Robert A Prather

Robert A Prather
University of Florida | UF · Department of Psychiatry

BA (Psychology)

About

35
Publications
2,260
Reads
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331
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - July 2013
University of Florida
Position
  • NEUROCOGNITION AND PERFORMANCE AFTER MODERATE DRINKING IN OLDER ADULTS
August 2003 - July 2006
University of Kentucky
Position
  • Research Analyst
Education
August 1999 - May 2003
University of Kentucky
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (35)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Deficits in perception of emotionality are noted among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including identification of emotional facial expressions (EFEs). Converging evidence suggests specific differences between AUD and control participants in decoding EFEs with negative valence (e.g., anger). However, few investigations sy...
Article
Full-text available
We developed an Observer-Reported Outcome (ObsRO) survey instrument to be applied in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, crossover randomized controlled trial of dichloroacetate in children with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. The instrument quantifies a subject's at-home level of functionality, as reported by a parent/caregiver, who were...
Article
Patient activation, the perceived capacity to manage one’s health, is positively associated with better health outcomes and lower costs. Underlying characteristics influencing patient activation are not completely understood leading to gaps in intervention strategies designed to improve patient activation. We suggest that variability in executive f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Historically, health interventions directed to improving outcomes among large samples/populations have focused primarily on program characteristics rather than patient characteristics that might modulate outcomes. One potentially critical factor is the cognitive capacity of program recipients. Although cognitive engagement is a prerequisite for pro...
Article
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In this chapter, we review existing research regarding sex differences in alcohol's effects on neurobehavioral functions/processes. Drawn largely from laboratory studies, literature regarding acute alcohol administration and chronic alcohol misuse is explored focusing on commonly employed neuropsychologic domains (e.g., executive function, visuospa...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: ABSTRACT. Objective: Despite substantial attention being paid to the health benefits of moderate alcohol intake as a lifestyle, the acute effects of alcohol on psychomotor and working memory function in older adults are poorly understood. Method: The effects of low to moderate doses of alcohol on neurobehavioral function were inves...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Despite an extensive literature documenting the health benefits of a moderate drinking lifestyle, the acute effects of moderate consumption and how they change across the lifespan have remained understudied. Our previous report (Sklar et al., 2013) observed an increased sensitivity to alcohol among older drivers on basic components of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although its rates in the general population have decreased in recent decades, cigarette smoking remains a highly comorbid condition among persons with substance use dependencies. Recent data reported by our laboratory indicate that ~ 90% of men and women seeking treatment for alcohol and other substances are current smokers. Our initial studies of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and older in the United States consume alcohol. Research in older adults has largely examined potential health effects of a moderate drinking lifestyle. Examination of acute effects in this population is generally lacking. To investigate alcohol-induced alteration of electrophysiological correlates of atten...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: This project proposes that an inappropriate response to irrelevance (regardless of information complexity) constitutes a fundamental substance abuse-related neurocognitive deficit. We previously demonstrated such a deficit using neuropsychological measures, tests of problem-solving, and event-related potentials. The current study exte...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we soug...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objective: Decrements in neurocognitive function and stress system heterogeneity are often observed in detoxified alcohol dependent individuals. Further, although nicotine use is a common comorbidity in this population, it is seldom included as a factor for systematic study. Thus, the current study was conducted to investigate the interactive effec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background. Although acute behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication are well studied, less is known about the effects of small doses of alcohol. This pilot study was conducted to examine the relationship between subjective intoxication, alcohol dose, and neurobehavioral performance. Methods. Healthy, nonsmoking community-dwelling subjects (n = 8,...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Nicotine use is prevalent among treatment-seeking substance abusers. Recent work in our lab suggests that acute nicotine may serve to “normalize” the stress response as reflected in salivary cortisol levels obtained after laboratory-based psychological stressors (Gilbertson, et al, 2011). Previous work (e.g., Errico, et al, 2002) suggested...
Conference Paper
Attentional deficits in abstinent alcoholics are well characterized, particularly with regard to cognitive efficiency (conceptualized in terms of speed/accuracy tradeoffs). Of interest, cortisol responsivity is known to be compromised in this population. Current work from our laboratory suggests that in alcoholics receiving active transdermal nicot...
Article
Full-text available
Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n = 29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly c...
Article
Full-text available
We designed and built a novel, miniature gas chromatograph (mGC) to use exhaled breath to estimate blood ethanol concentrations that may offer GC quality sensitivity and specificity, but with portability, reduced size, and decreased cost. We hypothesized that the mGC would accurately estimate the serum ethanol concentration using exhaled breath. Hu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction FASD and Heterogeneity: An Encouraging Outcome Models: Moving Beyond Description Applying Neuroscience: Beyond the Mother? Summary References
Chapter
Full-text available
Overview: Significance to the ClinicianProtracted Withdrawal Syndromes and Initial RecoveryThe Complexity of Defining RelapsePhysician Support: Assessment, Referral, Awareness and Follow-UpConclusions References
Conference Paper
Purpose: Nicotine (NIC) use (typically via cigarette smoking) is highly prevalent among alcoholics and other chronic substance abusers and its negative health effects account for substantial mortality in this population (Littleton et al., 2007). This study included 98 abstinent substance abusers (SAs) in 3 groups: alcoholics (ALCS; n = 29), alcohol...
Article
Full-text available
Placebo effectiveness and subsequent influence on cognitive performance were investigated in older moderate drinkers (ages 50-69; N = 30; 15 men) following acute alcohol administration. Double-blind, placebo-controlled alcohol administration techniques were designed to produce peak breath alcohol concentration levels consistent with an episode of s...
Conference Paper
Background: Individuals affected by gene mutations resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction present with various physiological issues, including exercise intolerance, increased propensity for seizure development, and a broad spectrum of mental disabilities. The latter range from profound mental retardation to essentially normal function depending on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Binge drinking is associated with social, occupational, academic, health-related, and legal difficulties. Given that it is particularly problematic on college campuses and during sporting events, the goal of this study was to examine characteristics of individuals who drink alcohol, binge drink alcohol, or abstain from alcohol use during pre-footba...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived impairment and psychomotor performance following acute alcohol administration in older (ages 50-74, n=42; 22 male) and younger (ages 25-35, n=26; 12 male) adults were investigated in this study. Double-blind, placebo-controlled alcohol administration techniques were designed to produce peak levels of breath alcohol concentration consisten...
Article
Full-text available
Gender, family history, comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders, and age all influence a person's risk for alcoholism. In addition, these factors interact with alcoholism to influence neurocognitive functioning following detoxification. This article examines these factors and considers how they interact with each other. This complexity rei...
Conference Paper
Prior research suggests that attentional efficiency is sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine in chronic alcoholics. However, nicotine’s effects on memory function in alcoholics have not been addressed. In order to address this question, detoxified alcoholics were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised (WMS-R). Subjects in...
Conference Paper
Detoxified alcoholics (ALC) and abstinent smokers likely to relapse demonstrate blunted HPA responsivity to psychosocial stressors such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Some work has shown that blunted cortisol release in ALC is associated with greater problem-solving errors and poorer performance on delayed recall of logical memory even aft...
Conference Paper
There has been interest in the role of HPA axis dysregulation, nicotine and gender in substance use and relapse. In order to examine a behavioral proxy for HPA axis dysregulation in individuals with a substance use disorder (SAs), psychiatric histories were obtained through screening sessions of an ongoing study designed to examine the cognitive ef...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recognized that individuals with alcohol or illicit substance abuse disorders often smoke cigarettes. However, few studies have examined the direct effects of nicotine among substance abuse subgroups. The current study examined patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in alcohol-dependent (AD), stimulant-dependent (StimD), al...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples can leave partners vulnerable in a crisis or emergency. Advance planning is one strategy couples can use to establish legal rights. Analyses of data collected from both partners in 131 same-sex couples suggested that executing advance-planning documents (wills, powers of attorney for finance and hea...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority individuals (specifically bisexual, gay, lesbian and transgendered [BGLT]) have identities and relationships that are socially stigmatized and legally unrecognized. An online survey of 398 BGLT individuals was conducted concerning their execution of 5 legal planning documents: a will, powers of attorney for finances and health care,...
Article
Full-text available
The dopamine D1 receptor subtype has been implicated in drug reward processes in mammals. Two experiments investigated whether dose-dependent differences in cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) would be obtained in an avian species and whether these cocaine effects were mediated by the dopamine D1 antagonist R(+/-)-SCH23390. In Experiment 1,...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Archived project
There has been increasing attention to potential cardiovascular and quality of life benefits associated with a moderate drinking lifestyle, particularly in middle aged to older adults. However, little systematic work has focused on the acute effects of these moderate doses on cognitive and performance variables critical to effective higher order functions including decision-making and tracking information. Building on our pilot work, this project compares performance between male and female older and younger moderate drinkers under 3 alcohol conditions designed to achieve zero blood alcohol concentration (placebo (0), a low level (~.04%) or a moderate level (~ .065%) to examine 1) to what extent and under what low-to-moderate alcohol doses older adults may demonstrate differential sensitivity and 2) whether older drinkers can accurately anticipate alcohol- related deficits. The findings will not only allow us to disentangle age from alcohol effects on neurocognitive tasks, but also shed light on differential risk for injury and negative outcome associated with episodes of moderate drinking among non-problem, older drinkers. (Funding: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism R01AA019802)
Archived project
(Funding: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism R03AA014039)
Archived project
The effects of alcoholism among women remain understudied. This project addresses this gap in knowledge by comparing treatment-seeking men and women and community controls in both cognitive and emotional processing. The proposed work is guided by a conceptual framework which will enhance the theoretical and clinical relevance of the study. (Funding: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism R01AA022456)