There are major challenges associated with accurately assessing learner performance, deciding when and how to intervene with learner, and evaluating the effectiveness of any intervention (e.g., feedback, support, direction...
Chapter
This paper reviews horizontal and vertical scaling methodologies for adaptive instructional system (AIS) software architectures. The term AIS refers to any instructional approach that accommodates individual differences to facilitate and optimize the acquisition of knowledge and/or skills. The authors propose a variety of scaling methods to enhance...
Chapter
Team training in online, simulated environments can improve teamwork skills and task performance skills in a team setting. Teamwork assessment often relies on human observers. Instructors, team leaders, or other observers typically assess complex team competencies using checklists of observed behavior markers to infer performance. Automation can re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of a team-centered training approach is to optimize both individual and team performance as a group of individuals band together to pursue complex objectives in complex environments. Teams are a common strategy for both large and small organizations to use in pursuit of their goals. This paper considers technical approaches to model and va...
Book
This two-volume set LNCS 12774 and 12775 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Social Computing and Social Media, SCSM 2021, held as part of the 23rd International Conference, HCI International 2021, which took place in July 2021. Due to COVID-19 pandemic the conference was held virtually. The total of 1276 pa...
Book
This two-volume set LNCS 12792 and 12793 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Adaptive Instructional Systems, AIS 2021, held as Part of the 23rd International Conference, HCI International 2021, which took place in July 2021. Due to COVID-19 pandemic the conference was held virtually. The total of 1276 paper...
Book
This book constitutes late breaking papers from the 23rd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2021, which was held in July 2021. The conference was planned to take place in Washington DC, USA but had to change to a virtual conference mode due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 5222 individuals from academia, research inst...
Book
This book constitutes late breaking papers from the 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2020, which was held in July 2020. The conference was planned to take place in Copenhagen, Denmark, but had to change to a virtual conference mode due to the COVID-19 pandemic. From a total of 6326 submissions, a total of 1439 pape...
Chapter
This paper examines the relationships of various functional elements within a class of instructional technologies called adaptive instructional systems (AISs) which include intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), intelligent mentors or recommender systems, and intelligent instructional media. AISs are artificially-intelligent, computer-based systems t...
Chapter
This paper examines the functionality of artificially-intelligent agents as a methodology for supporting automated decisions in adaptive instructional systems (AISs). AISs are artificially-intelligent, computer-based systems that guide learning experiences by tailoring instruction and recommendations based on the goals, needs, preferences, and inte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are strong potential benefits to be had by integrating intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) with each other, but few instances of successful integration are known in the literature. Given the central role that student models play in ITS architectures, and given that different ITS platforms tend to have their own student models, a key challenge...
Article
Intelligent learning environments (ILEs) can be designed to support the development of learners cognitive skills, strategies, and metacognitive processes as they work on complex decision-making and problem-solving tasks. However, the complexity of the tasks may impede the progress of novice learners. Providing adaptive feedback to learners who face...
Chapter
This paper examines the components, functions, and interactions of adaptive instructional systems (AISs) as a method to construct a conceptual model for use in the development of IEEE standards. AISs are artificially-intelligent, computer-based systems that guide learning experiences by tailoring instruction and recommendations based on the goals,...
Chapter
This paper examines the application of intelligent agents to guide and adapt instruction in a class of learning technologies known as adaptive instructional systems (AISs). AISs are artificially-intelligent, computer-based systems that guide learning experiences by tailoring instruction and recommendations based on the goals, needs, and preferences...
Chapter
This paper explores design principles and methods to promote interoperability and reuse in a class of instructional technologies called adaptive instructional systems (AISs) which include intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), intelligent mentors or recommender systems, and intelligent instructional media. AISs are artificially-intelligent, computer-...
Chapter
The life-saving care of a combat casualty begins moments after an injury is sustained. In these moments, the caregiver is tasked with maintaining tactical objectives and making critical decisions for care that may determine if a casualty lives. While the United States has achieved unprecedented survival rates for casualties arriving alive to combat...
Book
Full-text available
This is the second in a series of Adaptive Instructonal System (AIS) worskhops conducted under the auspices of IEEE. This workshop is intended to document the evolution of proposals for AIS standards. Six keynote papers were presented as part of four discussion sessions conducted over a period of two days. The talks, papers, and discussion are docu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work presents a comparison of two applications (AugmentedReality (AR) and desktop) to author Scenario-Based Training (SBT)simulations. Through an iterative design process two interface conditions are developed and then evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. A graph based authoring visualization help designers understand the scenario learn...
Chapter
This chapter examines the potential benefits of computer-based adaptive instruction to human performance during the training of tasks usually conducted in extremely stressful work environments (e.g., law enforcement, firefighting, emergency medicine, or combat) that often include time, performance, and safety stressors. Adaptive instruction is trai...
Chapter
This paper discusses the use of adaptive instruction to guide learning by stimulating non-adaptive virtual training environments. Adaptive instruction is sometimes referred to as differentiated instruction and is any learning experience tailored to meet the needs and preferences of an individual learner or team. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS)...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on Adaptive Instructional Systems, AIS 2019, held in July 2019 as part of HCI International 2019 in Orlando, FL, USA. HCII 2019 received a total of 5029 submissions, of which 1275 papers and 209 posters were accepted for publication after a careful reviewing proces...
Article
This experiment assessed how displaying information onto different surfaces (flat vs. raised) influenced the performance, workload, and engagement of cadets answering questions on military tactics. Sixty-two cadets in a within-subjects design each answered 24 tactics-related questions across 2 conditions (12 on flat, 12 on raised) which were measur...
Chapter
This chapter considers the essential elements and processes in designing and building a computer-based tutor to instruct teams. In this chapter, the choices of authoring tools, the instructional context, the goal of the instruction, and the characteristics of the domain were evaluated in terms of their influence on the Intelligent Tutoring System (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines machine learning methods to automatically generate a large number of child scenarios from a small number of parent scenarios in support of adaptive instruction conducted in virtual simulations and game-based platforms. Adaptive instructional systems (AISs) include Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), intelligent mentors, recomme...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the use of adaptive instruction to guide learning by stimulating non-adaptive virtual training environments. Adaptive instruction is sometimes referred to as differentiated instruction and is any learning experience tailored to meet the needs and preferences of an individual learner or team. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses the need and methods to develop community-based persona (learner models) to tie together key learner attributes and learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge acquisition) with the goal of facilitating the validation of adaptive instructional strategies and tactics. Adaptive instruction, sometimes referred to as differentiated instruct...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The core components of a tutoring systems appear to be widely agreed upon. As an example, Murray's seminal review work from 1999 included the components of the student interface, domain model, teaching model, and student model [1]. Woolf's 2011 review of ITS divides the space into models of student knowledge, domain knowledge, tutoring knowledge an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Instruction that adapts to individual learner characteristics is often more effective than instruction that treats all learners as the same. A practical approach to making MOOCs adapt to learners may be by integrating frameworks for intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs). Using the Learning Tools Interoperability standard (LTI), we integrated two inte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) is a domain independent framework for developing intelligent tutoring systems. While GIFT has primarily focused on individual learning, one of the ultimate goals of GIFT is to be used for team tutoring. As part of implementing team tutoring in GIFT there have been practical, authoring, and t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In our paper we discuss an intelligent team tutoring system (ITTS) developed for a computer-based surveillance task experiment. In the experiment, two teammates worked together in a shared Virtual Battlespace 2 environment, and tutoring was provided by the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring. Feedback was triggered by the actions that th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the purpose, goals, and guiding questions for the Adaptive Instructional System (AIS) standards workshop within the 2018 Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) Conference Industry Track. Adaptive instructional systems (AISs) use human variability, learner goals and preferences, and other learner/team attributes along with instructi...
Article
Full-text available
This article is intended as a companion document to the more focused report provided by the author at the 2017 American Education Research Association (AERA) Conference as part of the Technology, Instruction, Cognition & Learning Special Interest Group’s Symposium on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Both the AERA talk and this article focus on...
Technical Report
Full-text available
People ... the most critical elements of any military system are well-trained soldiers, sailors, airmen or marines. Present and future military missions conducted by NATO or their member countries will require highly trained individuals and collective teams to perform in extreme environments across a wide variety of task domains. It is critical tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Intelligent tutoring system (ITS) authoring tools are productivity applications that aid humans in developing adaptive tutors. Authoring tools have the potential to reduce the skill, resources, and effort required to produce a tutor, thereby enabling ITS authoring for individuals without programming or instructional design experience. However ITSs...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines adaptive instructional methods to accelerate learning and improve learning capacity. Adaptive instruction provides tailored, computer-based learning experiences based on the needs and preferences of the learner. Often the goal is to optimize learning, performance, retention, and transfer of skills from instructional environments...
Article
Full-text available
The Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) is a research prototype with three general goals associated with its functions and components: 1) lower the skills and time required to author Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) in a variety of task domains; 2) provide effective adaptive instruction tailored to the needs of each individual...
Book
Full-text available
This book is the fifth in a planned series of books that examine key topics (e.g., learner modeling, instructional strategies, authoring, domain modeling, assessment, impact on learning, team tutoring, machine learning, and potential standards) in intelligent tutoring system (ITS) design through the lens of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book is the fifth in a planned series of books that examine key topics (e.g., learner modeling, instruc-tional strategies, authoring, domain modeling, assessment, impact on learning, team tutoring, machine learning, and potential standards) in intelligent tutoring system (ITS) design through the lens of the Generalized Intelligent Framework fo...
Chapter
Full-text available
The first goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of competence, competency assessment methods, and their relationship to processes leading to knowledge and skill acquisition during adaptive instruction. The second goal is to introduce the chapters in this section of the book and define each chapter’s importance to...
Chapter
Full-text available
The focus of this chapter is on the challenges and potential solutions to conducting real-time and long-term assessments of performance, learning, and domain competency in the Total Learning Architecture (TLA). TLA, a distributed learning ecosystem, is being developed by the US Office of the Secretary of Defense to support capabilities for instruct...
Chapter
Full-text available
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have emerged as a prominent mode of online education, but the quality of assessments in MOOCs remains inconsistent. There has been a consistent gap between the state of the art in assessment and the state of the practice in both MOOCs and other forms of educational technology. Improving the quality of assessment...
Chapter
Full-text available
As technology has continued to develop, there have been new and creative ways to use it in the classroom. Classes have transformed into learning environments that rely not only on the in-person instructor, but have many other resources easily available for students. At the college level, courses can vary between different modes of instruction: trad...
Chapter
Full-text available
In current and earlier volumes of the series, more detailed analyses of ITSs have been presented. In general, an ITS has been considered as an integrated collection of more complicated models and processes (Sottilare, Graesser, Hu & Holden, 2013; Sottilare, Graesser, Hu & Goldberg, 2014; Sottilare, Graesser, Hu & Brawner, 2015; Sottilare, Graesser,...
Chapter
Full-text available
The goal of training is to support the learner to achieve the learning objectives, i.e., reducing the task com-pletion time, reducing errors, and increasing accuracy. Performance characterized by such speed and accu-racy can be evaluated by interpreting the learner behavior – that is, as one of the classic models, Fitts’ law provides a way to asses...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The role of affect in learning has received increasing attention from AIED researchers seeking to understand how emotion and cognition interact in learning contexts. The dynamics of affect over time have been explored in a variety of research environments, allowing researchers to determine the extent to which common patterns are captured by hypothe...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this research was the development of a practical architecture for the computer-based tutoring of teams. This article examines the relationship of team behaviors as antecedents to successful team performance and learning during adaptive instruction guided by Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Adaptive instruction is a training or educa...
Article
Full-text available
Teams and teamwork are ubiquitous in military and civilian organizations. Their importance to organizational success cannot be overstated. This article describes the relationship and effect of three concepts: Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), shared mental models, and teamwork. The nexus between these concepts is examined to determine its capabi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adaptive instruction is computer-based training or education that is tailored to match the difficulty of the content to the states and traits of the learner. Since the individual differences of learners vary widely and contribute greatly to the adaptation decisions by the tutor, adaptive instructional systems (e.g., Intelligent Tutoring Systems – I...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current paper and presentation provide background on the different uses of intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) in context of course instruction, discusses specific instructor considerations that are associated with their use, and ways to use ITSs for educational research. Instructor considerations include the time necessary to plan prior to con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports the relationship between cognitive (e.g., attentional resources) and physiological (e.g., breathing) factors in executing a psychomotor task (i.e., golf putting). We explore performance from a series of computational models in the ACT-R and ACT-R/Φ architecture in an attempt to improve adaptive instruction and feedback using a pr...
Conference Paper
This paper examines the accuracy of a machine learning algorithm in classifying discrete smiling events (smiling/not smiling) of learners interacting with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Detection of learner smiling behavior is an indicator of the learner emotional state of ‘joy’ and is linked to positive learning experiences in the literature...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this document is to provide users of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) with a fundamental understanding of the function, goals/challenges, and research activities associated with the development of a largely domain-independent adaptive instructional capability for the US Army. While the design team for GIFT im...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) are highly effective learning tools and provide individual adaptive instruction in single, well-defined, cognitive task domains (e.g., mathematics, physics, or software programming). The adaptive instruction provided by ITSs intelligently tailors content, adapts the curriculum and guides the learner with the...
Conference Paper
This paper describes methods for enhancing the experience application program interface (xAPI) to improve the assessment of domain competency modeling for adaptive instruction. xAPI is an e-learning software specification which allows individual learning experiences and achievements to be amassed in a Learning Record Store (LRS). Adaptive instructi...
Chapter
This experiment determined how 19 Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets rationalize military tactics decisions using two different displays through qualitative data analysis. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to understand platoon and squad level decision-making to help influence the development of adaptive trainin...