Robert E. Slavin

Robert E. Slavin
Johns Hopkins University | JHU · School of Education

Ph.D.

About

369
Publications
309,203
Reads
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34,891
Citations
Citations since 2017
26 Research Items
11119 Citations
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Additional affiliations
September 1975 - present
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1975 - November 2015
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (369)
Article
Full-text available
The number of students assigned to special education has increased in the past decades, in spite of efforts for more inclusion. For students with mild learning or behavioral difficulties, special education assignment might be prevented if appropriate support is provided in general education. In this study, research on programs that could reduce the...
Article
In this article, we review research on the outcomes of diverse reading programs on the achievement of struggling readers in elementary schools. Sixty‐five studies of 51 different programs met rigorous standards. Eighty‐three percent were randomized experiments and 17% quasi‐experiments. Outcomes were positive for one‐to‐one tutoring and were positi...
Article
Purpose There are unmet needs for refractive correction in the pediatric population, especially in high-poverty communities. We reported the impact of refractive correction on vision outcomes over a 2-year follow-up in the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study. Design Prospective, school-based cohort study. Methods Setting: 12 Baltimore public...
Article
Objective We describe the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study, report baseline ocular findings, and explore the feasibility of eye examinations in the school setting. Design Prospective, school-based cohort study. Methods Setting: 12 Baltimore public schools. Participants Students in second and third grades. Method Baseline eye examinations...
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Purpose This article presents a definition and rationale for evidence-based reform in education, and a discussion of the current state of evidence-based research, focusing on China, the U.S., and the U.K. Design/Approach/Methods The article contrasts the state of educational research in the U.S., the U.K., and China, world leaders in evidence-base...
Article
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Success for All (SFA) is a comprehensive whole-school approach designed to help high-poverty elementary schools increase the reading success of their students. It is designed to ensure success in grades K-2 and then build on this success in later grades. SFA combines instruction emphasizing phonics and cooperative learning, one-to-small group tutor...
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This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of elementary mathematics programs; 87 rigorous experimental studies evaluated 66 programs in grades K–5. Programs were organized in six categories. Particularly positive outcomes were found for tutoring programs (effect size [ES] = +0.20, k = 22). Positive outcomes were also seen in studies...
Article
This meta-analysis examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on mathematics achievement in mainland China. Using rigorous inclusion criteria, we identified 36 qualifying studies, covering 13,438 students in grades 1-12. They produced a moderate overall effect (ES=+0.38) in comparison to traditional instruction. Of the various types...
Research
This paper reviews research on outcomes of writing programmes for students in Years 3 to 13 in England, or grades 2 to 12 in the US. Studies had to meet rigorous standards of research including use of randomised or well-matched control groups, measures independent of the programme developers, researchers, and teachers, and adequate sample size and...
Article
Evidence-based reform in education refers to policies that enable or encourage the use of programs and practices proven to be effective in rigorous research. This article discusses the increasing role of evidence in educational policy, rapid growth in availability of proven approaches, and development of reviews of research to summarize the evidenc...
Article
Purpose: To assess the patterns and predictors of glasses wear in a 2-year school-based study. Methods: Second and third graders underwent an eye examination at school. Two pairs of glasses were provided if they met prescribing criteria. Replacements were provided as needed. Students received follow-up examinations and completed survey questionn...
Research
This paper reviews research on outcomes of writing programs for students in grades 2 to 12. Studies had to meet rigorous standards of research including use of randomized or well-matched control groups, measures independent of the program developers, researchers, and teachers, and adequate sample size and duration. Fourteen studies of 12 programs m...
Article
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In the past two decades, evidence-based reform in education has been gaining momentum worldwide. China is no exception. Though many Chinese scholars have acknowledged the importance of evidence-based reform in education, some remain skeptical. In this paper, we address the three major concerns about evidence-based reform in education and offer some...
Article
Recent initiatives in the United States and United Kingdom have added greatly to the amount and quality of research on the effectiveness of secondary reading programs, especially programs for struggling readers. In this review of the experimental research on secondary reading programs, the authors focused on 69 studies that used random assignment (...
Article
Many disadvantaged students with refractive errors, such as myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), do not have eyeglasses, and their reduced vision may impact reading proficiency. Providing eyeglasses may increase their reading success. This article reports the findings of a study in Baltimore City in which disadvantaged second an...
Article
Large-scale randomized studies provide the best means of evaluating practical, replicable approaches to improving educational outcomes. This article discusses the advantages, problems, and pitfalls of these evaluations, focusing on alternative methods of randomization, recruitment, ensuring high-quality implementation, dealing with attrition, and d...
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Education policies should support the use of programs and practices with strong evidence of effectiveness. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) contains evidence standards and incentives to use programs that meet them. This provides a great opportunity for evidence to play a stronger role in decisions about education programs and practices. Howeve...
Article
This article reports on 2 experiments in inner-city Baltimore evaluating a computer-assisted tutoring approach, Tutoring With Alphie (TWA), in which 1 paraprofessional can work with up to 6 children at a time. In Study 1, we randomly assigned 14 schools to receive TWA or to continue with whatever approaches they were currently using. Each experimen...
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This study examined the effects of the Success for All (SFA) whole-school reform approach on student reading achievement. The data were collected for the Study of Instructional Improvement by the University of Michigan, which did not previously report the achievement outcomes in detail but did make the data available online. Using propensity matchi...
Article
Evidence-based reform is transforming education at all levels, both in providing effective models for use in schools and in linking policy to effective practice on a broad scale. As early education moves from a concern with effects of preschool versus no preschool to focus on creating and evaluating effective preschool models capable of improving l...
Article
This article reports a systematic review of research on science programs in grades 6–12. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria including use of randomized or quasi-experimental assignment to conditions, measures that assess content emphasized equally in experimental and control groups, and a duration of at least 12 weeks. Programs fell into fou...
Article
As evidence becomes increasingly important in educational policy, it is essential to understand how research design might contribute to reported effect sizes in experiments evaluating educational programs. A total of 645 studies from 12 recent reviews of evaluations of preschool, reading, mathematics, and science programs were studied. Effect sizes...
Article
This article draws upon the experiences of four recent efforts to synthesize the findings of quantitative studies in science education research. After establishing the need for research syntheses in advancing generalizable knowledge and causal effects research in our field, we identify a set themes that emerged in the process of conducting these sy...
Article
This systematic review of research on early childhood programs seeks to identify effective approaches capable of improving literacy and language outcomes for preschoolers. It applies consistent standards to determine the strength of evidence supporting a variety of approaches, which fell into two main categories: comprehensive approaches, which inc...
Article
Evidence-based reform, in which proven programs are scaled up to reach many students, is playing an increasing role in American education. This article summarizes articles in this issue to explain how Reading Recovery has managed to sustain itself and go to scale over more than 30 years. It argues that Reading Recovery has succeeded due to a focus...
Article
Reviews of mathematics-related books, products, and software.
Article
Three student team learning methods, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD), Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT), and Jigsaw, have been found to have positive effects on such student outcomes as achievement, race relations, mutual concern, and self-esteem. These techniques involve students working in small teams to master academic materials. However,...
Article
This experiment studied the separate effects on student achievement and time on-task of three components of the team learning technique, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD): cooperative rewards, group tasks, and a focused schedule of instruction. The subjects were 336 fourth and fifth grade students in 14 classes who studied language mechani...
Article
Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Four major theoretical perspectives on achievement effects of cooperative learning are reviewed: Motivational, social cohesion, developmental, and cognitive elaboration. Evidence from practical classroom research primarily supports...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the elem...
Article
This article presents a systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks, and use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A tota...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the third-year findings of a longitudinal evaluation in England of Success for All (SFA), a comprehensive literacy program. Eighteen SFA schools across England and 18 control schools, matched on prior achievement and demographics, were included in this quasi-experimental study. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analys...
Article
This article summarises findings from systematic reviews of research on primary and secondary mathematics, primary and secondary reading, and programmes for struggling readers. All reviews used a common set of procedures, requiring comparisons with control groups and duration of at least 12 weeks. Across hundreds of qualifying studies, a clear patt...
Article
A program with a history of raising achievement of at-risk children builds local capacity, provides external support, and encourages networking among participating schools.
Article
This review examines the effectiveness of educational technology applications in improving the reading achievement of struggling readers in elementary schools. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 20 studies based on about 7,000 students in grades 1–6 were included...
Article
This article presents recent developments in Success for All, a whole-school reform approach for high-poverty schools. These include incorporation of Common Core standards, technology-enhanced methods for teaching and tutoring, and extensive use of video for students and teachers. The strong evidence base and success at scale give the program addit...
Article
The present review examines research on the effects of educational technology applications on mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are inve...
Article
Full-text available
After pigeons were trained to peck a response disk for food reinforcement, responding was extinguished by withholding the food. During extinction training, freely available food was added to the chamber. Responding was found to extinguish rapidly in the presence of the free food. However, when the free food was removed, many more extinction respons...
Article
The purpose of this review is to learn from rigorous evaluations of alternative technology applications how features of using technology programs and characteristics of their evaluations affect reading outcomes for students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards....
Article
This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant English language learners (ELLs) in elementary schools. It is divided into two major sections. One focuses on studies of language of instruction and one on reading approaches for ELLs holding constant language of instruction. A total of 13 qua...
Article
A district-level reform model created by the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) provided consultation with district leaders on strategic use of data and selection of proven programs. Fifty-nine districts in seven states were randomly assigned to CDDRE or control conditions. A total of 397 elementary and 225 middle schools were follo...
Article
Using a mixed-methods randomised experimental design, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the ‘Together 4 All’ (T4A) programme in Northern Ireland. T4A was designed as a culturally adaptive version of the widely used Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) programme. Its purposes are to foster pro-social and p...
Article
This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers ages 5–10 (US grades K-5): One-to-one tutoring, small-group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study dur...
Article
Program effectiveness reviews in education seek to provide educators with scientifically valid and useful summaries of evidence on achievement effects of various interventions. Different reviewers have different policies on measures of content taught in the experimental group but not the control group, called here treatment-inherent measures. These...
Article
This study evaluated the relative effects of Tier II computer-assisted tutoring in small groups (Team Alphie) and one-to-one tutoring provided to struggling readers in 33 high-poverty Success for All (SFA) schools. In this year-long study, struggling readers in the Team Alphie schools were tutored in groups of 6. In the control schools, students we...
Article
The reading performance of poor and minority children is far below that of more advantaged children in most developed countries. Several comprehensive school reform strategies have been found to significantly improve children's achievement but more effective, replicable models are needed to significantly reduce reading gaps. This article describes...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports an evaluation of Writing Wings with Multimedia (WWM). The program uses a writing process approach with a strong emphasis on cooperative learning, as well as embedded multimedia segments in which humorous skits model components of the writing process, cooperative learning, writing genres and metacognitive strategies. In a year-l...
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Full-text available
The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or ins...
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This article reports the outcomes of a multiyear study comparing the English and Spanish language and reading performance of Spanish-dominant children randomly assigned, beginning in kindergarten, to transitional bilingual education (TBE) or structured English immersion (SEI) for periods of up to 5 years. On the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and...
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__________ Portions of this paper are adapted from Slavin, 1995. It was written under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. However, any opinions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily represent Department of Education positions or policies.
Article
Full-text available
Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education's Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Article
In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in financial incentives to encourage students to attend school and to improve their academic achievement, graduation rates, and other outcomes. Conditional cash transfers programmes in developing countries, especially PROGRESA in Mexico, have found positive effects on attendance in large-scale r...
Article
Robert Slavin is currently director of the Center for Research and Reform in Education at Johns Hopkins University, director of the Institute for Effective Education at the University of York (England), and chairman of the Success for All Foundation. He received his BA in psychology from Reed College in 1972, and his PhD in social relations in 1975...
Article
Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. This article reviews four major theoretical perspectives on achievement effects of cooperative learning: motivational, social cohesion, cognitive developmental, and cognitive elaboration. Evidence from classroom research supports th...
Chapter
Robert Slavin analyse de nombreuses recherches consacrées à l’apprentissage coopératif à l’école et s’intéresse plus particulièrement aux études comprenant des groupes témoins soumis à une pédagogie classique. Il présente et analyse les deux catégories principales : « l’apprentissage structuré en équipes » et « l’apprentissage informel en groupes »...
Chapter
Robert Slavin reviews the substantial body of studies of co-operative learning in schools, in particular those using control groups being taught with more traditional methods. There are two main categories – "Structured Team Learning" and "Informal Group Learning Methods" – each reviewed and illustrated. As regards affective outcomes, co-operative...
Article
International comparisons of achievements in mathematics suggest that children in England are under‐achieving in this key subject. Many studies have suggested that co‐operative learning techniques have particular promise in mathematics and may therefore offer a solution to this problem. This article presents the findings of a large‐scale randomized...
Article
Research in fields other than education has found that studies with small sample sizes tend to have larger effect sizes than those with large samples. This article examines the relationship between sample size and effect size in education. It analyzes data from 185 studies of elementary and secondary mathematics programs that met the standards of t...
Article
Full-text available
This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria included use of ran...
Article
This article reviews classroom research on cooperative‐learning techniques. These are instructional methods in which students work in 4–6 member, heterogeneous teams to master prescribed academic material or to carry out a group project or discussion. The review is focused on the four cooperative‐learning techniques in widest use in classrooms, alt...
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Full-text available
This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of mathematics programs for middle and high schools. Study inclusion requirements include use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and equality at pretest. There were 100 qualifying studies, 26 of which used random assignment to treatments. Effect...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a randomized evaluation of The Reading Edge, a reading program for middle‐school students. The Reading Edge was designed to integrate findings of research on cooperative learning and metacognitive reading strategies into a replicable reading instructional package that could be implemented effectively in Title I middle schools...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and ach...
Article
This article evaluates 2 technology applications for teaching beginning reading. One, embedded multimedia, involves brief phonics and vocabulary videos threaded through teachers' lessons. The other, computer-assisted tutoring, helps tutors with planning, instruction, and assessment. An experiment in 2 high-poverty, high-minority Success for All sch...
Article
Full-text available
This article argues that educational practice and policy should be based on evidence from rigorous experiments. Examples of cooperative learning and Success For All are given to illustrate how proven programs have been evaluated and broadly disseminated. Policy initiatives in the U.S. to promote use of proven programs are described. Evidence-based...
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This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading of middle and high school students: (1) reading curricula, (2) mixed-method models (methods that combine large-and small-group instruction with computer activities), (3) computer-assisted instruction, and (4) instructional-p...
Article
This article presents a randomized experiment evaluating a computer-assisted tutoring program. The software program, Alphie's Alley, provides reading tutors with assessment and planning tools and performance support. It provides students with animated presentations and engaging activities. In a yearlong study involving 25 schools using the Success...
Article
During the twentieth century, medicine, agriculture, technology, and other fields embraced a simple but powerful idea: Use what works. They began to require that innovative medicines, seeds, and machines be put to the test before being widely adopted. The result was revolutionary progress in each of these fields, which continues today. Evidence-bas...
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Syntheses of research on educational programs have taken on increasing policy importance. Procedures for performing such syntheses must therefore produce reliable, unbiased, and meaningful information on the strength of evidence behind each program. Because evaluations of any given program are few in number, syntheses of program evaluations must fo...
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Full-text available
Using a cluster randomization design, schools were randomly assigned to implement Success for All, a comprehensive reading reform model, or control methods. This article reports final literacy outcomes for a 3-year longitudinal sample of children who participated in the treatment or control condition from kindergarten through second grade and a com...
Article
Robert Slavin introduces the idea of ‘neverstreaming’. He rejects the ambulance service approach to dealing with learning difficulties and propounds instead the concept of prevention and early intervetion. He gives five examples of this approach concluding that for children at risk neither special education nor inclusion are sufficient answers to t...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a randomized evaluation of The Reading Edge, a reading program for middle school students. The Reading Edge was designed to integrate findings of research on cooperative learning and metacognitive reading strategies into a replicable reading instructional package that could be implemented effectively in Title I middle schools...
Article
Full-text available
Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the ach...
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Embedded multimedia refers to teaching methods that embed video content within teachers' lessons. The research of Mayer and others has suggested that multimedia instruction can enhance learning by using the capacity of both visual and verbal memory systems. The present study is an evaluation of embedded multimedia in a year-long randomized clinical...
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This article reports literacy outcomes for a 2-year longitudinal student sample and a combined longitudinal and "in-mover" (i.e., those students who moved into the study schools between the initial pretest and the second-year posttest) sample, both of which were nested within 38 schools. Through the use of a cluster randomization design, schools we...
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This article systematically reviews research on elementary reading programs for English language learners and other language-minority students. It focuses on studies that compared experimental and control groups on quantitative reading measures. Among beginning reading models, research supported structured, phonetic programs emphasizing language de...
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This article reviews experimental studies comparing bilingual and English-only reading programs for English language learners. The review method is best-evidence synthesis, which uses a systematic literature search, quantification of outcomes as effect sizes, and extensive discussion of individual studies that meet inclusion standards. A total of 1...
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A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. In this article, the authors feature the Success for All Middle School Model, which was designed to help middle grades educators implement the most important elements of "Turning Points" and to add well-structured curricula, instructional methods, and professional developm...

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Project (1)
Project
This project examines the functioning of collaborative groups in educational setting. It pursues questions about the interactions among race, ethnicity and culture in small groups.