Robert B Rucker

Robert B Rucker
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Nutrition

Ph.D

About

270
Publications
97,840
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7,720
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
1712 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Introduction
Robert B Rucker currently works at the Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis. Robert does research in Nutritional Biochemistry. A current set of projects focus on Pyrroloquinoline Quinone: Potential Physiological Functions, Allometric Scaling Applications, Ethical Issues Important to Nutrition.
Additional affiliations
September 1970 - July 2007
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Currently active as an Emeritus Professor
Education
July 1968 - October 1970
University of Missouri
Field of study
  • Nutritional/Physiological Chemistry
September 1963 - June 1968
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Biochemistry
September 1959 - June 1963
Oklahoma City University
Field of study
  • Chemistry, Western Civilization

Publications

Publications (270)
Article
Full-text available
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is associated with biological processes such as mitochondriogenesis, reproduction, growth, and aging. In addition, PQQ attenuates clinically relevant dysfunctions (e.g., those associated with ischemia, inflammation and lipotoxicity). PQQ is novel among biofactors that are not currently accepted as vitamins or conditio...
Article
Full-text available
The morphologic changes were investigated in the ventral and dorsal spinal nerve roots in a strain of white leghorn chickens that genetically was predisposed to have idiopathic scoliosis. In the ventral spinal roots in chickens with scoliotic curves, small myelinated fibers were increased in number and appeared in clusters. The number of small fibe...
Article
Abstract Objectives and Hypothesis Many phytochemicals and biofactors influence mitochondrial function, lipid deposition, and oxidative metabolism. Examples include phytoalexins, flavonoids, and quinones, such as PQQ. Herein, PQQ is compared to RSV (a phytoalexin). Animal tissues retain nM concentrations of PQQ, which promote NAD+ production and s...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing appreciation that dietary components influence and interact with genes important to metabolism. How such influences impact developmental regulation and programming or risks of chronic diseases remains unclear. Nutrition is recognized to affect development and chronic diseases, but our understanding about how genes essential to n...
Article
Full-text available
The water-soluble vitamins consist of a mixed group of chemical compounds. Their classification into specific chemical groups depends on both chemical characteristics and functions. The letter designations (vitamins B1, B2, B3, etc., C) represent in part remnants from the past as the discovery of given dietary growth or curative factors were given...
Chapter
Identified over 80 years ago, pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin, which serves as the metabolic precursor for coenzyme A (CoA). In the form of CoA and as a component of acyl carrier protein, pantothenic acid is a participant in myriad metabolic reactions involving lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Though essential, pantothenic acid deficie...
Chapter
Full-text available
Overview of selected functions of vitamins and their assessments in laboratory animals
Article
Full-text available
The history and bases for selectedallometric energy relationships are reviewedin this article, specifically those related to quarter-power scaling as described by M. Kleiber,i.e. interspecies metabolic rates scaleas a function of masstothe three-quarters power(metabolic body size). Interspecies requirements for essential factors are also noted(e.g....
Article
Full-text available
Background: The history and bases for selectedallometric energy relationships are reviewed in this article, specifically those related to quarter-power scaling as described by M. Kleiber, i.e. interspecies metabolic rates scaleas a function of mass to the three-quarters power (metabolic body size). Interspecies requirements for essential factors ar...
Article
Cofactors include an array of compounds that are used to improve the catalytic efficiency of biological reactions, particularly those catalyzed by enzymes. Cofactors are derived from vitamins and essential minerals or made in situ. Cofactors serve principally as intermediates in transfer reactions or as cosubstrates. One or more cofactors may be as...
Article
Full-text available
For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with...
Article
Full-text available
Sirtuin1 and sirtuin3 are NAD (+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are important to a number of mitochondrial-related functions; thus, identification of sirtuin activators is important. Herein, we hypothesize that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) can act as a Sirt1/Sirt3 activator. In HepG2 cell cultures, PQQ increased the expression of Sirt1 and...
Research
Full-text available
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring compound known to improve growth and reproductive performance when added to diets of PQQ-deprived rodents. To understand its mechanism of action, changes in PQQ-related gene expression were assayed in rats by expression microarray analysis. When compared to known transcriptional regulators (Ep...
Research
Full-text available
Abstract The expression of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes was examined with respect to experimental diet composition and with the addition of the bi-functional inducer Xavone. Enzymatic activity and mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) isoforms (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoforms (GSTA, GS...
Research
Full-text available
When pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is added to an amino acid-based, but otherwise nutritionally complete basal diet, it improves growth-related variables in young mice. We examined PQQ and mitochondrial function based on observations that PQQ deficiency results in elevated plasma glucose concentrations in young mice, and PQQ addition stimulates mi...
Chapter
Full-text available
The functions of vitamins and selected vitamin-like biofactors are summarized. Basic mechanisms of actions are described that are important to an understanding of the deficiency signs or symptoms that are observed when such compounds are limiting in the diet of animals. With respect to given biofactors, primary and secondary metabolites that are pr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an important redox cofactor in plant and animal systems. Most animals make sufficient ascorbic acid; however, for those that lack the enzyme necessary for synthesis, ascorbic acid is a true vitamin. A deficiency causes the disease scurvy in humans, characterized by impairments in growth, extracellular matrix, and hormon...
Article
Full-text available
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) influences energy-related metabolism and neurologic functions in animals. The mechanism of action involves interactions with cell signaling pathways and mitochondrial function. However, little is known about the response to PQQ in humans. Using a crossover study design, 10 subjects (5 females, 5 males) ingested PQQ ad...
Article
Full-text available
The essentiality of zinc for normal brain development is well established. It has been suggested that primary and secondary zinc deficiencies can contribute to the occurrence of numerous human birth defects, including many involving the central nervous system. In a recent study, we searched for zinc transporter genes that were critical for neurodev...
Article
Full-text available
Zn(2+) is required for many aspects of neuronal structure and function. However, the regulation of Zn(2+) in the nervous system remains poorly understood. Systematic analysis of tissue-profiling microarray data showed that the zinc transporter ZIP12 (slc39a12) is highly expressed in the human brain. In the work reported here, we confirmed that ZIP1...
Chapter
Full-text available
Identified almost 60 years ago, pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin, which serves as the metabolic precursor for coenzyme A. In the form of coenzyme A and as a component of acyl carrier protein, pantothenic acid is a participant in a myriad of metabolic reactions involving lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Though essential, pantothenic acid...
Data
The values for individual fatty acids as components of major classes of plasma neutral and phospholipids given in Tables S1–S8. The data are for adult rats fed PQQ- or PQQ+ diets (n = 4 to 5 per group) plus 3 additional rats fed the PQQ- diet and repleted with PQQ at 4.5 mg/kg BW (PPQ−/+) for 3 days prior to assays. To assess trends in the data, t-...
Data
Effect of PQQ on PPARα activation. Mouse Hepa 1–6 cells were examined to assess whether PPARα expression was responsive to the addition of PQQ. The cells were plated in 12-well plates and transfected with mouse PPARα and pSV-β-galactosidase expression vectors and PPARα luciferase reporter vector (Promega Corp., Madison, WI). The pSV-β-galactosidase...
Article
Full-text available
We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion in...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondrial function can be directly linked to protection from certain chronic diseases and conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammation, as well as the aging processes. Mitochondria are central to normal glucose, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, in addition to antioxidant modulation and virtually...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondrial function has been linked to protection from and symptom reduction in chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We review a number of phytochemicals and biofactors that influence mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. These include resveratrol found in grapes; several plant-derived flavonoids (q...
Article
Full-text available
PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) improves energy utilization and reproductive performance when added to rodent diets devoid of PQQ. In the present paper we describe changes in gene expression patterns and transcriptional networks that respond to dietary PQQ restriction or pharmacological administration. Rats were fed diets either deficient in PQQ (PQ...
Article
Full-text available
Bioactive compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits, such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Previously studies have shown that mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. Therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
Bioactive compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Previously studies have shown that mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. Therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a novel biofactor for which a proposition can be made for physiological importance. PQQ was first recognized as an enzyme cofactor in bacteria. It has recently been tentatively identified as a component of interstellar dust. Thus, PQQ may have been present throughout early biological conception and evolution. PQQ i...
Chapter
Full-text available
Water-soluble vitaminsFat-soluble vitaminsMineralsReferences
Chapter
This chapter helps in understating the role of vitamins for proper functioning of the body. Vitamins are defined as organic substances present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs that are essential to normal metabolism, and the lack of which causes deficiency diseases. All natural vitamins are organic food substances found only in living things...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on six elements-cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn)-to illustrate the concepts important to trace element metabolism and disease. These elements are chosen because there is evidence that perturbations in their metabolism are relatively common. Other biologically active trace e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lipids Protein and Amino Acids Carbohydrate Vitamins and Minerals Other Components Conclusion References
Article
Full-text available
The expression of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes was examined with respect to experimental diet composition and with the addition of the bi-functional inducer flavone. Enzymatic activity and mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) isoforms (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoforms (GSTA, GSTM, and...
Article
Full-text available
Copper (Cu)-deficiency-induced teratogenicity is characterized by major cardiac, brain, and vascular anomalies; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cu deficiency decreases superoxide dismutase activity and increases superoxide anions, which can interact with nitric oxide (NO), reducing the NO pool size. Given the role of NO as...
Article
Full-text available
The amounts of specific substances needed per day that are generally thought to be nutritionally essential or conditionally important are similar among animal species when expressed per unit of energy consumed or per metabolic body size. Accordingly, a case is made that in addition to basal daily energy utilization, allometric scaling based on meta...
Article
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) added to purified diets devoid of PQQ improves indices of perinatal development in rats and mice. Herein, PQQ nutritional status and lysine metabolism are described, prompted by a report that PQQ functions as a vitamin-like enzymatic cofactor important in lysine metabolism (Nature 422 [2003] 832). Alternatively, we pr...
Article
Cu deficiency results in embryonic defects and yolk sac (YS) vasculature abnormalities. In diverse model systems, Cu treatment modulates angiogenesis, perhaps by influencing the activity of angiogenic mediators such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conversely, Cu chelators can suppress angiogenesis. Gestation day (GD) 8.5 embryos from...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to explore the interest of school food service directors (FSDs) in purchasing produce from local growers in California. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from FSDs (n=28) and stakeholders including growers, teachers, policy-makers, and non-profits (n=20). Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS soft...
Article
Full-text available
When pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is added to an amino acid-based, but otherwise nutritionally complete basal diet, it improves growth-related variables in young mice. We examined PQQ and mitochondrial function based on observations that PQQ deficiency results in elevated plasma glucose concentrations in young mice, and PQQ addition stimulates mi...
Article
Copper-deficient rat embryos are characterized by brain and heart anomalies, low superoxide dismutase activity, and high superoxide anion concentrations. One consequence of increased superoxide anions can be the formation of peroxynitrite, a strong biological oxidant. To investigate developmentally important features of copper deficiency, GD 8.5 mo...